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A. M. 227.
B. C. 1037. An Erod. Isr.
454. Anno ante
AND it came to pass hafter this that into the band of Abishai chain serate ehitchat be
A. M 275 BC. 1036
455 Arno ente
12 And Mephibosheth had a young son, 7. And when David heard of it, he sent Joab, whose name was Micah. And all that dwelt and all the host of ithe mighty men. in the house of Ziba were servants unto Mephi 8 And the children of Ammon came out, and bosheth.
put the battle in array at the entering in of the 13 So Mephibosheth dwelt in Jerusalem : * for gate: and the Syrians of Zoba, and of Rehob, he did eat continually at the king's table; and and Ish-tob, and Maacah, were by themselves was lame on both his feet.
in the field. CHAPTER X.
9 When Joab saw that the front of the battle The king of Ammon being dond, David sends amba sea lors to comfort his son Hanin,
was against him before and behind, he chose of 1-2 Hanun, inisled by his courtiers, treats the neengers of David with great indignity, 3-5. The Ammoniten, jussly dreading Davis resenunent
, send, and all the choice men of Israel, and put them in city of Medeba, and defeat them, 1-14. The Syrians collect another army ; bat are array against the Syrians: defeated by David with great slaughter, and make with him a separate peace, 15—-19. 10 And the rest of the people he delivered children of
in against the children mon died, and Hanun his son reigned Ammon. 1. Olymp. 251. in his stead.
11 And he said, If the Syrians be too strong 2 Then said David, I will show kindness unto for me, then thou shalt help me: but if the chilHanun the son of Nahash, as his father showed dren of Ammon be too strong for thee, then I kindness unto me. And David sent to comfort will come and help thee. him by the hand of his servants for his father. 12 Be of good courage, and let us * play the And David's servants came into the land of the men for our people, and for the cities of our God: children of Ammon.
and " the Lord do that which seemeth him good. 3 And the princes of the children of Ammon 13 And Joab drew nigh, and the people that said unto Hanun their lord, Thinkest thou that were with him, unto the battle against the SyriDavid doth honour thy father, that he hath sent ans: and they fled before him. comforters unto thee? hath not David rather 14 And when the children of Ammon saw that sent his servants unto thee, to search the city, the Syrians were fled, then fled they also before and to spy it out, and to overthrow it.
Abishai, and entered into the city. So Joab re4 Wherefore Hanun took David's servants, turned from the children of Ammon, and came and shaved off the one-half of their beards, and to Jerusalem. cut off their garments in the middle, e eren to 15 | And when the Syrians saw their buttocks, and sent them away:
that they were smitten before Israel, sa Esad la 5 When they told it unto David, he sent to they gathered themselves together. meet them, because the men were greatly 16 And Hadarezer sent, and brought l Oise 9. ashamed: and the king said, Tarry at Jericho out the Syrians that were beyond the river; until
your beards be grown, and then return. and they came to Helam; and p Shobach, the 6 | And when the children of Ammon saw captain of the host of Hadarezer, went before that they ' stank before David, the children of them. Ammon sent and hired & the Syrians of Beth 17 And when it was told David, he gathered rehob, and the Syrians of Zobă, twenty thou- all Israel together, and passed over Jordan, and sand footmen, and of King Maacah a thousand came to Helam. And the Syrians set themselves men, and of h Ish-tob twelve thousand men. in array against David, and fought with him.
: 1 Chron. & 31.- Ver. 7, 10.-- Ver. 3.- I Chron. 19. 1, &c. Heh. In b Or, the men of Tob: See Judges 11. 3, 5.-i Ch. 2.&-k Ve 6-1 Demi. thine eyes doth David - Isai. 20. 4. & 47.2- Gen. 31. 30. Exod. 5. 21. 1 Sam. 31. 6.--m 1 Sam. 4.91 Cor. 16. 13.-n 1 Sam. 3. 18.- That in, Euphrates. 13.4.- Ch. 8. 3, 5.
p Or, Shophoch. 1 Chron. 19. 16. Ziba were fair and specious; but he was a traitor in his men to tarry in, as they would not be exposed to public heart, as we shall see in the rebellion of Absalom; and notice. David's indulgence to this man, is a blot in his character; Verse 6. The children of Ammon saw that they slank] at this time, however, he suspected no evil; circumstances That is, that their conduct rendered them abomioable. alone can develope the human character. The internal This is the Hebrew mode of expressing such a feeling. villain can be known only when circumstances occur which See Gen. xxxiv. 30. can call his propensities into action : till then he may be The Syrians of Beth-rehob] This place was situated reputed an honest man.
at the extremity of the valley between Libanus and AntiVerse 13. Did eat continually at the king's table] He libanus. The Syrians of Zóba were subject to Hadarezer. was fit for no public office, but was treated by the king with Maacah was in the vicinity of mount Hermon, beyond the utmost respect and affection.
Jordan, in the Trachonitis.
Ish-lob] This was probably the same with Tob, to which
Jephthah fled from the cruelty of his brethren. It was Verse 2. I will show kindness unto Hanun the son of situated in the land of Gilead. Nahash] We do not know exactly the nature or extent of Verse 7. All the host of the mighty) All his ucrthies, the obligation which David was under to the king of the and the flower of his army. Ammonites; but it is likely that the Nahash here mentioned Verse 8. At the entering in of the gate] This was the was the same who had attacked Jabesh Gilead, and whom city of Medeba, as we learn from 1 Chron. xix. 7. Saul defeated : as David had taken refuge with the Moab Verse 9. Before and bchind) It is probable that one of ites, 1 Sam. xxii. 3. and this was contiguous to the king the armies was in the field, and the other in the city, when of the Ammonites, his hatred to Saul might induce him to Joab arrived. When he fronted this army, the other apshow particular kindness 10 David.
pears to have issued from the city, and to have taken bin Verse 3. Thinkest thou that David dost honour thy in the rear : he was, therefore, obliged to divide bis army father] It has been a matter of just complaint through as here mentioned; one part to face the Syrians, comall the history of mankind, that there is little sincerity in manded by himself; and the other to face the Ammonites, courts : courtiers, especially, are suspicious of each other; commanded by his brother Abishai. and often mislead their sovereigns.
Verse 12. Bc of good courage] This is a very fine miliVerse 4. Shared of the one-half of their beards] The tary address ; and is equal to any thing in ancient or modern beard is held in high respect in ihe East : the possessor times. Ye fignt pro aris et focis ; for every good, sacred considers it his greatest ornament; often swears by it; and civil; for God, for your families, and for your country. and, in matters of great importance, pledges it. Nothing Verse 14. The Syrians were fied] They belook them. can be more secure than a pledge of this kind; its owner selves to their own confines, while the Ammonites escaped will redeem it at the hazard of his life. The beard was into their own city. never cut off but in mourning, or as a sign of slavery. Verse 16. The Syrians that were beyond the river) Cutting off half of the beard and the clothes, rendered the That is, the Euphrates. men ridiculous, and made them look like slaves : what was Hadarezer] This is the same that was overthrown by done to these men was an accumulation of insult. Verse 5. Tarry at Jericho] This city had not been re
David, chap. viii. and there called Hadadezer ; which is built since the time of Joshua : but there were, no doubt, Rossi's MSS. But the n resh, and 7 daleth, are easily in
the reading here of about thirty of Kennicoti's and De many cottages still remaining, and larger dwellings also; terchanged. but the walls had not been repaired. As it must have been comparatively a private place, it was proper for these I thonght that such a war required his own presence.
Verse 17. David-gathered all Israel together) Ho 748
and takes her to his bed, 2- She conceives, and ioformis David, 5. David sende
18 And the Syrians fled before Israel; and 4 And David sent messengers, and took her; David slew the men of seven hundred chariots and she came in unto him, and a he lay with of the Syrians, and forty thousand "horsemen, her; for she was purified from her uncleanand smote Shobach, the captain of their host, ness: and she returned unto her house. who died there.
5.1 And the woman conceived, and sent and 19 And when all the kings that were servants told David, and said, I am with child. to Hadarezer 'saw that they were emitten be 6 And David sent to Joab, saying, Send me fore Israel, they made peace with Israel, and Uriah the Hittite. And Joab sent Uriah to
served them. Šo the Syrians feared to help the David. children of Ammon any more.
7 And when Uriah was come unto him, DaCHAPTER XI.
vid demanded of him d how Joab did, and how David sends Joah ng unst the Ammonites, who bemieges the city of Rabbah, !: Be the people
did, and how the war prospered. sys Bath-she'ra, the wife of Uriah, baching; he is enamoured of her; sends for, 8 And David said to Uriah, Go down to thy, to Joab, and ordens him to send to tum Uriah, 6. He arrives; and David, having in house, and wash thy feet. And Uriah departed quired the state of the army, dignisse i him, desiring hini to go to his own house, 7, 8. trian sleeps at the door of the king's nouse, 9. The next day, the king urges him to out of the king's house, and there 'followed goto his house; bat he refuses to go, and gives the most pious and loyal reasons for him a mess of meat from the king. his refiisal, 10, 11, David, after two days, wends bim back to the ariny, with a letter
Joab, esiring him to place Criah in the front of the battle, what he might be slain, 9 But Uriah slept at the door of the king's message to David, 12 David sends for balisheba, and takea her to wise : and house with all the servants of his lord, and , 26, 27.
went not down to his house. AND it came to pass after the
year 10 And when they had told David, saying, was expired, at the time when Uriah went not down unto his house, David
kings go forth to battle, that David said unto Uriah, Camest thou not from thy 1. Olymp. 269. sent Joab, and his servants with him, journey ? why then didst thou not go down unto and all Israel; and they destroyed the children thine house? of Ammon, and besieged Rabbah. But David 11 And Uriah said unto David, & The ark, tarried still at Jerusalem.
and Israel, and Judah, abide in tents; and my 2 T And it came to pass in an evening-tide, that lord Joab, and the servants of my lord, are enDavid arose from oft his bed, 'and walked upon camped in the open fields; shall I then go into the roof of the king's house: and from the roof mine house, to eat and to drink, and to lie with he w saw a woman washing herself; and the my wife ? as thou livest, and as thy soul liveth, woman was very beautiful to look upon.
I will not do this thing. 3 And David sent and inquired after the wo 12 And David said to Uriah, Tarry here toman. And one said, Is not this * Bath-sheba, the day also, and to-morrow I will let thee depart. daughter of Eliam, the wise 2 of Uriah the So Uriah abode in Jerusalem that day, and the Hittite ?
A M. 2903
B C 1035. An Exod. Igr.
91 Chron. 19. 18 foolmen. - Ver. 15.---- Ch. 8. 6.- Hebr. at the return of the year. 1 Kings 20. 22, 26. 2 Chron. 36. 10.-O I Chron. 20. 1.- Deut. 2. 8.-w Gen. 34.2 Job 31. 1. Mail 5. B-1 Or, Bath-shuah, 1 Chron. 3. 6.-y Or, Ammiel.
z Ch. 2 39.-a Psa. 51, tide. James I. 14.-Or, and when she had purifind her sell, e. she returned --- Lev. 15. 19, 2 & 13. 19.-- Heb. of the peace of, &c. e Gen. 18. 4. & 19.2- Heb. went out after him.-- Ch.7.2, 6:4h Ch. 20.6.
Verse 18. SEVEN HUNDRED chariots—and forty thou
NOTES ON CHAPTER XI. sand HORSEMEN) In the parallel place, 1 Chron. xix. 18. Verse 1. When kings go forth] This was about a year it is said, David slew of the Syrians SEVEN THOUSAND after the war with the Syrians, spoken of before ; and men, which fought in chariots.
about the spring of the year, as the most proper season for And forty thousand HORSEMEN) It is difficult to ascer- military operations. Calmet thinks they made tuo camtain the right number in this and similar places. It is very paigns, one in autumn and the other in spring; the winprobable that, in former times, the Jews expressed, as they ler being, in many respects, inconvenient; and the summer often do now, their numbers not by words at full length, too hot. but by numeral letters: and, as many of the letters bear a Verse 2. In an evening-tide, David arose) He had great similarity to each other, mistakes might easily creep been reposing on the roof of his house, to enjoy the breeze, in, when the numeral letters came to be expressed by as the noon-day was too hot for the performance of business. words at full length. This alone will account for the This is a constant custom on the flat-roofed houses in the many mistakes which we find in the numbers in these East. books; and renders a mistake here very probable. The He saw a woman washing herself] How could any letter i zain, with a dot above, stands for seren thousand; woman of delicacy expose herself where she could be so and the letter , nun, for seren hundred: the great simi- fully and openly viewed! Did she not know that she was larity of these letters might easily cause the one to be mis at least in view of the king's terrace ? Was there no design taken for the other, and so produce an error in this place. in all this? Et fugit ad salices, et se cupil anté videri.
Verse 19. Madé peace with Israel] They made this Verse 4, shows us that this washing was at the termipeace separately; and were obliged to pay tribute to the nation of a particular period. Israelites. Some copies of the Vulgaie add here, after Verse 3. The daughter of Eliam] Called 1 Chron. the word Israel, E.xpaverunt el fugerunt quinquaginta iii. 5. Ammiel ; a word of the same meaning, The people e octo millia coram Israel ; and they were panic-struck, of my God, the God of my people. The name expressed and fled fifty-eight thousand of them before Israel. This the covenant- I will be your God: We will be thy people. reading is nowhere else to be found. "Thus," observes Verse And she came in unto him) We hear nothing Dr. Delaney, "the arms of David were blessed; and God of her reluctance; and there is no evidence that she was accomplished the promises which he had made to Abraham, taken per force. (Gen. xv. 18.) and renewed to Joshua, i. 2, 4. And thus, Verse 5. And the woman conceived] A proof of the in the space of nineteen or twenty years, David had the observation on verse 2; as that is the time in which good fortune to finish gloriously eighi wars; all righteously women are most apt to conceive. undertaken, and all honourably terminated, viz. 1. The Verse 8. Go doion to thy house and wash thy feet] civil war with Ish-bosheth—2. The war against the Jebu- Uriah had come off a journey, and needed this refreshsites—3. The war against the Philistines and their allies ment; but David's design was, that he should go and lie 4. The war against the Philistines alone--5. The war with his wife, that the child now conceived should pass for against the Moabites-6. The war against Hadadezer-7. his, the honour of Bath-sheba be screened, and his own The war against the Idumeans_3. The war against the crime concealed. At this time he had no design of the Ammonites and Syrians. This last victory was soon fol. murder of Uriah, nor of taking Bath-sheba to wife. lowed by the complete conquest of the kingdom of the A mess of meat from the king.] All this was artfully Ammonites, abandoned by their allies. What glory to the conceived. monarch of Israel, had not the splendour of this illustrious Verse 9. Slept at the door] That is, in one of the epoch been obscured by a complication of crimes, of which apartments, or niches, in the court of the king's house. one could never have even suspected him capable !"
Verse 10. Camest thou not from thy journey] It is We have now done with the first part of this Book, not thy duty to keep watch or guard ; thou art come from which we find David great, glorious, and pious; we come a journey, and needest rest and refreshment. to the sccond part, in which we shall have the pain to ob Verse Il. The ark, and Israel-abide in tents) It apserve him fallen from God, and his horn defiled in the dust
, pears, therefore, that they had taken the ark with them to by crimes of the most flagitious nature. Let himn that most battle. assuredly standeth, take heed lest he fall.
This was the answer of a hrave, generous, and disinter
13 And when David had called him, he did | rubbesheth ? did not a woman cast a piece of a eat and drink before him; and he made him millstone upon him from the wall, that he died i drunk: and at even he went out to lie on his , in Thebez? why went ye nigh the wall ? then bed < with the servants of his lord, but went not say thou, Thy servant Uriah the Hittite is dead down to his house.
also, 14 | And it came to pass in the morning, that 22 | So the messenger went, and came and David' wrote a letter to Joab, and sent it by the showed David all that Joab had sent him for. hand of Uriah.
23 And the messenger said unto David, 15 And he wrote in the letter, saying, Set ye Surely the men prevailed against us, and came Uriah in the forefront of the m hottest battle, out unto us into the field, and we were upon and retire yen from him, that he may be smit- them even unto the entering of the gate. ten, and die.
24 And the shooters shot from off the wall 16 And it came to pass, when Joab observed upon thy servants; and some of the king's serthe city, that he assigned Uriah unto a place vants be dead, and thy servant Uriah the Hitwhere he knew that valiant men were.
tite is dead also. 17 And the men of the city went out, and 25 Then David said unto the messenger, fought with Joab: and there fell some of the Thus shalt thou say unto Joab, Let not this people of the servants of David; and Uriah the thing " displease thee, for the sword devoureth Hittite died also.
* one as well as another: make thy battle more 18 ( Then Joab sent and told David all the strong against the city, and overthrow it; and things concerning the war ;
encourage thou him. 19 And charged the messenger, saying, When 26 | And when the wise of Uriah heard that thou hast made an end of telling the matters of Uriah her husband was dead, she mourned for the war unto the king,
her husband. 20 And if so be that the king's wrath arise, 27 And when the mourning was past, David and he say unto thee, Wherefore approached ye sent and fetehed her to his house, and she : beso nigh unto the city when ye did fight? knew came his wife, and bare him a son. But the ye not that they would shoot from the wall ? thing that David had done u displeased the
21 Who smote p Abimelech the son of a Je- | LORD.
i Gen. 19. 33, 35.- Ver. 7.- 1 Kings 8. 9.-m Heb. strong.-u Heb. from
after him.-o Ch. 12. 9.-- Judg. 9. 53.
9 Judg. 6. 32, Jerubbaal.-r Helle eril in t'aine eyes.- Hleb so and such. - CD
12. 9.-Heb. una evil in the eyes of.
ested man. I will not indulge myself while all my and got a king for her spouse : this must have been deep fellow-soldiers are exposed to hardships; and even the affliction indeed; and, thereforeark of the Lord in danger.
Lacrymas non sponte radentes Verse 13. He made him drunk] Supposing that, in
Effudit; gemitusque erprespil pectore lato. this state, he would have been off his guard, and hastened "She shed reluctant tears, and forced out groans from a joyful beart!" down to his house.
Versc 27. When the mourning was past] Probably it Verse 14. David wrote a letter] This was the sum of lasted only seren days. treachery and villany. He made this most noble man the She became his wife] This hurried marriage was, no carrier of letters which prescribed the mode in which he doubt, intended on both sides, to cover the pregnancy. was to be murdered. This case some have likened to that But the thing that David had done displeased the of Bellerophon, son of Glaucus, king of Ephyra ; who, Lorn.] It was necessary to add this; lest the splendour being in the court of Prætus, king of the Argives, his of David's former virtues should induce any to suppose queen Antia, or as others Sthenobaa, fell violently in his crimes were passed over, or looked on with an indullove with him : but he, refusing to gratify her criminal gent eye, by the God of purity and justice. Sorely he passion, was, in revenge, accused by her to Protus her sinned, and sorely did he suffer for it: he soud one grain husband, as having attempted to corrupt her. Praws, of sweet, and reaped a long harrest of calamity and wo. not willing to violate the laws of hospitality, by slaying On a review of the whole, I hesitate not to say that the him in his own house, wrote letters to Jobates, king of preceding chapter is an illustrious proof of the truth of Lycia, the father of Sihenobwa; and sent them by the the Sacred Writings. Who, that intended to deceive by hand of Bellerophon, stating his criine, and desiring trumping up a religion which he designed to farther on the Jobates to put him to death. To meet the wishes of his purity of God, would have inserted such an account of one son-in-law, and keep his own hands innocent of blood, he of its most zealous advocates, and once its brightest ornasent him with a small force against a very warlike people ment? God alone, whose character is impartiality, has called the Solymi; but, contrary to all expectation, he not done it to show that his religion, librata ponderibus suis, only escaped with his life, but gained a complete victory will ever stand independently of the conduct of its proover them. He was afterward sent upon several equally fessors. dangerous and hopeless expeditions, but still came off' with Drs. Delaney, Chandler, and others, have taken great success; and, to reward him, Jobales gave him one of his pains to excuse and varnish this conduct of David ; and, daughters to wife, and a part of his kingdom. Stheno- while I admire their ingenuity, I abhor the tendency of bees, hearing this, through rage and despair, killed herself. their doctrine ; being fully convinced that he who writes on
I have given this history at large, because many have this subject, should write like the inspired penman, who thought it not only to be parallel to that of Uriah, but to tells the TRUTH, the whole TRUTH, and nothing but the be a fabulous formation from the Scripture fact: for my own part, I scarcely see in them any correspondency, but David may be pitied, because he had fallen from grent in the simple circuinstance that both carried those letters eminence--but who can help deploring the fate of the which contained their own condemnation. From the fable brave, the faithful, the incorruptible Uriah! Bath-sheta of Bellerophon, came the proverb, Bellerophontis litteras was probably firsl in the transgression, by a too public portare, " to carry one's own condemnation."
display of her charms; by which, accidentally, the heart of Verse 17. Uriah the Hillite dicd also.] He was led to David was affected, wounded, and blinded. He committed the attack of a place defended by valiant men; and, in the one crime, which led him to use many shifts to conceal : heat of the assault, Joab and his men retired from this these all failing, he is led from step 10 step to the highest brave soldier, who cheerfully gave up his life for his king degree of guilt. Not only does he feel that his and her and his country !
honour, but even their lives, are at stake; for death, by the Verse 20. 1f-the king's wrath arise) It is likely that law of Moses, was the punishment of adultery. He Joab had, by some indiscretion, suffered loss about this thought, therefore, that either Uriah must die, or he and time; and he contrived to get rid of the odium by con Bath-sheba perish for their iniquity : for that law had made necting the transaction with the death of Criah, which he no provision to save the life of even a king, who transknew would be so pleasing to the king.
gressed its precepts. He must not embrue his own hands Verse 25. The sword deroureth one as well as another in the blood of this brave man; but he employs him on a What abominable hypocrisy was here! He well knew service from which his bravery would not permit him to that Uriah's death was no chance-medley; he was, by his sbrink; and in which, from the nature of his circumown order, thrust on the edge of the sword.
stances, he must inevitably perish! The awful trial is Verse 26. She mourned for her husband.] The whole made, and it succeeds! The criminal king, and his crimof her conduct indicates that she observed the form, with inal paramour, are, for a moment, concealed; and one of out feeling the power, of sorrow. She losi a captain, I the bravest of men falls an affectionate victim for the safety
because he did this thing, and because he had
no pity: The Lord sends Nathan the prophet to reprove David; which he doen, bry means of a curious parable, and David is ded, unknowingly, to pronounce his own comen 71 And Nathan said to David, Thou art the nation, 5, 6. Nathan charges the quilt hunc on his conscience; and predicta a long train of calamities which should faul on him and his family, 7-12 David man. Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, I confeses his slo; and Nathan gives hun hope oftiol's nerey, aux foretella the death of the chill burn in adultery, 13,11 The child is taken ill; David fasts and praya
f anointed thee king over Israel, and I delivered for its woration, 15 -- 17.
On the seventh day the children, and David is comfort thee out of the hand of Saul; Ammonites, takes the city of waters, and sends for Davil to lake Rabbah, 27, 8 And I gave thee thy master's house, and lle cones, takics it, gets much spoil, ani pues che inhabitants to hard labour, 29–31. thy master's wives into thy bosom, and gave A M. 270. B. C. 1031. Ap. Exol. ler. David. And he came unto him, that had been too little, I would moreover have 157.
and said unto him, There were two given unto thee such and such things. Anno ante I. Olymp. 28 men in one city; the one rich, and 9&Wherefore hast thou despised the comthe other poor.
mandment of the LORD, to do evil in his sight? 2 The rich man had exceeding many flocks i thou hast killed Uriah the Hittite with the and herds;
sword, and hast taken his wife to be thy wife, 3 But the poor man had nothing save one and hast slain him with the sword of the children little ewe-lamb, which he had bought and nour of Ammon. ished up; and it grew up together with him, and 10 Now therefore k the sword shall never dewith his children; it did eat of his own meat, part from thine house; because thou hast desand drank of his own cup, and lay in his bosom, pised me, and hast taken the wife of Uriah the and was unto him as a daughter.
Hittite to be thy wife. 4 And there came a traveller unto the rich 11 Thus saith the LORD, Behold, I will raise man, and he spared to take of his own flock, and up evil against thee out of thine own house, and of his own herd, to dress for the wayfaring man I will take thy wives before thine eyes, and give that was come unto him; but took the poor man's them unto thy neighbour, and he shall lie with lamb, and dressed it for the man that was come thy wives in the sight of this sun. to him.
12 For thou didst it secretly; m but I will do 5 And David's anger was greatly kindled this thing before all Israel, and before the sun. against the man; and he said to Nathan, As the 13 And David said unto Nathan, I have Lord liveth, the man that hath done this thing sinned against the LORD. And Nathan said unto d shall surely die :
David, P The LORD also hath 'put away thy 6 And he shall restore the lamb • fourfold, sin; thou shalt not die. a Psal. 51, title:-) See Ch. 14. 5, &c. 1 Kings 20. 36-41. Isai. 5. 3.-c Hebr.
i Ch. 11. 15, 16, 17, 27.-k Amos 7.9.- Deut. 28 30 Ch. 16. 22--m Ch. 16. 22 morsel - Or, is worthy to die, or, is a son of death. 1 Sam 26. 16.-e Exod. 2. I.
n See 1 Sain 15. 21.o Ch. 21. 10. Job 7. 20. Psa. 32. 5. & 51. 4. Prov. 29. 13. Luke 19.8.- 1 San. 16. 13. See 1 Sam. 65. 19.- Numb. 15. 31.
p Eccles. 47. 11.-r Ch. 24. 10. Psa. 32. 1. Job 7. 21. Mic. 7. 18. Zech. 3. 4. and support of him, by whom his spotless blood is shed ! Verse 7. Thou art the man.] What a terrible word! But what shall we say of Joab, the wicked executor of the and by it David appears to have been transfixed; and base commands of his fallen master ? He was a ruffian, brought into the dust before the messenger of God. not a soldier: base and barbarous beyond example, in his Thou art this son of death ; and thou shalt restore this calling: a pander to the vices of his monarch, while he lamb FOURFOLD. Is it indulging fancy too much to say was aware that he was outraging every law of religion, David was called, in the course of a just providence, to piety, honour, and arms! It is difficult to state the char- pay this fourfold' debt: to lose your sons by untimely acters
, sum up, and apportion the quantity of vice charge deaths, viz. this son of Bath-shebah, on whom David had able on each.
set his heart, was slain by the Lord : Amnon, murdered Let David, once the pious, noble, generous, and benev- by his brother Absalom: Absalom, slain in the oak by olent hero, who, when almost perishing with thirst, would Joab; and Adonijah, slain
by the order of his brother Solnot taste the water which his brave men had acquired at omon, even at the altar of the Lord. The sword and cathe hazard of their lives ; let this David, I say, be consid- lamity did not depart from his house, from the murder of ered an awful example of apostasy from religion, justice, wretched Amnon by his brother, to the slaughter of the and virtue; Buth-sheba, of lightness and conjugal infidel- sons of Zedekiah, before their father's eyes, by the king ity; Joab, of base, unmanly, and cold blooded cruelty; of Babylon. His daughter was dishonored by her own Üriah, of untarnished heroism, inflexible fidelity, and un brother; and his wives contaminated, publicly, by his own spotted virtue; and then justice will be done to each char son! How dreadfully, then, was David punished for his acter. For my own part, I must say, I pity David; I sin! Who would repeat his transgression to share in its venerate Uriah; I detest Joab; and think meanly of Bath penalty! Can his conduct ever be an inducement to, or an sheba. Similar crimes have been repeatedly committed encouragement in sin? Surely, No. It must ever fill the in similar circumstances. I shall take my leave of the reader and the hearer with horror : behold the goodness whole with
and severity of God! Reader, lay all these solemn things H commune malum; semel insanivimus omnes;
to heart. Aui sumus, aut fuimus, aut possumus, omne quod hic est. God of purity and mercy, save the reader from the Verse 8. Thy master's wives into thy bosom] Perhaps (EUTEpisarov auaptiar) well-circumstanced sin ; and let him this means no more than that he had given him absolute learn
power over every thing possessed by Saul; and as it was “Where many mightier have been slain;
the custom for the new king to succeed even to the wives By thee unsavet---be falls."
and concubines, the whole haram of the deceased king, so NOTES ON CHAPTER XII.
it was in this case ; and the possession of the wives was a Verse 1. There were tro men in one city] See a dis sure proof that he had got all regal rights. But could Dacourse on fables, at the end of Judges, chap. ix.; and a vid, as the son-in-law of Saul, take the wives of his fatherdiscourse on parabolic writing, at the end of the xiith in-law? However, we find delicacy was seldom conchapter of Matthew. There is nothing in this parable that sulted in these cases! and Absalom lay with his own requires illustration : its bent is evident; and it was wisely father's wives, in the most public manner, to show that he constructed to make David,, unwittingly, pass sentence on had seized on the kingdom, because the wives of the prehimself. It was in David's hand, what his own letters ceding belonged to the succeeding king, and to none other. were in the hands of the brave but unfortunate Uriah. Verse 9. Thou hast killed Uriah] Thou art the MUR
Verse 3. And lay in his bosom] This can only mean DERER, as having planned his death: the sword of the Amthat this lamb was what we call a pet, or favourite, in the monites was the instrument only. family, else the circumstance would be very unnatural, Verse 11. I will take thy wires] That is, in the course and most likely would have prevented David from making of my providence, I will permit all this to be done. Had the application which he did; as otherwise, it would have David been faithful, God, by his providence, would have appeared absurd. It is the only part of this parable which turned all this aside; but now, by his sin, he has made that is at variance with nature and fact.
providence his enemy, which before was his friend. Verse 5. The man-shall surely die] Literally, no la Verse 13. The LORD-hath put away thy sin] Many ben mareth, "he is a son of death," a very bad man, and have supposed that David's sin was nou actually pardonone who deserres lo die. But the law did not sentence a ed, but this is perfectly erroneous; David, as an alulterer, sheep-stealer to death : let us hear it: If a man steal an or was condemned to death by the law of God; and he bad, or a sheep, he shall restore five OXEN for an ox, and according to that law, passed sentence of death upon himPOUR SHEEP for a sheep, Exod. xxii. I. : and hence David self. God alone, whose law that war, could revoke that immediately says, Ile shall restore the lamb rouarold. sentence or dispense with its execution; therefore, Na
14 Howbeit, because by this deed thou hast | LORD, and swosehipped : then he came to his given great occasion to the enemies of the own house; and when he required, they set Lord to blaspheme, the child also that is born bread before him, and he did eat. unto thee shall surely die.
21 Then said his servants unto him, What 15 | And Nathan departed unto his house. I thing is this that thou hast done ? thou didst And the Lord struck the child that Uriah's wife fast and weep for the child while it was alive; bare unto David, and it was very sick.
but when the child was dead, thou didst rise and 16 David therefore besought God for the eat bread. child; and David · fasted, and went in, and lay 22 And he said, While the child was yet all night upon the earth.
alive, I fasted and wept: y for I said, Who can 17 And the elders of his house arose, and tell whether God will be gracious to me, that the went to him, to raise him up from the earth; child may live? but he would not, neither did he eat bread with 23 But now he is dead, wherefore them.
should I fast ? can I bring him back an Esad. Lisa 18 And it came to pass on the seventh day, again? I shall go to him, but ' he shall that the child died. And the servants of David not return to me.
1. Olymp. 57. feared to tell him that the child was dead; for 24 | And David comforted Bath-sheba his they said, Behold, while the child was yet alive, wife, and went in unto her, and lay with her: we spake unto him, and he would not hearken and a she bare a son, and he called his name unto our voice: how will he then "vex himself, Solomon: and the LORD loved him. if we tell him that the child is dead ?
25 And he sent by the hand of Nathan the 19 But when David saw that his servants prophet; and he called his name · Jedidiah, be whispered, David perceived that the child was cause of the LORD. dead: therefore David said unto his servants, 26 | And a Joab fought against · Rabbah of Is the child dead? And they said, He is dead. the children of Ammon, and took the royal city:
20 Then David arose from the earth, and 27 And Joab sent messengers to David, and washed, and wanointed himself, and changed said, I have fought against Rabbah, and have his apparel, and came into the house of the taken the city of waters. , Isai. 52. 5. Ezek. 36. 20, 2. Rom. 2 2- Heb. fasted a fast-u Ch. 13. 31. 2 Job 7. 8, 9, 10.-a Matt. 1. 6. - 1 Chron. 2.9.-c That is, Belored of the Lord
Heb. do hurt--w Rath 3. 3.- Job 1. 20.-y See Isai. 38. 1, 5. Jopah 3. 5.
di Chron. 20. 1.-e Deut. 3. 11.
than, who had charged the guilt home upon his conscience, wear out its subject, before it wore out itself. Even the is authorized to give him the assurance that he should not heathens derived consolation from the reflection, that they die a temporal death for it: the Lord hath put away thy should meet their friends in a state of conscious existence. sin; thou shalt not die—this is all that is contained in the And a saying in Cicero De Senectute, which he puts in assurance given by Nathan; thou shalt not die that tem- the mouth of Cato of Utica, has been often quoted, and is poral death; thou shalt be preserved alive, that thou universally admired : mayest have time to repent, turn to God, and find mercy. O præclarum diem, cum ad illud divinum animorun If the 51st Psalm, as is generally supposed, were written concilium cætumque proficiscar, cùmque es hâc turba ! on this occasion, then it is evident (as the psalm must have colluvione discedam ! proficiscar enim non ad eos solùm been written after this interview) that David had not re viros de quibus ante diri ; sed etiam ad Catonem meum, ceived pardon for his sin from God, at the time he com- quo nemo vir melior natus est, nemo pietate præstantior : posed it; for, in it, he confesses the crime in order to find cujus à me corpus crematum est ; quod contra decuit ab mercy.
Animus verò non me deserens, sed respec. There is something very remarkable in the words of tans, in ea profectd loca discessit, quo mihi ipsi cernebat Nathan, The LORD also hath PUT AWAY thy sin ; thou esse teniendum: quem ego meum casum fortiter ferte shalt not die: npn xs Gonon nayn Tod gam Yehovah visus sum: non quod æquo animo ferrem ; sed meipse heêbir chattatecha, lo tamuth, Also Jehovah HATH CAUSED consolabar, existimans, non longinquum inter nos dithy sin to PASS OVER, or transferred thy sin ; Thou shall gressum et discessum fore. not die. God has transferred the legal punishment of
Cato MAJOR, De Senectute, in fin. this sin to the child : He shall die, Thou shalt not die; "O happy day! (says he) when I shall quit this impure this is the very point on which the prophet gives him the and corrupt multitude, and join myself to that divine most direct information- The child that is born unto the company and council of souls who have quitted the earth shall SURELY dic ; nisi nip moth yamuth, dying he shall before me. There I shall find, not only those illustrious die ; he shall be in a dying state seven days, and then he personages of whom I have spoken: but also my Cato, shall die. So God immediately struck the child, and it who, I can say, was one of the best men ever born, and was dery sick.
whom none ever excelled in virtue and piety. I have Verse 16. David-besought God for the child) How placed his body on that funeral pile, whereon he ought to could he do so, after the solemn assurance that he had have laid mine. But his soul has not left me; and, with. from God that the child should die? The justice of God out losing sight of me, he has only gone before into a absolutely required that the penalty of the law should be country where he saw I should soon rejoin him. This, exacted ; either the father or the son shall die. This my lot, I seem to bear courageously; not indeed that I do could not be reversed.
bear it with resignation ; but I shall comfort myself with Verse 22. Who can tell] David, and indeed all others, the persuasion that the interval between his departure and under the Mosaic dispensation, were so satisfied that all mine will not be long.". God's threatenings and promises were conditional, that And we well know who has taught us not to sorrow as even in the most positive assertions relative to judgments, those without hope for departed friends. &c. they sought for a change of purpose. And notwith Verse 24. David comforted Bath-sheba] His extraor. standing the positive declaration of Nathan, relative to the dinary attachment to this beautiful woman was the catise of death of the child, David sought for its life, not knowing all his misfortunes. but that might depend on some unexpressed condition ; He called his name Solomon] This name seems to such as earnest prayer, fasting, humiliation, &c. and in have been given prophetically; for nobe shelemah, signithese he continued while there was hope. When the child fies peaceable; and there was almost uninterrupted peace died, he ceased to grieve, as he now saw that this must be during his reign. fruitless. This appears to be the sole reason of David's Verse 25. Called—Jedidiah] Literally, the belored of importunity.
the Lord, 79179. This is the first instance I remember of Verse 23. I shall go to him, but he shall not return to a minister of God being employed to give a name to the me.) It is not clear whether David, by this, expressed his child of one of his servants. But it is strange, that the faith in the immortality of the soul: going to him may name given by the father was that alone which prevailed. only mean, I also shall die, and be gathered to my Verse 25. And took the royal city.) How can this be, fathers, as he is.
But whether David expressed this or when Joab sent to David to come to take the city; in connot, we know that the thing is true: and it is one of the sequence of which David did come and take that city ? most solid grounds of consolation to surviving friends, The explanation seems to be this: -Rabbah was comthat they shall by and by be joined to them in a state of posed of a city and citadel : the former
, in which was the conscious existence. This doctrine has a very powerful king's residence, Joab had taken, and supposed he could tendency to alleviate the miseries of human life, and to re soon render himself master of the latter; and, therefore, concile us to the death of most beloved friends. And sends to David to come and take it, lest, he taking the were we to admit the contrary, grief in many cases would | whole, the city should be called after his name.