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morning, to the place where a he stood before with him; for he feared to dwell in Zoar: and the LORD:
he dwelt in a cave, he and his two daughters. 28 And he looked toward Sodom and Gomor 31 | And the firstborn said unto the younger, rah, and toward all the land of the plain, and Our father is old, and there is not a man in the beheld, and, lo, b the smoke of the country went earth e to come in unto us after the manner of all up as the smoke of a furnace.
the earth: 29 And it came to pass, when God destroyed 32 Come, let us make our father drink wine, A M. cir. 2007, the cities of the plain, that God cre- and we will lie with him, that we' may preserve
membered Abraham, and sent Lot out seed of our father. of the midst of the overthrow, when he over 33 And they made their father drink wine threw the cities in the which Lot dwelt.
that night: and the firstborn went in, and lay 30 1 And Lot went up out of Zoar, and with her father; and he perceived not when she d dwelt in the mountain, and his two daughters lay down, nor when she arose.
a Ch. 18. 22 Ezek. 16, 49, 50. Hab. 2. 1. Heb. 2. 1.-- 2 Pet. 2. 7. Rev. 18. 9. e Ch.8. 1. & 18. 23. llas. 11. 8. Ver. 17, 19.
e Ch. 16. 2, 4. Ch. 38. 8, 9. Deut. 25. 5.-- Ch. 9. 21. Prov. 23. 13-33. Mark 12. 19. g Lev. 18. 6, 7. Hab. 2 15, 16.
The sentiment in the last lines is supported by Irenæus, given him the assurance that Zoar should be spared for who assures us, that though still remaining as a pillar of his sake. Both these cases argue a strange want of faith, salt, this statue in form, and other natural accidents, both in the truth and providence of God. Had he still exhibits decisive proofs of its original-- Jam non caro dwelt at Zoar, the shameful transaction afterward recordcorruptibilis, sed statua salis semper manens, et per ed, had in all probability, not taken place. naturalia, ea quæ sunt consuetudinis hominis ostendens, Verse 31. Our father is old-and consequently not lib. iv. c. 51. To complete this absurdity, this father likely to remarry-and there is not a man in the earth] makes her an emblem of the true church; which, though None left, according to their opinion, in all the land of she suffers much, and often loses whole members, yet pre-Canaan, of their own family and kindred; and they serves the pillar of salt, that is, the foundation of the might think it unlawful to match with others, such as the true faith, &c.
inhabitants of Zoar, whom they knew were devoted to Josephus says, that this pillar was standing in his time, destruction as well as those of Sodom and Gomorrah, and and that himself had seen it-Εις Sηλην αλων μετεβαλεν: were only saved at the earnest request of their father; and ισορηκα δ' αυτην ετι γαρ και νυν διαμενει. Ant. lib. I. c. xi. probably, while they lived among them, they found them
ripe enough for destruction, and therefore would have St. Clement, in his 1st Ep. to the Corinthians, ch. ii. thought it both dangerous and criminal to have formed follows Josephus, and asseris, that Lot's wife was remain any matrimonial connexions with them. ing, even in that time, as a pillar of salt.
Verse 32. Come, let us make our father drink winc) Authors of respectability and credit, who have since on their flight from Zoar, it is probable they had brought travelled into the Holy Land, and made it their business with them certain provisions to serve them for the time to inquire into this subject in the most particular and care- being, and the wine here mentioned among the rest. ful manner, have not been able to meet with any remains After considering all that has been said to criminate of this pillar: and all accounts begin now to be confounded both Lot and his daughters in this business, I cannot help in the pretty general concession both of Jews and Gen- thinking, that the transaction itself will bear a more tiles, that either the statue does not now remain, or that favourable construction than that which has been generally some of the heaps of salt or blocks of salt rock, which are put on it.-1. It does not appear that it was through any to be met with in the vicinity of the Dead sea, may be the base or sensual desire that the daughters of Lot wished to remains of Lot's wife! All speculations on this subject deceive their father. 2. They might have thought, that it are perfectly idle; and if the general prejudice in favour would have been criminal to have married into any other of the continued existence of this monument of God's family; and they knew that their husbands elect, who justice had not been very strong, I should not have deemed were probably of the same kindred, had perished in the myself justified in entering so much at length into the overthrow of Sodom. 3. They might have supposed, subject. Those who profess to have seen it, have in general that there was no other way left to preserve the family, sufficiently invalidated their own testimony, by the mon and consequently, that righteousness, for which it had strous absurdities with which they have encumbered their been remarkable, but the way which they now took. 4. relations. Had Lot's wife been changed in the way that They appear to have supposed, that their father would not many have supposed, and still preserved somewhere in come into the measure, because he would have considered the neighbourhood of the Dead sea, surely we might ex- it as profane; yet, judging the measure to be expedient and pect some account of it in after parts of the Scripture necessary, they endeavour to sanctify the improper means history. But it is never more mentioned in the Bible; used, by the goodness of the end at which they aimed ; a and occurs nowhere in the New Testament, but in the doctrine which, though resorted to by many, should be simple reference of our Lord to the judgment itself, as a reprobated by all. Acting on this bad principle, they warning to the disobedient and the backsliding, Luke xvii. caused their father to drink wine. 32. Remember Lot's wife!
Verse 33. And he perceired not when she lay down, nor Verse 27. Abraham gat up early in the morning] when, &c.] That is, he did not perceive the time she Anxious to know what was the effect of the prayers which came to his bed, nor the time she quitted it; consequently he had offered to God the preceding day, what must have did not know who it was that had lain with him. In this been his astonishment, when he found that all these cities, transaction Lot appears to me to be in many respects exwith the plain which resembled the garden of the Lord, cusable. I. He had no accurate knowledge of what took ch. xiii. 10. burnt up, and the smoke ascending like the place either on the first or second night; therefore he cansmoke of a furnace, and was thereby assured that even not be supposed to have been drawn away by his own lust, God himself could not discover len rightcous persons in and enticed. That he must have been sensible that some four whole cities!
person had been in his bed, it would be ridiculous to deny ; Verse 29. God remembered Abraham] Though he did but he might have judged it to have been some of his not descend lower than ten righteous persons, (see ch. female domestics, which, it is reasonable to suppose he xviii. 32.) yet the Lord had respect to the spirit of his might have brought from Zoar. 2. It is very likely that petitions, and spared all those which could be called right- he was deceived in the wine, as well as in the consequences ; eous; and, for Abraham's sake, offered salvation to all either he knew not the strength of wine, or wine of a supethe family of Lot, though neither his sons-in-law elect, rior power had been given to him on this occasion. As he nor his own wife, ultimately profited by it. The former had in general followed the simple pastoral life, it is not to ridiculed the warning; and the latter, though led out by be wondered at if he did not know the intoxicating power the hands of the angel, yet, hy breaking the command of of wine; and being an old man, and unused to it, a small God, perished with the other gainsayers.
portion would be sufficient to overcome him; sound sleep Verse 30. Lot went up out of Zoar] From seeing the would soon, at time of life, be the effect of taking the universal desolation that had fallen upon the land, and liquor to which he was unaccustomed, and cause him to that the fire was still continuing its depredations, he feared forget the effects of his intoxication. Except in this case, to dwell in Zoar, lest that also should be consumed ; and his moral conduct stands unblemished in the Sacred then went to those very mountains, to which God had or Writings: and as the whole transaction, especially as it dered him at first to make his escape. Foolish man is ever relates to him, is capable of an interpretation not wholly preferring his own wisdom to that of his Maker. It was injurious to his piety, both reason and religion conjoin to wrong at first not to betake himself to the mountain: it recommend that explanation. As to his daughters, let was wrong in the next place, to go to it, when God had I their ignorance of the real state of the caze plead for them,
34 And it came to pass on the morrow, that 38 And the younger, she also bare a son, and the firstborn said unto the younger, Behold, I called his name Ben-ammi: the same is the lay yesternight with my father: let us make father of the children bof Ammon unto this day. him'drink wine this night also: and go thou in, and lie with him, that we may preserve seed of
CHAPTER XX. our father.
Abraham leaves Mamre, and afur having sojourned at Kadesh and Shur, settles in
Abimelech takes Sarah, Abrahan having acknowledged her only as his 35 And they made their father drink wine that
sister, 2 Abiinelech is warned by God in a dream to restore Sarah, 3. He as night also: and the younger arose, and lay with
serts his innocence, 4, 5. He is farther warned, 6, 7. Expostulates with Abraham,
Abraham viralicates his conduct, 11----13. him; and he perceived not when she lay down, makes Abraham a presảnt of sherp, oxen, and male and fernale slaves, 14. Others
him a residence in any part of the land, 15; and reproses Sarah, 16. At the inter. nor when she arose.
cession of Abraham, the curse of barreness is renioved from Abunelech and his 36 Thus were both the daughters of Lot with
household, 17, 18. child by their father.
ND Abraham journeyed from c thence
Abimelech restores Sarah,
bild hyndere forentborn bare a son and called his A NowaAbrahamovidurrexedy ramd athened
name Moab : a the same is the father of the between a Kadesh and Shur, and •
• sojourned Moabites unto this day.
a Num. 22 36. Deut. 29. 2 Sam. 8. 2 2 Kings 3. 4--27.
b Deut. 2 19. Judges 10. 6-18.-c Ch. 18. 1.-d Ch. 16. 7, 14.- Ch. 26. 6.
as far as that can go: and let it be remembered, that their account must you give to the Judge of quick and dead ! sin was of that very peculiar nature, as never to be capable | It was the sentiment of a great man, that should the worst of becoming a precedent. For it is scarcely possible, that of times arrive, and magistracy and ministry were both to any shall ever be able to plead similar circumstances in fai), yet, if parents would but be faithful to their trust, pure vindication of a similar line of conduct.
religion could not fail to be handed down to posterity, both Verse 37. Called his name Moab] This name is in its form and in its power. generally interpreted of the father; or, according to Cal 2. We have already heard of the wickedness of the inhabmet, IND Moab, the waters of the father.
itants of the cities of the plain—the cup of their iniquity Verse 33. Ben-ammi) po ja Ben-âmmi, the son of was full-their sin was of no common magnitude, and my people. Both these names seem to justify the view what a terrible judgment fell upon them! Brimstone and taken of this subject above, viz. that it was merely to fire are rained down from heaven upon these traders in preserve the family that the daughters of Lot male use of iniquity: and what a correspondence between the crime the above expedient; and hence we do not find that they and the punishment! They burned in lust toward each ever attempted to repeat it; which, had it been done for other; and God burned them up with fire and brimstone. any other purpose, they certainly would not have failed to Their sin was unnatural; and God punished it by superdo. On this subject Origen, in his Fifth Homily on natural means. Divine Justice not only observes a proGenesis, has these remarkable words: Ubi hîc libidinis portion between the crime and the degree of punishment, culpa, ubi incesti criminis arguitur ? Quomodo dabitur but also between the species of crime, and the kind of in VITIO QUOD NON ITERATUR IN FACTO? Vereor proloqui punishment inflicted. quod sentio, vercor, inquam, ne castior fucrit harum 3. Disobedience to the command of God must ever meet incestus, quam pudicitia multarum-"Where, in all this with severe reprehension, especially in those who have transaction, can the crime of lust or of incest be proved ? already partaken of his grace, because these know his How can this be proved to be a dice, where the fact was salvation, and are justly supposed to possess, by his grace, never repeated ? Í am afraid to speak my whole mind on the power of resisting all solicitations to sin.' The servant the subject, leat the incest of these should appear more who knew his lord's will, and did it not, was to be beaten laudable than the chastity of multitudes." There is a dis- with many stripes. See Luke xii. 47.-Lot's wife stands tinction made here by Origen, which is worthy of observa as an everlasting monument of admonition and caution to tion. A single bad act, though a sin, does not necessarily all backsliders. She ran well-she permitted Satan to argue a vicious heart: as to be ricious, a man must be hinder, and she died in her provocation! While we lament habituated to sinful acts.
her fate, we should profit by her example. To begin in The generation which proceeded from this incestuous the good way is well; to continue in the path is better; connexion, whatever may be said in behalf of the transac and to persevere unto the end, best of all. The exhortation tion, (ils peculiar circumstances being considered,) was cer of our blessed Lord on this subject should awake our cautainly a bad one. The Moabites soon fell from the faith tion, and strongly excite our diligence- Remember Lot's of God, and became idolaters, the people of Chemosh and wifé!-On the conduct of Lot and his daughters, see the of Baal-Pcor, Num. xxi. 29. xxv. 1-3. and were enemies notes on ver. 31, &c. to the children of Abraham. See Num. xxii. Judg. iii.
NOTES ON CHAPTER XX. 14, &c And the Ammonites, who dwelt near to the Verse 1. And Abraham journeyed] It is very likely Moabites, united with them in idolatry, and were also that this holy man was so deeply affected with the melanenemies to Israel. See Judg. xi. 4, 24. Deut. xxiii. 3, 4. choly prospect of the ruined cities, and not knowing what As both these people made afterward a considerable figure was become of his nephew Lot and his family, that he in the Sacred History, the impartial inspired writer, takes could no longer bear to dwell within sight of the place. care to introduce, at this early period, an account of their Having, therefore, struck his tents, and sojourned for a origin. See what has been said on the case of Noah's short time at Kadesh and Shur, he fixed his habitation in drunkenness, Gen. ix. 20, &c.
Gerar, which was a city of Arabia Petræa, under a king This is an awful history; and the circumstances detailed of the Philistines, called Abimelech, my father king, who in it are as distressing to piety as to humanity. It may, appears to have been not only the father of his people, however, be profitable to review the particulars.
but also a righteous man. 1. From the coromencement of the chapter, we find that Verse 2. She is my sister) See the parallel account, ch. the example and precepts of Abraham had not been lost on xi. and the notes there. Sarah was now about ninety his nephew Lot. He also, like his uncle, watches for years of age, and probably pregnant with Isaac. Her opportunities to call in the weary traveller.' This, Abra- beauty, therefore must have been considerably impaired hain had taught his household; and we see the effect of since the time she was taken in a similar manner by this blessed teaching. Lot was both hospitable and pious, Pharaoh, king of Egypt; but she was probably now though living in the midst of a cruoked and perverse race. chosen by Abimelech, more on the account of forming an It must be granted, that from several circumstances in his alliance with Abraham, who was very rich, than on history, he appears to have been a weak man; but his account of any personal accomplishments. A petty king, weakness was such, as was not inconsistent with general such as Abimelech, would naturally be glad to form an uprightness and sincerity. He and his family were not alliance with such a powerful chief as Abraham was: we forgetful to entertain strangers; and they alone were free cannot but recollect his late defeat of the four confederate from the pollutions of this accursed people. How power- Canaanitish kings. See on ch. xiv. 14, &c. This cir. ful are the effects of a religions education, enforced by cumstance was sufficient to establish his credit, and cause pious example! It is one of God's especial means of grace. his friendship to be courted; and what more effectual Let a man only do justice to his family, by bringing them means could Abimelech use in reference to this, than the up in the fear of God, and he will crown it with his bless-taking Sarah to be his concubine, or second wife, which in ing: How many excuse the profligacy of their family, those times had no kind of disgrace attached to it? which is often entirely owing to their own neglect, by Verse 3. But God came to Abimelech] Thus we find saying—"Oh, we cannot give them grace ?" No, you that persons, who were not of the family of Abraham, cannot; but you can afford them the means of grace. had the knowledge of the true God. Indeed, all the This is your work; that is the Lord's. If through
Gerarites are termed p913 goi tsadik, a righteous terlent of precept and example, thay perish, what ein awful I nation, ver. 4. VOL. 1.-12
A. M. cir. 20
2 And Abraham said of Sarah his wife, She these things in their ears: and the men were is my sister: and Abimelech king of Gerar sent, sore afraid. and b took Sarah.
9 | Then Abimelech called Abraham, and 3 But «God came to Abimelech din a dream said unto him, What hast thou done unto us? by night, and said to him · Behold, thou art but and what have I offended thee, P that thou hast a dead man, for the woman which thou hast brought on me and on my kingdom a great sin? taken; for she is ' man's wife.
thou hast done deeds unto me I that ought not 4 But Abimelech had not come near to be done.
her: and he said, LORD, 8 wilt thou 10 And Abimelech said unto Abraham, What slay also a righteous nation?
sawest thou, that thou hast done this thing? 5 Said he not unto me, She is my sister, and 11 And Abraham said, Because I thought, she, even she herself said, He is my brother : Surely " the fear of God is not in this place; h in the i integrity of my heart, and innocency and they will slay me for my wife's sake. of my hands, have I done this.
12 And yet indeed she is my sister; she is 6 And God said unto him in a dream, Yea, I the daughter of my father, but not the daughter know that thou didst this in the integrity of thy of my mother; and she became my wife. heart; for * I also withheld thee from einning 13' And it came to pass, when God caused 1 against me: therefore suffered I thee not to me to wander from my father's house, that I touch her.
said unto her, This is thy kindness which 7 Now therefore restore the man his wife; thou shalt show unto me; at every place m for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for whither we shall come, say of me, He is my thee, and thou shalt live: and if thou restore brother. her not know thou, that thou shalt surely die, 14 | And Abimelech w took sheep, and oxen, thou, "and all that are thine.
and men-servants, and women-servants, and 8 Therefore Abimelech. rose early in the gave them unto Abraham and restored him morning, and called all his servants, and told all | Sarah his wife.
a Ch. 12. 13. & 26. 7.b Ch. 12. 15. - Psa. 105. 14.- Job 33. 15.- Ver. 7. f Heb. married to an husband.-- Ch. 18. 23. Ver. 19h 2 Kings 20. 3. 2 Cor. 1. 12.--- Or, simplicity, or sincerity. ----k Ch. 31. 7. & 35. 5. Exol. 31. A. 1 Sam. 25. %, 31.-- Ch. 3.9. Lev. 6.2 Psa 51. 1.---m 1 Sam 7.5. 2 Kings 5. 11. Job 42. 8.
James 5. 14, 15, 1 John 5. 16.-.-n Ch. 2 17.-0 Numb 16. 32, 3.-p Ch. 2. 10. Exod. 32 21. Josh. 7. 25.--- Ch. 31. 7.---- Ch. 12. 13. Psa. 3. Prov. 16. ---Ch. 12 12 & R. 7.--- See Ch 11. 29.-u Ch. 12 1, 9, 11, &c. Heb. 11. 8. Ch. 12 13 w Ch. 12. 16.
Verse 5. In the integrity of myhcart, &c.] Had Abim- life. è Mecca eriens Medinam, unde Muhammed suis elech any Other than honourable views in taking Sarah, XUdictus fuit. Golius. If this meaning belonged he could not have justified himself thus to his Maker; and originally to the Hebrew word; it will apply with great that these views were of the most honourable kind, God force to the case of Abraham, whose migratory, itinerant himself, to whom the appeal was made, asserts, in the kind of life, generally under the immediate direction of most direct manner-Yeu, I know that thou didst this in God, might have given him the title nabi. However this the integrity of thy heart.
may be, the term was a title of the highest respectability Verse 7. He is a prophel, and he shall pray for thee] and honour, both among the Hebrews and Arabs, and The word prophet, which we have from the Greek continues so to this day. And from the Hebreus, the spoentes, and which is compounded of apo, before; and word, in all the importance and dignity of its meaning, was chka, I speak, means in its general acceptation, one who introduced among the heathens, in the pecutns and rates speaks of things before they happen ; i. e. one who fore- of the Greeks and Romans. See on the word seer, Gen. tells future events. But that this was not the original xv. 1. notion of the word, its use in this place sufficiently proves, Verse 8. Abimelech rose early,, &c.) God came to Abraham certainly was not a prophet in the present general Abimelech in a dream by night, and we find, as the day acceptation of the term; and for the Hebrew na nabi, broke, he arose, assembled his servants, what we would we must seek some other meaning. I have, in a discourse call his courtiers, and communicated to ihem what he had entitled, “The Christian Prophet and bis Work," proved, received from God. They were all struck with astonishthat the proper ideal meaning of the original word, is, to ment, and discerned the hand of God. Abraham is then pray, entrcat, make supplication, &c. and this meaning called, and in a most respectful and pious manner, the of it, I have justified at large, both from its application in king expostulates with lim, for bringing him and his this place, and from its pointed use in the case of Saul, people under the Divine displeasure, by withholding from mentioned 1 Sam. x. and from the case of the priests of him the information that Sarah was his wife; when, by Baal, 1 Kings xviii. where prophesying, most undoubtedly taking her, he sought only an honourable alliance with means, making prayer, and supplication. As those who his family. were in habits of intimacy with God by prayer and faith, Verse 11. And Abraham said] The best excuse he were found the most proper persons to communicate his could make for his conduct, which, in this instance, is far mind to man both with respect to the present and the from defensible. future, hence ay nabi, the intercessor, became, in Verse 12. She is my sister] I have not told a lie, I have process of time, the public instructer or preacher; and suppressed only a part of the truth. In this place it may also the predicter of future events; because io such faithful be proper to ask, What is a lie? It is any action done, or praying men God revealed the secret of his will. Hence word spoken, whether true or false in itself, which the St. Paul, 1 Cor. xiv, 3. seems to restrain the word wholly doer, or speaker wishes the observer or hearer, to take in to the interpreting the mind of God in the people, and a contrary sense to that which he knows to be true. It is, their instruction in divine things, for, says he, he that in a word, any action done, or speech delivered, with the prophesieth speaketh unto men to edification, and chor intention to deceive ; though both may be absolutely true tation, and comfort. See the discourse on this text and right in themselves; see the note on chap. xii. 13. referred to above. The title was also given to men The daughter of my father, but not of my mother) eminent for eloquence and for literary abilities: hence Ebn Batrik in his annals, among other ancient traditions, Aaron, because he was the spokesman of Moses to the has preserved the following: "Terah first married Yona, Egyptian king, was termed nya nabi, prophet; Exod. iv. by whom he had Abraham, afterward he married Teherita, 16. and vii. 1. And Epimeniles, a heathen poet, is by whom he had Sarah." Thus she was the sister of expressly styled 24s¢n:n, a prophei, by St. Paul, Tit. i. Abraham, being the daughter of the same father, by a 12. just as poets in general were termrd rates among the different mother. Romans, which properly signifies the persons who pro Verse 13. Ihen God caused me to wander) Here the fessed to interpret the arill of the gods to their votaries, word ombx Elohim is used with a plural verb (vynn after prayers and sacrifices duly performed. In Arabic hithou, caused me to wander,) which is very unusual in the word li naba, has nearly the same meaning as in the Hebrew language, as this plural noun is generally Hebrew; but in the first conjugation it has a meaning | joined with verbs in the singular number. Because which may cast light upon the subject in general. It sig- there is a departure from the general mode in this instance, nifies to itinerate, move from one place or country to some have contended that the word Elohim signifies another, compelled thereto either bý persecution, or the princes, in this place, and suppose it to refer 10 those in command of God; eririt de una regione in aliam.- | Chaldea, who expelled Abraham, because he would " not
migrans de loco in locum. Golius. Hence Mo- worship the fire ;'' but the best critics, and with them the hammed was called sll an nabi, because of his sudden | Jercs, allow that Elohim here, signifies the true God. removal from Mecca to Medina, when, pretending to a Abraham probably refers to his first call. divine commission, his townsmen sought to take away his Verse 16. And unto Sarah he said] But what did he
15 And Abimelech said, Behold, a my land is son in his old age; mat the set time, of which before thee; dwell where it pleaseth thee. God had spoken to him.
16 And unto Sarah he said, Behold, I have 3 And Abraham called the name of his son given • thy brother a thousand pieces of silver : that was born unto him, whom Sarah bare to å behold, he is to thee a covering of the eyes, him, " Isaac, unto all that are with thee, and with all other: 4 And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac, thus she was reproved.
being eight days old, pas God had commanded 17 | So Abraham & prayed unto God: and him. God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his 5 And a Abraham was an hundred years old, maid-servants; and they bare children.
when his son Isaac was born unto him. 18 For the LORD + had fast closed up all the 6 T And Sarah said, 'God hath made me to wombs of the house of Abimelech, because of laugh, so that all that hear will laugh with me. Sarah, Abraham's wife.
7 And she said, Who would have said unto
Abraham, that Sarah should have given children CHAPTER XXI.
suck ? " for I have borne him a son in his Isaac is bem according to the promise, 1-3, and is circumcised when eight days old, old age. 4. Abraham's age, at Sarah's exultation at the birth of their sun, 5–7. Inaac is weanet, 9. Jalusel mucking on the occasion, Sarah reprins that both he ani his 8 And the child grew, and was weaned: and mother Hugur shall be display, 9, 10. Abraham distree on the accouns, is Qurd by the land to comply, 11, 12. The prin renewal w lumael, 13.
Abraham made a great feast, the same day that Absatan hamnes Hacer and her son, who go to the wilderuese Beer-streba, Isaac was weaned. 14. They are greatly distressed for want of water, 15, 16. An Angel of God appears to, anxin li sea thecin, 17-19. Ishmael propers and is marnr.), 22,21. Annu. 9 | And Sarah saw the son of Hagar, u the treh, aiul local de chief capiain, make a covenant motherboaham.wara Egyptian, 'which she had born unto Abraham, grove, and luvokes the name of Jehovah, the everlasting God, 33.
w mocking. ND the LORD i visited Sarah as he had 10 Wherefore she said unto Abra- A. M. cir 2110. had spoken.
her son: for the son of this bond-woman shall 2 For Sarah ! conceived, and bare Abraham a not be heir with my son, even with Isaac.
B. C. cir. 1504.
& Ch. 13.9.- Her er is good in thine eyes.- Ver. 5-1 Ch26. 11. - Ch. 24. 65. Prov. 9., 9. & 5. 12 & 27.5 Mati, 7. 7.-8 Ch. 29. 31. I San. 5. 11, 12 Jab 12., 9, 10,-- Ch. 12. 17. & 16 2-il San. 2 2.- Ch. 17. 19. & 18. 10, 11.
Acta 7. 8. Gal. 4. 22 Helt, 11. 11.-m Ch. 17. 21.-n Ch. 17. 19.-0 Acta 7. 8. p Ch. 17. 10, 12 --Ch 17. 1, 17.--r l'ex 18 2 Isai. 51. 1. Gal. 4. 27 -- Luke 1.58 il Ch 11, 19-u Ch. 16. I.-- Ch 16. 15.- W Gal 4.22.-Gal 4.30. Ser Ch. 25. 6. & 36. 6, 7.
say? Here there is scarcely any agreement among inter 2. The cause why the patriarch did not acknowledge preters: the Hebrew is exceedingly obscure, and every Sarah as his wife, was a fear lest he should lose his life interpreter takes it in his own sense.
on her account, for he said, surely the fear, i. e. the true A thousand pieces of silter] SHEKELS are very proha- worship of the true God, is not in this place. Such is the bly meant here, and so the Targum understands it. The natural bigotry and narrowness of the human heari, that Septuagint has Zoltz 008pxZuz, a thousand didrachma, no we can scurcely allow that any besides ourselves possess doubt meaning shekels ; for in chap. xxiii. 15, 16. this trans the true religion. To indulge a disposition of this kind, is lation uses dos pequer for the Hebrew 5pw shekel. As shakal highly blameable. The true religion is neither confined to signifies literally to iceigh, and the shekel was a coin of such one spot, nor to one people: it is spread in various forms a weight, Mr. Ainsworth and others, think this to be the over the whole enrth. He who fills immensity, has left a origin of our word scale, the instrument to weigh with. record of himself in every nation and among every people
The shekel of the sanctuary weighed trenty gerahs, under henven. Beware of this spirit! for bigotry produces Exod. xxx. 13. And according to the Jews, the gerah | uncharitableness, and uncharitablenees harsh judging, and weighed sixteen grains of barley, R. Maymon observes, in such a spirit, a man may think he does God service, that after the captivity, the shekel was increased to three when he dashes out the brains, or makes a burnt-offering of hundred and cighty-four grains, or barley corns. On the the person, whom his narrow mind and hard heart have subject of ancient weights and measures, very little that is dishonoured with the name of heretic. Such a spirit is satisfactory is known.
not confined to any one community, though it has predomBehold, he is to thee for a covering of the eyes] II, the inated in some more than in others. But these things one thousand shekels, not he, (Abraham) is to thee for a are highly displeasing in the eight of God. HE, as the covering, to procure thee a veil to conceal thy beauty (unto Father of the spirits of all flesh, loves every branch of his all that are with thee, and with all other) from all thy own vastly extended family; and as far as we love one another, kindred and acquaintance, and from all strangers, that no matter of what sect or party, so far we resemble him. none, seeing thou art another man's wife, inay covet thee Had Abraham possessed more charity for man, and confion account of thy comeliness.
dence in God, at this time, he had not fallen into that snare And thus she was reprored] The original is ons ve from which he barely escaped. A hasty judgment is no-cachath, but the word is probably the second person generally both erroneous and harsh, and those who are the preterite, used for the imperative mood, from the root n» most upt to form it, are generally the most difficult to be nacah, to make straight, direct, right-or to speak rightly, convinced of the truth. correctly; and may, in connexion with the rest of the text,
NOTES ON CHAPTER XXI. be thus paraphrased. Behold, I hare given thy BROTHER Verse 1. The Lord visited Sarah] That is, God (Abraham, gently alluding to the equivocation, ver. 2, 5.) fulfilled his promise to Sarah, by giving her, at the a thousand shekels of silver ; behold, it is (that is, the advanced age of ninety, power to conceive and bring forth silver is, or may be, or let it be) to thee a corering of the tyes (to procure a veil, see before) with regard to all those Verse 3. Isaac] See the reason and interpretation of who are with thee, and to all, (or and in all) speak thou this name in the note on chap. xvii. 17. the truth. Correctly translated by the Septuagint Verse 4. Circumcised his son] See on chap. xvii. **VT* **.,5.vcov, and in all things speak the truth. Not | 10, &c. only tell a part of the truth, bui tell the whole-say not Verse 6. God hath made me to laugh] Sarah alludes merely, he is my brother; but say also, he is my husband here to the circumstance mentioned chap: xvii. 12. and as too. Thus in all things, speak the truth. I believe the she seems to use the word to laugh, in this place, not in above to be the sense of this difficult passage ; and shall the sense of being incredulous, but to express such pleanot puzzle my reader with eriticisms.
sure or happiness, as almost suspends the reasoning faculty Verse 17. So Abraham prayed] This was the prime for a time, it justifies the observation on the above named office of the 's nabi, see ver. 7.
See a similar case in Luke xxiv. 41. where the Verse 18. For the Lord had fast closed up all the irombs] disciples were so overcome with the good news of our Probably by meang of some disease, with which he had Lord's resurrection, that it is said, They believed not for emitten them; hence it is said, they were healed at Abra-joy: han's intercession; and this seems necessarily to imply, Versc 8. The child was weaned] We have the verb to that they had bern afticted by some disrase that rendered rrean from the Anglo-Saxon, Apendan, arrendan, which it impossible for them to have children, till it was removed. signifies to convert, transfer, iurn from one thing to And possibly this disease, as Dr. Dodd conjectures, had another, which is the exact import of the Hebrew word afflicted Aliinelech, and by this he was withheld, ver. 6. 5p2 gamul, in the text
. Hence to turn a child from the from defiling Abraham's bed.
brengt, to receive another kind of aliment; and hence the 1. On the prerarication of Abraham and Sarah, see the word Wean, ucan, which is still in use in the northern notes and concluding observations on chap. xii. and while parts of Great Britain, and properly signifies a child taken we pity this ucakness, let us take it as a warning. from the breast. At what time children were weaned
11 And the thing was very grievous in Abra 17 And God heard the voice of the lad; and ham's sight, « because of his son.
the angel of God called to Hagar out of heaven, 12 And God said unto Abraham, Let it not and said unto her, What aileth thee, Hagar ? be grievous in thy sight because of the lad, and fear not; for God hath heard the voice of the because of thy bond-woman; in all that Sarah lad where he is. hath said unto thee, hearken unto her voice; 18. Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him in thine for bin Isaac, shall thy seed be called.
hand; for 'I will make him a great nation. 13 And also of the son of the bond-woman 19 And & God opened her eyes, and she saw will I make c a nation, because he is thy seed. a well of water; and she went, and filled the
14 And Abraham rose up early in the morn-bottle with water, and gave the lad drink. ing, and took bread, and a bottle of water, and 20 And God was with the lad ; and he grew, gave it unto Hagar, (putting it on her shoulder,) and dwelt in the wilderness, i and became an and the child, and d sent her away: and she archer. departed, and wandered in the wilderness of 21 And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran: Beer-sheba.
and his mother k took him a wife out of the land 15 | And the water was spent in the bottle, of Egypt. and she cast the child under one of the shrubs. 22 | And it came to pass at that A M. cir 9118.
16 And she went, and sat her down over time, that Abimelech, and Phichol against him a good way off, as it were a bow the chief captain of his host spake unto Abrashot: for she said, Let me not see the death of ham, saying, m God is with thee in all that thou the child. And she sat over against him, and doest: lift up her voice and wept.
23 Now therefore n swear unto me here by
# Ch. 17. 18-b Rom 9. 7, 8. Heb. 11. 18.-0 Ver. 18. Ch. 16. 10. & 17. 20. d John 8. 35.- Exod. 3. 7.- Ver. 13. Numb. 22. 31. See 2 Kings 6. 17, 18, 20.
Luke 24. 16. 31.-h Ch. 29. 15. & 39.2, 3,21.-i Ch. 16. 12- Ch. 24. 4.-1 Ch 2 2. & 35. 36.-In Ch. 25. 2.-n Josh. 2 12 1 Sam. 24. 21.
among the ancients, is a disputed point. St. Jerom says safely presume that she and her son were sufficiently prothere were two opinions on this subject. Some hold that vided for their journey, had they, not missed their way. children were always weaned at five years of age; others Travellers in those countrieg, take only, to the present that they were not weaned till they were twelve. From day, provisions sufficient to carry them to the next village the speech of the mother to her son, 2 Mac. vii. 27. it or encampment; and water to supply them till they should seems likely that among the Jews they were weaned when meet with the next well.
What adds to the appearance three years old : O my son, have pitý upon me that bare of cruelty in this case is, that our translation seems to thee nine months in my womb, and gave thee SUCK THREE represeni Ishmael as being a young child; and that Hagar YEARS, and nourished thee and brought thee up. And was obliged to carry him, the bread, and the bottle of this is farther strengthened by 2 Chron. xxxi. 16. where water, on her back, or shoulder, at the same time. But Hezekiah, in making provision for the Levites and priests, that Ishmael could not be carried on his mother's shoulder, includes the children from three years old and upwards; will be sufficiently evident when his age is considered: which is a presumptive proof that previous to this age they Ishmael was born when Abraham was eighty-six years of were wholly dependent on the mother for their nourish- age, chap. xvi. 16. Isaac was born when he was one hun
Samuel appears to have been brought to the dred years of age, chap. xxi. 5. hence Ishmael was foursanctuary when he was just weaned, and then he was teen years old at the birth of Isaac. Add to this, the age capable of ministering before the Lord, 1 Kings i. 22–28. of Isaac when he was rocaned, which, from ver. 8. of and this certainly could not be before he was three years of this chapter, (see the note) was probably three, and we age. The term among the Mohammedans is fixed by the shall find that Ishmael was, at the time of his leaving Koran, chap. xxxi. 14. at two years of age.
Abraham, not less than seventeen years old; an age at Verse 9. Mocking) What was implied in this mocking which, in those primitive times, a young man was able to is not known. St. Paul, Galat. iv. 29. calls it persecuting, gain his livelihood, either by his bow in the wilderness, or but it is likely he meant no more than some species of ridi- by keeping fucks us Jacob did. cule used by Ishmael on the occasion, and probably with Verse 15. And she cast the child) 25477 nx Sony Varespect to the age of Sarah at Isaac's birth, and her pre- tishlec eth ha-ycled, and she sent the lad—under one of vious barrenness. Jonathan ben Uzziel, and the Jerusalem the shrubs- viz. 10 screen him from the intensity of the Targum, represent Ishmael as performing some idolatrous heat. Here Ishmael appears to be utterly helpless, and rite on the occasion, and that this had given the offence to this circumstance seems farther to confirm the opinion that Sarah. Conjectures are as useless as they are endless. he was now in a state of infancy-but the preceding obWhatever it was, it became the occasion of the expulsion servations do this supposition entirely away; and his of himself and mother. Several authors are of opinion, present helplessness will be easily accounted for on this that the Egyptian bondage of four hundred years, men ground :--1. Young persons can bear much less fatigue tioned chap. xv. 13. commenced with this persecution of than those who have arrived at mature age. 2. They the righteous seed by the son of an Egyptian woman. require much more fluid from the greater quantum of heat
Verse 10 Cast out this bond woman and her son] Both in their bodies, strongly marked by the impetuosity of the Sarah and Abraham have been accused of cruelty in this blood; and from them a much larger quantity of the fluids transaction, because every word reads harsh to us. Cast is thrown off by sweat and insensible perspiration, than out, un garash, signifies not only to thrust out, drive from grown up or aged persons. 3. Their digestion is away, and expel, but also to divorce, see Lev. xxi. 1. And much more rapid, and hence they cannot bear hunger and it is in this latter sense the word should be understood here. thirst as well as the others. On these grounds Ishmael The child of Abraham by Hagar might be considered as must be much inore exhausted with fatigue than his having a right at least to a part of the inheritance, and as mother. it was sufficiently known to Sarah that God had designed Verse 19. God opened her eyes) These words appear to that the succession should be established in the line of me to mean no more than thai God directed her to a well, Isaac, she wished Abraham to divorce Hagar, or to per which probably was at no great distance from the place in form some sort of legal act, by which Ishmael might be which she then was ; and therefore she is commanded, excluded from all claim on the inheritance.
ver. 18. to support the lad, literally to make her hand Verse 12. In Isaac shall thy seed be called.) Here God strong in his behalf-namely, that he might reach the shows the propriety of attending to the counsel of Sarah. well and quench his thirst. And lest Abraham, in whose eyes the thing was grievous, Verse 20 Became an archer.) And by his skill in this should feel distressed on the occasion, God renews his art, under the continual superintendence of the Divine promises to Ishmael and his posterity.
Providence, for God was with the lad, he was undoubtedly Verse 14. Took bread, and a bottle] By the word bread, enabled to procure a sufficient supply for his own wants we are to understand the food or provisions which were
and those of his parent. necessary for her and Ishmael, till they should come to Verse 21. He duelt in the wilderness of Paran] This the place of their destination; which, no doubt, Abraham is generally allowed to have been a part of the desert beparticularly pointed out. The bottle, which was made of longing to Arabia Petrča, in the vicinity of mount Sinai; skin, ordinarily a goat's skin, contained water sufficient to and this seems to be its uniform meaning in the Sacred last them till they should come to the next well; which, Writings. it is likely, Abraham particularly specified also. This well, Verse 22. At that time] This may either refer to the it appears, Hagar missed, and therefore wandered about transactions recorded in the preceding chapter, or to the in the wilderness, seeking more water till all she had time of Ishmael's marriage; but most probably to the brought with her was expended. We may therefore I former.