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have commanded a widow woman there to sus

tain thee. Elijah's message to Ahab, concerning the three years' drought, 1. He is commande! tú go to the brook Cherith, where he la fel by nvers, 2–7.

10 So he arose and went to Zarephath. And a wblow's house at Zarephath, and buraculously muluplies her meal and oil, Her son dies, and Elijah restores him to bite, 17-21

when he came to the gate of the city, behold,

the widow woman was there gathering of sticks: Arch. Athen. of the inhabitants of Gilead, said and he called to her, and said, Fetch me, I pray

unto Ahab, ? As the Lord God of Is- thee, a little water in a vessel, that I may drink rael liveth, before whom I stand, there shall 11 And as she was going to fetch it, he called not be dew nor rain " these years, but according to her, and said, Bring me, I pray thee, a morsel to my word.

of bread in thine hand. 2 And the word of the LORD came unto him, 12 And she said, As the LORD thy God liveth, saying,

I have not a cake, but a handful of meal in a bar3 Get thee hence, and turn thee eastward, rel, and a little oil in a cruise; and, behold, I am and hide thyself by the brook Cherith, that is gathering two sticks, that I may go in and dress before Jordan.

it for me and my son, that we may eat it, and die. 4 And it shall be, that thou shalt drink of the 13 And Elijah said unto her, Fear not; go and brook; and I have commanded the ravens to do as thou hast said; but make me thereof a little feed thee there.

cake first, and bring it unto me, and after make 5 So he went, and did according unto the for thee and for thy son: word of the Lord: for he went and dwelt by

14 For thus saith the Lord God of Israel, The the brook Cherith, that is before Jordan.

barrel of meal shall not waste, neither shall the 6 And the ravens brought him bread and flesh cruise of oil fail, until the day that the LORD in the morning, and bread and flesh in the even * sendeth rain upon the earth. ing; and he drank of the brook.

15 And she went, and did according to the 7. And it came to pass after a saying of Elijah: and she, and he, and her house, Ante 1. 01. 133, while, that the brook dried up because did eat many days. An. Meruclis. there had been no rain in the land.

16 And the barrel of meal wasted 8 | And the word of the LORD came not, neither did the cruise of oil fail, B. C. 19-26. unto him, saying,

according to the word of the LORD, 1. Olymap. 13 9 Arise, get thee to w Zarephath, which be- which he spake : by Elijah. longeth to Zidon, and dwell there: behold, I 17 | And it came to pass after these things, q Heb. Elijahu. Luke

1. 17. & 4. 35, he is calle) Elias.-r 2 Kings 3. 11.- Deut. w Obad. 20. Luke 4. 23, called Sarepta.- Heb givet-y Or, a full yo. 10.8.- Ecclus. 18. 3. Jus. 5. 17.-u Luke 4. 2.- Heb. at the end of days.

z Heb, by the hand of. Hiel lost his first-born when he laid the foundation, he to have been on the western side of Jordan, and not far would have proceeded under this evidence of the divine from Samaria. Others supposed it to liave been on the displeasure, and at the risk of loosing his whole family ? eastern side, because the prophet is commanded to go eastWhich of these opinions is the right one, or whether any ward, ver. 3. It was necessary, after such a declaration to of them be correct, is more than I can pretend to state. this wicked and idolatrous king, that he should immedia NOTES ON CHAPTER XVII.

ately hide himself; as, on the first droughi, Ahab would Verse 1. Elijah the Tishbite] The history of this great undoubtedly seek his life. But what a proof was this of man is introduced very abruptly; his origin is enveloped the power of God, and the vanity of idols! As Got's with perfect obscurity. He is here said to be a Tishbite. prophet prayed, so there was rain or drought; and all the Tishbeh, says Calinet, is a city beyond Jordan, in the tribe gods of Israel could not reverse it! Was not this sufof Gad, and in the land of Gilead. Who was his father, ficient to have converted all Israel ? or from what tribe he sprang, is not intimated : he seems Verse 4. I hare commanded the rarens to feed thee) to have been the prophet of Israel peculiarly, as we never Thou shalt not lack the necessaries of life: thou shalt be find him prophesying in Judah. A number of apocry- supplied by an especial providence. See more on this subphal writers have trifled at large about his parentage, ject at the end of the chapter. miraculous birth, of his continual celibacy, his academy of Verse 6. And the rarens brought him bread and flesh] the prophets, &c. &c. all equally worthy of credit. One The Septuagint, in the Codex Vaticanus, and some anopinion, which at first view appears strange, bears more cient fathers, read the passage thus-Kaidi Kopakos exer** resemblance to truth than any of the above, viz. that he had αυτω αρτους το πρωί, και κρεα το δειλης, And the criers no earthly parentage known to any man; that he was an brought him bread in the morning, and flesh in the crenangel of God, united for a time to a human body, in order ing: but all the other versions agree with the Hebrew text. to call men back to perfect purity, both in doctrine and This is the first account we have of flesh-meat breakfasts, manners, from which they had totally swerved. His He- and flesh-mcat suppers. And, as this was the food appointed brew name, which we have corrupted into Elijah, and by the Lord, for the sustenance of the prophet, we may natuElias, is 1.705x Alihu ; or, according to the vowel points, rally conjecture that it was the food of the people at large. Eliyahu ; and signifies, he is my God.

Does this give

Verse 7. The brook dried up] Because ihere had been countenance to the supposition that this great personage no rain in the land for some time; God having sent this was a manifestation in the flesh of the Supreme Being ? drought as a testimony against the idolatry of the people. He could not be the Messiah ; for we find him with Mo- See Deut. xi. 16, 17. ses on the mount of transfiguration with Christ. The con Verse 9. Get thce to Zarephath] This was a town bejecture, that he was an angel, seems countenanced by the tween Tyre and Sidon, but nearer to the latter, and is manner of his departure from this world; yet, in James therefore called in the text Zarephath, which belonged to v. 17. he is said to be a man botonalns, of like passions, Sidon ; or, as the Vulgate and other versions express ih or rather with real human propensitics : this, however, Sarepta of the Sidonians. Sarepta is the name by which is reconcileable with the conjecture.

it goes in the New Testament; but its present name is There shall not be dei nor rain these years] In order Sarphan. Mr. Maundrel, who visited it, describes it as to remove the abruptness of this address, R. S. Jarchi consisting of a few houses only, on the tops of the moundreams thus :-"Elijah and Ahab went to comfort Hiel in tains ; but supposes that it anciently stood in the plain behis grief, concerning his sous. And Ahab said to Elijah, low, where there are still ruins to a considerable extent. Is it possible that the curse of Joshua, the son of Nun, who Verse 12. A handful of meal in a barrel] The word v was only the servant of Moses, should be fulfilled ; and the cad, is to be understood as implying an earthen jar; not curse of Moses, our teacher, not be fulfilled; who said, a wooden ressel, or barrel of any kind. In the Éas: they (Deut. xi. 16, 17.) If ye turn aside and serve other guds, preserve their corn and meal in such vessels ; without and worship them, then the Lord's wrath shall be kindled which precaution the insects would destroy them. Tra. against you ; and he will shut up the hearen that there be vellers, in Asiatic countries, abound with observations of no rain? Now all the Israelites serve other gods, and yet this kind. the rain is not withheld. Then Elijah said unto Ahab, As The word cruise, nnos tsiphhath, says Jarchi, signifies the Lord God of Israel liveth, before whom I stand, what, in our tongue, is expressed by bouteille, a bottle. there shall not be dew nor rain these years, but according Jarchi was a French rabbin. to my word.This same mode of connecting this, and Verse 13. But make me thercof a little cake first] This the preceding chapter, is followed by the Jerusalem and was certainly putting the widow's faith to an extraordinary Babylonish Talmuds, Sedar Olam, Abarbanel, &c. Verse 3. Hide thyself by the brook Cherith] This nothing, the small pittance requisite to keep her child from

trial: to take and give to a stranger, of whom she knew brook, and the valley through which it run, are supposed | perishing, was too much to be expected.


Arch. Athen

perpet. 14.


Ante I, 01. 132. that the son of the woman, the mis 21 And he stretched himself upon the child An Megaclin,

tress of the house, fell sick; and his three times, and cried unto the Lord, and said,

-sickness was so sore, that there was O Lord my God, I pray thee, let this child's soul no breath left in him.

u into him again. 18 And she said unto Elijah, a What have I to 22 And the Lord heard the voice of Elijah; do with thee, O thou man of God? art thou come and the soul of the child came into him again, unto me to call my sin to remembrance, and to and he e revived. slay my son ?

23 And Elijah took the child, and brought him 19 And he said unto her, Give me thy son. down out of the chamber into the house, and And he took him out of her bosom, and carried delivered him unto his mother: and Elijah said, him up into a loft where he abode, and laid him See, thy son liveth. upon his own bed.

24 And the woman said to Elijah, Now by 20 And he cried unto the Lord, and said, O LORD this I know that thou art a man of God, my God, hast thou also brought evil upon the and that the word of the Lord in thy mouth is widow with whom I sojourn, by slaying her son? | truth.

a See Luke 5. 8.-D 2 Kings 4. 34, 35.- Heb. measured.

d Heb. into his intcard parts.-e Heb. II. 35.- Jobu 3. 8. & 16. 30.


Verse 16. The barrel of meal wasted not] She con likely that God would employ this most unclean bird to tinued to take out of her jar, and out of her bottle, the feed his prophet? Besides, where could the ravens get any quantity of meal and oil requisite for the consumption of flesh that was not unclean ? Carrion is their food ; and her household; and, without carefully estimating what would God send any thing of this kind to his prophet? was left, she went with confidence each time for a supply, Again, if the flesh was clean which God sent, where could and was never disappointed. This miracle was very like ravens get it? Here must be at least three miracles; one, that worked by Jesus at the marriage at Cana in Galilee : to bring from some table the flesh to the ravens; another, as the servants drew the water out of the pots, they found to induce the ravenous bird to give it up; and the third, to it turned into wine; and thus they continued to draw wine conquer its timidity toward man, so thai it could come to from the water-pots till the guests had been sufficiently the prophet without fear. Now, although God might emsupplied.

ploy a fowl that would naturally strive to prey on the flesh, Verse 17. There was no brcath left in him.) He ceased and oblige it, contrary to its nature, to give it up; yet it is to breathe, and died.

by no means likely that he would employ a bird ihat his Verse 18. To call my sin to remembrance] She seems own law had pronounced abominable. Again, he could to be now conscious of some secret sin, which she had not have employed this means without working a variety either forgotten, or too carelessly passed over; and, to of miracles at the same time, in order to accomplish one punish this, she supposes the life of her son was taken simple end : and this is never God's method : his plan is away. It is mostly in times of adversity that we duly ever to accomplish the greaiest purposes by the simplest consider our moral state: outward afflictions often bring means. deep searchings of heart.

The original word orebim has been considered by some as Verse 21. Stretched himself upon the child three times] meaning merchants, persons occasionally trading through It is supposed that he did this in order to communicate that country, whom God directed, by inspiration, to supply some natural warmth to the body of the child, in order to the prophet with food. To get a constant supply from dispose it to receive the departed spirit. Elisha, his dis such hands in an extraordinary way was miracle enough; ciple, did the same, in order to restore the dead child of the it showed the superintendence of God, and that the hearts Shunammite, 2 Kings iv. 24. And St. Paul appears to of all men are in his hands. have stretched himself on Eutychus, in order io restore But in answer to this, it is said, that "the original word him to life, Acts xx. 10.

never signifies merchants; and that the learned Bochart Let this child's soul come into him again.] Surely this has proved this." I have carefully read over cap. 13. part means more than the breath. Though the word u de ne ii. lib. 2. of the Thierozicon of this author, where he disphesh, may sometimes signify the life; yet, does not this cusses this subject; and think that he has never succeeded imply that the spirit must take possession of the body in less than in his attempt to prove that ravens are meant in order to produce and maintain the flame of animal life? | this passage. He allows that the Tyrian merchants are deThe expressions here are singular: Let his soul vdy ne scribed by this periphrasis ya nyo von Ezek. xxvii. 27. the phesh, come into him; 1973-5y âl kirbo, into the midst of occupiers of thy merchandize; and asserts that oury ore

bim, per se, mercatorcs nusquam significat, by itself, never Verse 22. And the soul] was nephesh, "of the child signifies merchants. Now, with perfect deference to so came into him again;" 1978-by al kirbo, "into the midst great an authority, I assert that 'n orebcy, the contracted of him;" and he revived, in da yechai, "and he became form of ovary orebim, does signify merchants, both in alive.” And did he not become alive from the circumstance Ezek. xxvii. 9, 27. and that anyo mcoreb, signifies a place of the immaterial principle coming again into him ? for merchandize, the market-place or bazaar, in Ezek.

Although mn ruach, is sometimes put for the breath, yet xxvii. 9, 13, 17, 19; as also the goods sold in such places, Od generally means the immortal spirit; and where it Ezek. xxvii. 33; and therefore may, for aught proved to seems to refer to animal life alone, it is only guch a life as the contrary, signify merchants in the text. is the immediate and necessary effect of the presence of As to Bochart's objections, that the prophet being orthe immortal spirit.

dered to go to the brook Cherith, that he might lie hid, and The words and mode of expression here appear to me the place of his retreat not be known, if any traders or a strong proof, not only of the existence of an immortal merchants supplied bis wants, they would most likely dis. and immaterial spirit in man; but also that that spirit can cover where he was, &c.; I think there is no weight in it; and does exist in a separate state from the body. It is here for the men might be as well bound by the secret inspirarepresented as being in the midst of the child like a spring tion of God, not to discover the place of his retreat, as they in the centre of a machine, which gives motion to every were to supply his wants : besides, they might have been part, and without which the whole would stand still. of the number of those seven thousand men who had not

Verse 24. The word of the Lord in thy mouth is truth.) | bowed their knees to the image of Baal, and consequently Three grand effects were produced by this temporary af- would not inform Ahab and Jezebel of their prophet's fliction.-1. The woman was led to examine her heart, and hiding place. try her ways-2. The power of God became highly mani Some have supposed that the original means Arabians ; fest in the resurrection of the child—3. She was convinced but Bochart contends that there were no Arabians in that that the word of the Lord was truth, and that not one district : this is certainly more than he or any other man syllable of it could fall to the ground. Through a little can prove. Colonies of Arabs, and hordes and families of suffering all this good was obtained.

the same people, have been widely scattered over different The subject in the fourth verse of this chapter deserves places, for the purpose of temporary sojournment and trade; a more particular consideration :

for they were a wandering people, and often to be found in I have commanded the rarens to feed thee. - It is con- different districts remote enough from the place of their tended that, if we consider bushy orebim, to signify ravens, birth. But, letting this pass merely for what it is worth, we shall find any interpretation on this ground to be clogged and feeling as I do the weight of the objections that may be with difficulties. I need mention but a few: the raven is brought against the supposition of ravens being the agents an unclean bird, And these ye shall have in abomination employed to feed the prophet

, I would observe, that there among the fowls-every raven after his kind, Lev. xi. was a town or city of the name of Orbo, that was not far 13—15; that is, every species of this genus shall be con- from the place where Elijah was commanded to hide himsidered by you unclean and abomirable. Is it, therefore, / self. In Bereshith Rabba, a rabbinical comment on Gene

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9 And he said, What have I sinned, that thou Elijah is comman led by the Lon] to show himself to Ahab, 1,2 Ahnb ant Obadiah

wouldest deliver thy servant into the hand of his sleward search the land to furl prosender for the cattle, 3-6. Oluliah incele Eljah, who commande taim to intorm Ahat that he is really to prezent himäell | Ahab, to slay me? belore hun, 7-15. Elijah and Ahah mrel. 16--18. Elijah proses that the four hundred and ally price of Baal should be gathered together at ineunt Carmel;

10 As the LORD thy God liveth, there is no that they should offer a sacrifice to their goal avel bo to Jehovah: and the time whenation nor kingdom, whither my lord hath not Grad, 19-24. The proposal is ace: pierd, ani the priests of Baal call in vain upon sent to seek thee : and when they said, He is their gol through the whole day, 25-29 Eljah offers his sacrifice, prays to Gioi, and fire come down in in heaven and ensuunen it; whereupon the people achar

not there, he took an oath of the kingdom, and ledge Jehovah to be the more food, ani olay all the prophets of Baal. 10. Elabo nation, that they found thee not. prosina Ahab that there shall be unikalite rain ; il cosats accordingly, and Abub and an come to Jezrel, 41-16.

11 And now thou sayest, Go, tell thy lord, A M. 3.198.

came to pass afler & many | Behold, Elijah is here.

days, that the word of the LORD 12 And it shall come to pass, as soon as I am An. Megaclis,

came to Elijah in the third year, say; gone from thee, that the Spirit of the LORD

ing, Go, show thyself unto Ahab, and shall carry thee whither I know not; and so b I will send rain upon the earth.

when I come and tell Ahab, and he cannot find 2 And Elijah went to show himself unto Ahab. thee, he shall slay me: but I thy servant fear And there was a sore famine in Samaria,

the Lord from my youth. 3 | And Ahab called i Obadiah, which was 13 Was it not told my lord what I did when k the governor of his house : (now Obadiah Jezebel slew the prophets of the Lord, how I hid feared the LORD greatly :

a hundred men of the Lord's prophets by fifty in 4 For it was so, when i Jezebel cut off the a cave, and sed them with bread and water ? prophets of the Lord, that Obadiah took a hun 14 And now thou sayest, Go, tell thy lord, dred prophets, and hid them by fifty in a cave, Behold, Elijah is here: and he shall slay me. and fed them with bread and water :)

15 And Elijah said, As the Lord of bosts 5 And Ahab said unto Obadiah, Go into the liveth, before whom I stand, I will surely show land, unto all fountains of water, and unto all myself unto him to-day. brooks; peradventure we may find grass to save 16 So Obadiah went to meet Ahab, and told the horses and mules alive, m that we lose not him; and Ahab went to meet Elijah. all the beasts.

17 And it came to pass, when Ahab saw Eli6 So they divided the land between them to jah, that Ahab said unto him, · Art thou he that pass throughout it: Ahab went one way by him- P troubleth Israel ? self, and Obadiah went another way by himself. 18 1 And he answered, I have not troubled

7 | And as Obadiah was in the way, behold, Israel"; but thou, and thy father's house, in Elijah met him: and he knew him, and fell on that ye have forsaken the commandments of the his face, and said, Art thou that my lord Elijah? LORD, and thou hast followed Baalim.

8 And he answered him, I am: go, tell thy 19 Now therefore send and gather to me all lord, Behold, Elijah is here.

Israel unto mount 'Carmel, and the prophets of & Luke 4 25. Jainer 6. 17.- Deit. 2. 12.-1 Heb. Obatinhu. - Heh. orer his n 2 Kings 2 16. Ezek. 3. 12, 14. Matt. 4 1. Acta 8 39.- Ch. 21, 20.-- Joch 7 23

howe.-1 Heb. Izcool.-In Heb. that we cul not off ourselves from the begata.

Acts 16. 20-92 Chron. 15. 2.- Josh 19. 26.

sis, we have these words : 1379 noen inwn's dina nyanghaadamah, should be translated the ground, or, the lard; Aïr hia betechom Beithshan, veshemo orbo; "There is a as it is probable that this drought did not extend beyond town in the vicinity of Bethshan, (Scythopolis,) and its the land of Judea. name is Orbo." We may add to this from St. Jerom, Verse 3. Obadiah feared the LORD greatly] He was Orbim accolæ villæ in finibus Arabum, Eliæ dederunt a sincere and zealous worshipper of the true God; and his alimenta ; “ The Orbim, inhabitants of a town in the con conduct toward the persecuted prophets was the full proof fines of the Arabe, gave nourishment to Elijah.” Now, I both of his piety and humanity. consider Jerom's testimony to be of great worth, because Verse 4. Fed them with bread and water) By these he spent several years in the Holy Land, that he might are signified the necessaries of life, of whatsoever kind. acquire the most correct notion possible of the language Verse 5. Unto all fountains of water] All marshy or and geography of the country, as well as of the customs well-watered districts, where grass was most likely to be and habits of the people, in order to his translating the preserved. Sacred Writings, and explaining them. Had there not Verse 10. There is no nation or kingdom) He had been such a place in his time he could not have written as sent through all his own states, and to the neighbouring above: and, although in this place the common printed governments, to find out the prophet; as he knew, from editions of the Vulgate have corri, crows or ravens ; yet, his own declaration, that both rain and drought were to be in 2 Chron. xxi. 16. St. Jerom translates the same word the effect of his prayers. Had he found him, he no doubt d'any Orbim, " the Arabians;" and the same in Neh. iv. 7: intended to oblige him to procure rain; or punish him for it is, therefore, most likely that the inhabitants of Oreb, having brought on this drought. or Orbo, as mentioned above, furnished the aliment by He took an oath] Ahab must have had considerable which the prophet was sustained; and that they did this, power and authority among the neighbouring nations to being specially moved thereto by the Spirit of the Lord require and exact this; and Elijah must have kept himself Add to all these testimonies that of the Arabic version, very secret to have shunned such an extensive and minute which considers the word as meaning a people, palygs search. Orabim, and not ravens or fowls of any kind." In such a Verse 12. The Spirit of the LORD shall carry thee) cage this version is high authority.

Obadiah supposed that the Spirit of the Lord had carried It is contended, that those who think the miracle is lost him to some strange country, during the three years and a if the ravens be not admitted, are bound to show—1. With half of the drought : and, as he had reason to think that what propriety the raven, an unclean animal, could be em Ahab would slay Elijah if he found him, and that the God ployed ? 2. Why the dove, or some such clean creature of the prophet would not suffer his servant to fall into such was not preferred ? 3. How the ravens could get properly murderous hands : he took for granted that, as soon as he dressed 'Alesh to bring to the prophet? 4. From whose should come into danger, so soon would the Spirit of the table it was taken; and by what means? 5. Whether it Lord carry him away, or direct him to some hiding-place. be consistent with the wisdom of God, and his general con Verse 13. When Jezebel slew the propheta] This perduct, to work a tissue of miracles where one was suflicient? secution was probably during the dearth; for, as this bad 6. And whether it be not best, in all cases of this kind, to woman would attribute the public calamity to Elijah, not adopt that mode of interpretation which is most simple ; being able to find him, she would naturally wreak her the wisdom, goodness, and providence of God, being as vengeance on the prophets of Jehovah, who were within equally apparent as in those cases where a multitude of her reach. miracles are resorted to, in order to solve difficulties ? Verse 18. Ihare nol troubled Israel] Here the cause NOTES ON CHAPTER XVIII.

of the dearth is placed on its true ground: the king and Verse 1. After many days-in the third year] We the people had forsaken the true God; and God shut up learn from our Lord, Luke iv. 25. that the drought, which the heavens that there was no rain. Elijah was only the brought on the famine in Israel, lasted three years and six minister whom God used to dispense this judgment. months, St. James, v. 17. gives it the same duration. Verse 19. Gather lo me all Israel] The heads of tribes Probably Elijah spent six months at the brook Cherith, and families; the rulers of the people. and three years with the widow at Sarepta.

The prophets of Baal four hundred and furty-the I will send rain upon the carth] The word ng inn prophets of the groves four hundred] The king and

Baal four hundred and fifty, and the prophets that ? answereth by fire, let him be God. And of the groves four hundred, which eat at Jeze- all the people answered and said, It is well bel's table.

spoken. 20 So Ahab sent unto all the children of Israel, 25 | And Elijah said unto the prophets of and gathered the prophets together unto mount Baal, "Choose you one bullock for yourselves, Carmel.

and dress it first; for ye are many: and call on 21 | And Elijah came unto all the people, the name of your gods, but put no fire under. and said, " How long halt ye between two opin 26 And they took the bullock which was given ions? If the LORD be God, follow him; but if them, and they dressed it, and called on the w Baal, then follow him. And the people an name of Baal from morning even until noon, swered him not a word.

saying, O Baal, hear us. But there was no 22 Then said Elijah unto the people, * I, even voice, nor any that "answered. And they leapI only, remain a prophet of the LORD; '' but ed upon the altar which was made. Baal's prophets are four hundred and fifty men. 27 And it came to pass at noon, that Elijah

23 Let them therefore give us two bullocks; mocked them, and said, Cry 'aloud: for he is a and let them choose one bullock for themselves, god: either he is talking, or he his pursuing, and cut it in pieces, and lay it on wood, and put or he is in a journey, or peradventure he sleepno fire under: and I will dress the other bullock, eth, and must be awaked. and lay it on wood, and put no fire under. 28 And they cried aloud, and i cut themselves,

24 And call ye on the name of your gods, and after their manner, with knives and lancets, till I will call on the name of the Lord: and the God the blood gushed out upon them.

# Chap. 16 33 - Chap 22 6.-u 2 Kings 17. 41. Matt. 6. 21.-v Or, thoughts. w Ser Josh. 21 15. -- Chap19. 10, 14-y Ver. 19.–2 Ver. 3. i Chron. 21. 26. a lleb. The word is good. -- Or, ansioer.

c P. 115. 5. Jer. 10.5 1 Cor. & 4. & 12 2.- Or, heard. - Or, leaped up and down at the allar.- Heb. with a great coice.-g Or, he ineditateth. - Heb. hath a pursuit.-i Les 19. 23. Deut. 14. 1.-k Heb. poured out blood upon them.

queen had different religious establishments : the king and And they leaped upon the altar] Perhaps it will be his servants worshipped Baal, the supreme lord and mas more correct to read with the margin, they leaped up and ter of the world, the sun. For this establishment four down at the altas; they danced round it with strange and hundred and fifty priests were maintained.

hideous cries and gesticulations : tossing their heads to and The queen and her women worshipped ION Asherah, fro, with a great variety of bodily contortions, Astarté, or Venus; and for this establishment four hun A heathen priest, a high priest of Budhoo, has been just dred priests were maintained. These latter were in high showing me the manner in which they dance and jump up honour : they ate at Jezebel's table; they made a part of and down, and from side to side, twisting their bodies in her household. It appears that those eight hundred and all manner of ways, when making their offerings to their fily priests were the domestic chaplains of the king and demon-gods; a person all the while beating furiously on a queen; and, probably, not all the priests that belonged to tom-tom, or drum, to excite and sustain those frantíc attithe rites of Baal and Asherah in land ; and yet, from tudes; at the same time imploring the succour of their god, the following verse, we learn that Ahab had sent to all the frequently in some such language as this-"O loving brochildren of Israel to collect these prophets : but Jezebel ther devil, hear me, and receive my offering.” To perhad certainly four hundred of them in her own house, form these sacrificial attitudes they have persons who are who were not at the assembly mentioned here. Those of taught to practice them from their earliest years, according Baal might have a more extensive jurisdiction than those to directions laid down in religious books; and to make of Asherah, the latter being constantly resident in Samaria. the joints and body pliant, much anointing of the parts,

Verse 21. Horo long halt ye between two opinions ?) and mechanical management, are used; and they have Literally, “How long hop ye about upon two boughs ?!! masters whose business it is to teach these attitudes and This is a metaphor taken from birds hopping about from contortions, according to the rules laid down in those bough to bough; not knowing on which to settle. Perhaps books. It seems, therefore, that was a very general practhe idea of limping, through lamencss, should not be over tice of idolatry; as, indeed, are the others mentioned in this looked. They were halt, they could not walk uprightly; chapter. they dreaded Jehovah, and therefore could not totally Verse 27. At noon-Elijah mocked them) Had not abandon him; they feared the king and queen, and there- Elijah been conscious of the divine protection, he certainly fore thought they must embrace the religion of the state. would not have used such freedom of speech, while enTheir conscience forbade them to do the former; their fear compassed by his enemies. of man persuaded them to do the latter : but in neither Cry aloud] Make a grsat noise : oblige him by your were they heartily engaged; and, at this juncure, their vociferations to attend to your suit. minds seemed in equipoise, and they were waiting for a l'or he is a god) N10 d'abr va ki Elohim hu; he is the favourable opportunity to make their decision. Such an supreme god; you worship him as such; he must needs be opportunity now, through the mercy of God, presented such; and, no doubt, jealous of his own honour, and the itself.

credit of his votaries! Verse 22. I only, remain a prophet of the Lord] That He is talking) He may be giving audience to some is, I am the only prophet of God present, and can have but others : let him know that he has other worshippers, and the influence of an individual ; while the prophets of Baal must not give too much of his attention to one. Perhaps are four hundred and fifty to one! It appears that the the word nou siach, should be interpreted as in the margin, queen's prophets, amounting to four hundred, were not at he meditateth ; he is in a profound reverie; he is making this great assembly; and these are they whom we meet, some godlike projects; he is considering how he may best chap. xxii. 6. and whom the king consulted relative to the keep up his credit in the nation. Shoui ! let him know that battle at Ramoth-gileal.

all is now at stake. Verse 24. The Good that ansiereth by fire) Elijah gave He is pursuing] He may be taking his pleasure in them every advantage when he granted that the God who hunting; and may continue to pursue the game in heaven, answered hy fire should be acknowledged as the true God : till he have lost all his credit and reverence on earth. for as the Baal who was worshipped here was incontest The original words, 15 og sig lo, are variously transably Apollo, or the sun, he was therefore the god of fire, lated: He is in a hotel, in dirersorio, VULGATE. Perhaps and had only to work in his own element.

he is delivering oracles μη ποτε χρηματιζει αυτος, SEPTUAVerse 25. For ye are many] And therefore shall have GINT. Or, he is on some special business. Therefore, the preference; and the advantage of being first in your ap- cry aloud. plication to the Deity.

He is in a journey] He has left his audience-chamber, Verse 26. From morning cren until noon] It seems and is making some excursions: call aloud to bring him that the priests of Baal employed the whole day in their back, as his all is at stake. desperate rites. The time is divided into two periods : Peradventure he sleepeth] Rab. S. Jarchi gives this 1. From morning until noon ; this was employed in pre- the most degrading meaning: I will give it in Latin, be. paring and offering the sacrifice, and in earnest supplica- cause it is too coarse to be put in English ;--Fortassis ad tion for the celestial fire. Still there was no answer : and locum secretum abiit, ut ventrem ibi eroneret. "Perhaps at noon Elijah began to mock and ridicule them, and thus he is gone to the

This certainly reduces Baal to excited them to commence anew.-And, 2. They continued the lowest degree of contempt, and with it the ridicule and from noon to the time of offering the evening sacrifice, sarcasm are complete. dancing up and down, cutting themselves with knives, Verse 28. They cried aloud] The poor fools acted as mingling their own blood with their sacrifice, praying, they were bidden. supplicating, and acting in the most frantic manner. And cut themselves after their manner) This was done

29 And it came to pass, when mid-day was prophet came near, and said, LORD God of past, and they prophesied until the time of the Abraham, Isaac, and of Israel, let it be known moffering of the evening sacrifice, that there was this day that thou art God in Israel, and that I a neither voice, nor any to answer, nor any othat am thy servant, and that y I have done all these regarded.

things at thy word. 30 | And Elijah said unto all the people, 37 Hear me, 0 LORD, hear me, that these Come near unto me. And all the people came people may know that thou art the LORD God, near unto him. p And he repaired the altar of and that thou hast turned their heart back the Lord that was broken down,

again. 31 And Elijah took twelve stones, according 38 Then the fire of the Lord fell, and conto the number of the tribes of the sons of Jacob, sumed the burnt-sacrifice, and the wood, and unto whom the word of the Lord came, saying, the stones, and the dust, and licked up the 9 Israel shall be thy name:

water that was in the trench. 32 And with the stones he built an altar rin 39 And when all the people saw it, they fell the name of the Lord: and he made a trench on their faces: and they said, - The Lord, he about the altar, as great as would contain two is the God; the LORD, he is the God. measures of seed.

40 And Elijah said unto them, Take the 33 And he put the wood in order, and cut prophets of Baal ; let not one of them escape. the bullock in pieces, and laid him on the wood, and they took them: and Elijah brought them and said, Fill four barrels with water, and pour down to the brook Kishon, and d slew then it on the burnt-sacrifice, and on the wood. there.

34 And he said, Do it the second time. And 41 | And Elijah said unto Ahab, Get ther. they did it the second time. And he said, Do it up, eat and drink; for there is a sound of the third time. And they did it the third time. abundance of rain.

35 And the water u ran round about the 42 So Ahab went up to eat and to drink. And altar; and he filled the trench also with water. Elijah went up to the top of Carmel; ' and he

36 And it came to pass at the time of the cast himself down upon the earth, and put bis offering of the evening sacrifice, that Elijah the face between his knees,

T 1 Cor. 11. 4,5 - Hcb. ascending:--n Ver. 5.- Hleb attention.-p Ch. 19. 20.-- Gen 32 28 & 35. 10. 2 Kings 17. 34. -r Col. 3. 17.--- Lev. 1. 6,7,8.-1 See Judg 6. 2.-u Heb. went.-- Ver. 32, 38. -w Exol. 3. 6.

x Ch 8 43 2 Kings 19. 19. Ps. 83. 15-y Sum 16. 2. -- ler. 9 21 Jade 5 AL. 1 Chr. 21. 26. 2 Chr. 71-a Ver 21.- Or, apprehend-2 Kinga 10 5 Deut 13. 5. & 18. 20.-e Or, a sound of a noiae of rain. - James 5. 17, la


according to the rites of that barbarous religion: if the the present case. Had there been a concealed fire under blood of the bullock would not move him, they thought the altar, as in the case mentioned above, the water that their own blood might; and with it they smeared them was thrown on the altar must have extinguished it most selves and their sacrifice. This was not only the custom etlectually. This very precaution has for ever put this of the idolatrous Israelites, but of the Syrians, Persians, miracle beyond the reach of suspicion. Greeks, Indians, and in short of all the heathen world. Verse 36. Lord God of Abraham| He thus addressed

Verse 29. They prophesied] They made incessant the Supreme Being, that they might know, when the anprayer and supplication : a farther proof that to pray, or swer was given, that it was the same God whom the supplicate, is the proper ideal meaning of the word ns patriarchs and their fathers worshipped ; and thus have naba, which we constantly translate to prophesy, when their hearts turned back again to the true religion of even all the circumstances of the time and place are against their ancestors. such a meaning. See what is said on the case of Saul Verse 38. Then the fire of the Lord fell] It did not among the prophets, in the note on 1 Sam. x. 5.

burst out from the altar: this might still, notwithstanding Verse 30. He repaired the altar of the LORD! There the water, have afforded some ground for suspicion that had been an altar of Jehovah in this place, called, even fire had been concealed (after the manner of the heathens) among the heathens, the altar of Carmel, probably built under the altar. in the time of the Judges; or, as the rabbins imagine, by Consumed the burnt-sacrifice) The process of this Saul. Tacitus and Suctonius mention an altar on mount consumption is very remarkable ; and all calculated to reCarmel, which Vespasian went to consult: there was no move the possibility of a suspicion that there was any temple nor statue, but mply an altar that was respectab concealed fire. 1. The fire came down from heaven. 3. for its antiquity. Est Judeam inter Syriamque Car The pieces of the sacrifice were first consumed. 3. The melus; ita vocant montem Deumque: nec simulachrum wood next, to show that it was not even by means of the Deo, aut templum situm tradidere majores : aram tantùm, wood that the flesh was burst. 4. The tue're stones were cl rererentiam.” Tacit. Hist. lib. ii. c. 78. A priest, also consumed, to show that it was no common fire, but named Basilides, officiated at that altar: and assured one whose agency nothing could resist. 5. The dust, the Vespasian that all his projects would be crowned with earth of which the altar was constructed, was burnt up

And, 6. The water that was in the trench was, by the acSuetonius speaks to this purpose :- Apud Judæam Car- tion of this fire, entirely evaporated. 7. The action of meli Dei oraculum consulentem ita confirmarerc sortes, this fire was, in every case, dounward, contrary to the ut quicquid cogitaret rolveretque animo, quamlibet mag nature of all earthly and material fire. Nothing can be num, id esse proventurum pollicerentur. Suet. in Ves more simple and artless than this description; and yet pas. cap. 5. The mount, the absence of a temple, no how amazingly full and satisfactory is the whole account ! image, but a simple altar, very ancient, and which was Verse 39. Fell on their faces] Struck with awe and held in reverence on account of the true answers which reverence at the sight of this incontestable miracle. had been given there, prove that this was originally the And they said] We should translate the words thus : altar of Jehovah; though, in the time of Vespasian, it JEHOVAH, He is the God! JEH O V AH, He is the God! seems to have been occupied by a heathen priest, and de Baal is not the God; Jehovah alone is the God of Israel! voted to lying vanities.

As our term Lord is very equivocal, we should every Verse 31. Took twelve stones) He did this to show where insert the original word in which we should write that all the twelve tribes of Israel should be joined in the Yeré or Yeherch, or Yahrah or Yehuch; or, according worship of Jehovah.

to the points, Yehovah. Verse 32. He made a trench) This was to detain the Verse 40. Let not one of them escape) They had water that might fall down from the altar, when the bar- committed the highest crime against the state and the peorels should be poured upon it, ver. 35.

ple, lsy introducing idolatry, and bringing down God's Verse 33. Fill four barrels) This was done to pre- judgments upon the land: therefore their lives were forvent any kind of suspicion that there was fire concealed feited to that law which had ordered every idolater to be under the altar. An ancient writer, under the name of slain. It seems also that Ahab, who was present, conChrysostom, quoted by Calmet, says, that he had seen, sented to this act of impartial justice. under the altars of the heathens, holes dug in the earth, Verse 41. Get thee up, eat and drink] It appears with funnels proceeding from them, and communicating most evidently that Ahab and the prophet were now on with openings on the tops of the altars. In the former the good terms; and this is a farther evidence that the slaying priests concealed fire, which, communicating through the of the false prophets was by the king's consent. funnels with the holes, set fire to the wood, and consumed Verse 42.' Put his face between his knecs] He kneeled the sacrifice; and thus the simple people were led to be down, and then bowed his head to the earth; so thal, lieve that the sacrifice was consumed by a miraculous fire. while his face was between his knees, his forehead touched Elijah showed that no such knavery could be practised in the ground.

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