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God, that thou wilt not deal falsely with me, 29 And Abimelech said unto Abraham, What nor with my son, nor with my son's son: but mean these seven ewe lambs which thou hast according to the kindness that I have done unto set by themselves ? thee, thou shalt do unto me, and to the land 30 And he said, For these seven ewe lambs wherein thou hast sojourned.
shalt thou take of my hand, that they may be 24 And Abraham said, I will swear.
a witness unto me, that I have digged this well. 25. And Abraham reproved Abimelech be 31 Wherefore he called that place & Beercause of a well of water, which Abimelech's sheba; because there they sware both of them. servants had violently taken away.
32 Thus they made a covenant at Beer-sheba: 26 And Abimelech said, I wot not who hath then Abimelech rose up, and Phichol the chief done this thing: neither didst thou tell me; captain of his host, and they returned into the neither yet heard I of it, but to day.
land of the Philistines. 27 And Abraham took sheep and oxen, and 33 | And Abraham planted ha grove in Beergave them unto Abimelech; and both of them sheba, and i called there on the name of the made a covenant.
LORD, * the everlasting God. 28 And Abraham set seven ewe lambs of the 34 And Abraham sojourned in the Philistines' flock by themselves.
land many days. a Heb v thou shalt tie unto me. - See Ch. 3. 15, 18, 20, 21, 22-c Ch. 26. 31. tree. Amos 8. 14.-i Ch. 4. 26. & 25. 23, 25, 33.--k Dent 33. 27. Isai. 40. 28. Rom. dah 3.8.-e Ch 31. 48, 32- Ch.26.33. - That is, the well of the oath.-- Or,
1. 20.& 16. 26. 1 Tim. 1. 17. Jer. 10. 10.
God is with thee) "Dio Meymra dayai, the WORD form any of their sacred rites without the leaves of those of Jehovah, see before, chap. xv. 1. That the Chaldee trees, so that one may suppose that they are for this reason Paraphrasts use this term not for a word spoken, but in the called, by a Greek etymology, Druids. And whatever same sense in which St. John uses the nogos Tou !ow, the mislctoe grows on the oak, they think is sent from heaven, WORD of God, chap. i. is evident to every unprejudiced and is a sign that God himself has chosen that tree. This, reader.
however, is very rarely found; but when discovered, is Verse 23. Now therefore swocar unto me] The oath on treated with great ceremony. They call it by a name such occasions probably meant no more than the mutual which signifies, in their language, the curer of all ills ; promise of both the parties, when they slew an animal, and, having duly prepared their feasts and sacrifices under poured out the blood as a sacrifice to God, and then passed the tree, they bring to it two white bulls, whose horns are between the pieces. See this ceremony, chap. v. 18. and then for the first time tied : the priest, dressed in a white on chap. xv.
robe, ascends the tree, and with a golden pruning-hook According to the kindness I have done! The simple cuts off the misletoe, which is received in a white sagum claims of justice, were alone set up among virtuous people or sheet. Then they sacrifice the victims, praying that in those ancient times, which constituted the basis of the God would bless his own gift to those on whom he has famous Ler talionis, or law of like for like, kind office bestowed it.” It is impossible for a Christian to read for kind office, and breach for breach.
this account, without thinking of Him who was the desire Verse 25. Abraham reprored Abimelech] Wells were of all nations, of the Man whose name was the BRANCH, of great consequence in those hot countries; and especially who had indeed no father upon earth, but came down where the flocks were numerous, because the water was from heaven; was given to heal all our ills, and after scarce, and digging to find it was accompanied with much being cut off through the divine counsel, was wrapped in expense of time and labour.
fine linen, and laid in the sepulchre, for our sakes. I Verse 26. I wot not who hath done this thing] The cannot forbear adding, that the misletoe was a sarred servants of Abimelech had committed these depredations emblem to other Celtic nations, as for instance, to the on Abraham without any authority from their master; ancient inhabitants of Italy. 'she golden branch, of who appears to have been a very amiable man, possessing which Virgil speaks so largely, in the sixth book of the the fear of God, and ever regulating the whole of his Æneis, and without which, he says, none could return conduct by the principles of righteousness and strict justice..from the infernal regions, see line 126, seems an allusion
Verse 27. Took sheep and oren) Some think that these to the misleloe, as he himself plainly intimates, by comwere the sacrifices which were offered on the occasion, paring it to that plant, line 205, &c. See Parkhurst, and which Abraham furnished at his own cost; and in under the word ben cshel. order to do Abimelech the greater honour, gave them to In the first ages of the world, the worship of God was him to offer before the Lord.
exceedingly simple; there were no temples, nor covered Verse 28. Seven ewe lambs] These were either given edifices of any kind : an altar, sometimes a single stone, as a present, or they were intended as the price of the sometimes it consisted of several, and at other times merely well; and being accepted by Abimelech, they served as a of turf, was all that was necessary; on this the fire was witness that he had acknowledged Abraham's right to the lighted and the sacrifice offered. Any place was equally well in question.
proper, as they knew that the object of their worship filled Verse 31. He called the name of the place Beer-sheba] the heavens and the earth. In process of time, when yav Wa Beer-shebâ, literally, the well of swearing, or families increased, and many sacrifices were to be offered, of the oath, because they both sware there, mutually con grores or shady places were chosen, where the worshippers firmed the covenant.
might enjoy the protection of the shade, as a considerable Verse 33. Abraham planted a grove] The original time must be employed in offering many sacrifices. These word, Swx eshel, has been variously translated, a grove, a groves became afterward abused to impure and idolatrous plantation, an orchard, a cultivated field, and an oak. purposes, and were therefore strictly forbidden. See Exod. From this word, says Mr. Parkhurst, may be derived the xxxiv. 13. Deut. xii. 3. xvi. 21. name of the famous Asylum, opened by Romulus, between And called there on the name of the Lord] On this two groves of oaks, at Rome, (nes9opuov voor spumov. Dionys. important passage, Dr. Shuckford speaks thus :-“Our Hal. lib. 2. c. 15.) And as Abraham, Gen. xxi. 33. agree - English translation very erroneously renders this place he ably, no doubt
, to the institutes of the patriarchal religion, called upon the name of Jehovah; but the expression nap planted an oak in Beer-sheba, and called on the name of Dva kara beshem, never signifies, to call upon the name: Jehovah the everlasting God, (compare Gen. xiii. 9. xviii. Ov np kara shem, would signify, to invoke or call upon 1.) so we find that oaks were sacred among the idolaters the name; or Du Sy map kara él shem, would signify, to also. Ye shall be ashamed of the oaks ye have chosen, cry unto the name, but ovannp, kara be shem, signifies says Isaiah (chap. i. 29.) to the idolatrous Ísraelites. And to indoke in the name, and seems to be used, where the in Greece we meet, in very early times, with the oracle of true worshippers of God offered their prayers in the name Jupiter at the oaks of Dodona. Among the Greeks and of the true Mediator, or where the idolaiers offered their Romans we have sacra Jovi quercus, the oak, sacred to prayers in the name of false ones, 1 Kings xvin. 26.; for Jupiter, even to a proverb. And in Gaul and Britain, as the true worshippers had but one God and one Lord, we find the highest religious regard paid to the same tree, so the false worshippers had gods many and lords many; and to its misietoe, under the direction
of the Druids, that I Cor. viii. 5. We have several instances of map kara, is, the oak-prophets or priests, from the Celtic, deru, and and a noun after it, sometimes with, and sometimes withGreek, geus, an oak. Few are ignorant that the misletoe out the particle by al, and then it signifies to call upon the is indeed a very extraordinary plant, not to be cultivated person there mentioned : thus nuo map kara Jehovah, is in the earth, but always growing on some other tree. to call upon the Lord ; Psal. xiv. 4. xvii. 6. xxxi. 7. liii. "The Druids," says Pliny, Nat. Hist. 1. xvii. c. 44. " hold 4. cxviii. 5, &c. and in sy amp kara al Jehovah, imports nothing more sacred than the misletoe, and the tree on the same; 1 Sam. xii. 17. Jon. i. 6, &c. but Dvain kara which it is produced, provided it be the oak. They make be shem, is either to name by the name, Gen. iv. 17. Num. choice of groves of oak on this account, nor do they per- / xxxii. 42. Psal. xlix. 11. Isai. xliii
. 7. or, to invoke in
2 And he said, Take now thy son, thine only The faith and obedience of Abraham put to a most extraordinary text, 1: he is com
son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee d into manjel to offer his teloved kon lesac, for a burni antlering, 2: le prepares, with the the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a Isaac, 7 and strahum's answer, & Having arrived at inome Moriah, he pre burnt-offering upon one of the mountains which pares to sacrifice his son, 9, 10; and is prevented by an angel of the Lord, 11, 12.
is 19, I will tell thee of. 13, 14. The angel of the Lord calla to Abrahun awon time, 15; and, in the 3 | And Abraham rose up e early in the mornmost solemn manner, he is assured of innumerable blessings in the multiplication and proverity of hia seed, 16-18 Abrahattı returus and dwells at Beer-sheba, 19" | ing, and saddled his ass, and took two of his hears that his brouter Nahor has eight children by this wile Milca, 20; their names, 21---23; and four by his concubine Reumah, 2.
young men with him, and Isaac his son, and
clave the wood for the burnt-offering, and rose ND it came to pass after these things, that up, and went unto the place of which God had
God did tempt Abraham, and said unto told him. him, Abraham: and he said, 'Behold, here I 4 Then, on the third day, Abraham listed up am.
his eyes, and saw the place afar off.
al Cor. 10. 13. Heb. 11. 17. James 1. 12. 1 Pet. 1.7.-b Heb. Behold me.-c Heb.
d 2 Chron. 3. I.- Psa. 119. 60. Eccl. 9. 10. Isa. 26. 3, 4. Luke 14. 3. Heb. 11.
the name when it is used as an expression of religious that dispensation which is to continue, not only while time worship.” CONNEX. v. 1. p. 293. I believe this to be a shall last, but is to have its incessant, accumulating conjust view of the subject, and therefore I admit it without sumption throughout eternity. The word is, with the scruple.
same strict propriety, applied to the duration of the rewards The everlasting God] Oboy 79.7 Yehovah dl olam, and punishments in a future state. And the argument that JEHOVAH the strong God, the ETERNAL ONE. This is the pretends to prove, and it is only pretension, that in the first place in Scripiure in which bry olam occurs, as an future punishment of the wicked, the worin shull die," attribute of God; and here it is evidently designed to and "the fire shall be quenched," will apply as forcibly io point out his eternal duration : that it can mean no limited the state of happy spirits, and as fully prove, that a point time is self-evident, because nothing of this kind can be in eternity shall arrive, when the repose of the righteous attributed to God. The Septuagint renders the words, shall be interrupted, and the glorification of the children Cros aivos, the ever-existing God; and the Arabic says of God have an eternal end! See the notes on chap. xvii
. NW Xl allrar mui Isa, ue dâha thamma bismillahi 7, 8. The absurdity of such tenets prevents them from ilahitûalami, and he invoked there, in the name of God, becoming very dangerous. the eternal God. The word is from the same root with Faithfulness is one of the attributes of God, and none the Hebrew, and is used by the Arab lawgiver in the of his promises can fail. According to the promise to commencernent of his Koran, to express the perfections Abraham, Isaac is born; but according to the course of and essence of the supreme God. From this application nature, it fully appears, that both Abraham and Sarah had of both words, we learn that by olam, and aine, aion, passed that tern of life in which it was possible for them originally signified ETERNAL, or duration without end. to have children. Isaac is the child of the promise, and
Sy alam, signifies he was hidden, concealed, or kept the promise is supernatural. Ishmael is born according secret: and ****, according to Aristotle, De Cælo, lib. 1. to the ordinary course of nature, and cannot inherit, cap. 9. and a higher anthority need not be sought, is com because the inheritance is spiritual, and cannot come by pounded of us, always, and wv, being--W STOV, KTO TOU natural birth: hence, we see that no man can expect to
The game author informs us that God was enter into the kingdom of God by birth, education, profestermed Aisan, because he was always existing, *22.10725 sion of the true faith, &c. &c. Those alone who are born Αισαν, δε αξε ουσαν. De Mundo, chap. vii. in fine. Hence from abore, and are made partakers of the dirine nature, we see that no words can more forcibly express the grand can be admitted into the family of God in heaven, and characteristics of eternity than these. It is that duration everlastingly enjoy that glorious inheritance. Reader, art which is concealed, hidden, or kept secret from all created thou born again?' Hath God changed thy heart and thy beings :-which is always eristing; still running on, life? If not; canst thou suppose that, in thy present state, but never running out-an interminable, incessant, and thou canst possibly enter into the paradise of God ? I leave immeasurable duration: it is THAT, in the whole of ichich conscience to answer. God alone can be said to erist; and that which the eternal The actions of good men may be misrepresented, and mind can alone comprehend.
their motives suspected, because those motives are not
known; and those who are prone to think evil, are the In all languages words have, in process of time, de- last to take any trouble to inform their minds, so that they viated from their original acceptations, and have become may judge righteous judgment. Abraham, in the dismissal accommodated to particular purposes, and limited to par of Hagar and Ishmael, has been accused of cruelty. ticular meaningg. This has happened both to the Hebrew Though objections of this kind have been answered already, osy âlam, and the Greek aiwv; they have been both used yet it may not be amiss farther to observe, that what he to express a limited time, but, in general, a time, the limits did, he did in conformity to a divine command; and a of which are unknown; and thus a pointed reference to command so unequivocally given, that he could not doubt the original ideal meaning is still kept up. Those who its divine origin; and this very command was accompanied bring any of these terms in an accommodated sense, to with a promise that both the child and his mother should favour a particular doctrine, &c. must depend on the good be taken under the dirine protection. And it was so: graces of their opponents for permission to use them in nor does it appear that they lacked any thing but water, this way. For as the real gramınatical meaning of both and that only for a short time, after which it was miracuwords is cternal, and all other meanings only accommo- lously supplied. God will work a miracle when necessary; dated ones, sound criticism, in all matters of dispute con and never till then: and at such a time the divine intercerning the import of a word or term, must have recourse position can be easily ascertained, and man is under no to the grammatical meaning, and its use among the earliest temptation to attribute to second causes, what has so eviand most correct writers in the language; and will deter- dently flowed from the first. Thus, while he is promoting mine all accommodated meanings by this alone. Now, his creatures' good, he is securing his own glory: and he the first and best writers in both these languages apply brings men into straits and difficulties, so that he may ôlam and *su to express eternal, in the proper meaning have the fuller opportunity to convince his followers of his of that word; and this is their proper meaning in the Old providential care, and to prove how much he loves them. and New Testaments when applied to God, his attributes, Did we acknowledge God in all our ways, he would his operations taken in connexion with the ends for which direct our steps. Abimelech, king of Gerar, and Phichol, he performs them, for whatsoever he doth, it shall be for captain of his hòst, seeing Abraliam a worshipper of the ever.---Obryson* yilliyeh le-ólam, Eccl. iii
. 14. it shall be true God, made him swear by the object of his worship, for eternity; forins and appearances of created things that there should be a lasting peace between them and may change, but the counsels and purposes of God, rela- him : for, as they saw that God was with Abraham, they tively to them, are permanent and eternal ; and none of well knew that he could not expect the divine blessing them can be frustrated-hence the words, when applied to any longer than he walked in integrity before God: they things which, from their nature, must have a limited therefore require him to swear by God, that he would not duration, are properly to be understood in this senso; deal falsely with them, or their posterity. From thuis because those things, though temporal in themselves, very circumstance we inay see the original purpose, design, shadoic forth things that are eternal. Thus the Jewish and spirit of an oath, viz. Let God prosper or curse me dispensation, which in the whole, and in its parts, is fre- in all that I do, as I prore true or false to my engagequently said to be buys le-ôlam, for ever; and which has ments! This is still the spirit of all oaths, where God is terminated in the Christian dispensation, has the word called to witness, whether the form be by the water of properly applied to it, because it typified and introduced the Ganges, the sign of the cross, kissing the Bible, or
5 And Abraham said unto his young men, 7 And Isaac spake unto Abraham his father, Abide ye here with the ass; and I and the lad and said, My father : and he said, Here am I, will go yonder, and worship, and come again to my son. And he said, Behold the fire and the you.
wood: but where is the elamb for a burnt6 And Abraham took the wood of the burnt-offering? offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he 8 And Abraham said, My son, God will protook the fire in his hand, and a knife; and they vide himself a lambd for a burnt-offering : so went both of them together.
they went both of them together.
a la 53. Matt. & 17. John 19. 17. 1 Pet. 2. 24. Heb. Behold me.
e Or, kid. John 1. 29. 36. Rev. 5. 6. 12. & 13. 8.
hifting up the hand to heaven. Hence we may learn, of God, was figured in the command to offer Isaac, but the that he who falsifies an oath or promise, made in the intermediate typical sacrifice in the Mosaic economy was presence and name of God, thereby forfeits all right and represented, by the permitted sacrifice of the ram, offered title to the approbation and blessing of his Maker. up, ver. 13. instead of Isaac."-See Dodd,
But it is highly criminal to make such appeals to God Only son] All that he had by Sarah his lawful wife. upon tricial occasions. Only the most solemn matters The land of Moriah) This is supposed to mean all should be thus determined. Legislators who regard the the mountains of Jerusalem ; comprehending mount Gihon morals of the people, should take heed not to multiply or Calvary, the mount of Sion, and of Acra. As mount Oaths in matters of commerce and retenue.
Calvary is the highest ground to the west, and the mount NOTES ON CHAPTER XXII.
of the temple is the lowest of the mounts, Mr. Mann conVerse 1. God did tempt Abraham) The original here jectures that it was upon this mount Abraham offered up is very emphatic, DANN ON no: 75179 Ve-ha-Elohim, Isaac; which is well known to be the same mount on nissah eth Abraham, and the Elohim he tried this Abra which our blessed Lord was crucified. Beer-sheba, where ham: God brought him into such circumstances as exer Abraham dwelt, is about forty-two miles distant from cised and discovered his faith, love, and obedience. Though Jerusalem; and it is not to be wondered at, that Abraham, the word tempt, from tento, signifies no more than to prove Isaac, the two servants, and the ass laden with wood for or try; yet as it is now generally used to imply a solicita- the burnt-offering, did not reach this place till the third tion to evil, in which way God never tempts any man, it day; see ver. 4. would be well to avoid it here. The Septuagint uses the Verse 3. Two of his young men] Eliezar and Ishmael word omosexts, which signifies to try, pierce through : and according to the Targum. Symmachus translates the Hebrew ndo nissah, by 180 6x çox, Clave the wood] Small wood, fig and palm, proper for God glorified Abraham, or rendered him illustrious, sup a burnt-offering. Targum. posing the word to be the same with da nas, which signifies Verse 4. Saw the place afar off.] The Targum says, lo glister with light, whence os nes, an ensign or banner he knew the place, by seeing the cloud of glory smoking displayed. Thus, then, according to him, the words on the top of the mountain. should be understood, "God put great honour on Abra The third day] “As the number SEVEN," says Mr. ham, by giving him this opportunity of showing to all Ainsworth, "is of especial use in Scripture, because of the successive ages the nature and efficacy of an unshaken sabbath day, Gen. ii. 2. SO THREE is a mystical number, faith in the power, goodness, and truth of God." The because of Christ's rising from the dead 'the third day, Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel paraphrases the place Matt. xvii. 23. 1 Cor. xv. 4. as he was crucified the third thus:
hour after noon, Mark xv. 25.; and Isaac, as he was a "And it happened that Isaac and Ishmael contended, figure of Christ, in being the only son of his
father, and not and Ishmael said, I ought to be my father's heir because I spared, but offered for a sacrifice, Rom. viii. 32. go in sundry am his first-born; but Isaac said, It is more proper that I particulars he resembled our Lord; the third day Isaac should be my father's heir, because I am the son of Sarah was to be offered up; so it was the third day in which his wife; and thou art only the son of Hagar, my mother's Christ also was to be perfected, Luke xiii. 32. : Isaac slave. Then Ishmael answered, I am more righteous than carried the wood for the burnt-offering, ver. 6. as Christ thou, because I was circumcised when I was thirteen carried the tree whereon he died, John xix. 17.; the bindyears of age, and if I had chosen, I could have prevented ing of Isaac, ver. 9. was also typical: so Christ was bound, my circumcision; but thou wert 'circumcised when thou Matt. xxvii. 2. Moses desired to go three days' journey wert but eight days old, and if thou hadst had knowledge, in the wilderness to sacrifice, Exod. v. 3. and they travelled thou wouldst probably not have suffered thyself to be cir three days in it before they found water, Exod. xv. 22. and cumcised. Then Isaac answered and said, Behold, I am three days' journey the ark of the covenant went before now thirty-six years old, and if the holy and blessed God them, to search out a resting place, Num. X. 33. : by the should require all my members, I would freely surrender third day the people were to be ready to receive God's them. These words were immediately heard before the law, Exod. xix. 11. and after three days to pass over JorLord of the universe, and 7 Nupp meymra dayai, the dan into Canaan, Josh. i. 11. ; the third day Esther put on WORD of the Lord, did try Abraham.". I wish once the apparel of the kingdom, Esth. v. l.; on the third day for all to remark, though the subject has been referred to Hezekiah, being recovered from his illness, went up to the before, that the Chaldee term ndio meymra, which we house of the Lord, 2 Kings xx. 5.; on the third day the translate word, is taken personally in some hundreds of prophet said, God will raise us up, and we shall live before places in this Targum. When the author, Jonathan, him, Hos. vi. 2.; and on the third day, as well as on the speaks of the Divine Being as doing or saying any thing, seventh, the unclean person was to purify himself, Num. he generally represents him as performing the whole by xix. 12. ; with many other memorable things which the his meymra, which he considers not as a speech, or word Scripture speaks concerning the third day, and not without spoken, but as a person, quite distinct from the Most mystery; see Gen. xl. 12, 13. xlii
. 17, 18. John i. 17. High, and to whom he gives all the attributes of the Dicty. Josh. 2. 16.; unto which we may add a Jew's testimony St. John 1183 the word hoges in precisely the same sense in Bereshith Rabba, in a comment on this place: There with the Targuimists, cháp. i. I. sce the notes there, and are many THREE days mentioned in the Holy Scripture, ser before, ver. 22. and on chap. xv. 1.
of which one is, the resurrection of the Messiah." AinsVerse 2. Take noo thy son] Bishop Warburton's icorth in loco. obserrations on this passage are weighty and important. Verse 5. I and the lad vill go-and come again! How "The order in which the words are placed in the original, could Abraham consistently with truth say this, when he gradually increase the sense, and raise the passions liigher knew he was going to make his son a burnt-offering? and higher, Take nie thy son, (rather, take I beseech ihee The apostle answers for him: By faith Abraham, xhen, 3 na) thine only son, whom thou lorest
, even Isaac. he was tried, offered up Isaac-accounting that God was Jarchi imagines this minuteness was to preclude any able to raise him up even from the dead, from whence doubt in Abraham. Abraham desired earnestly to be let also he receired him in a figure, Heb. xi. 17, 19. He into the mystery of redemption ; and God, to instruct him knew, that previously to the birth of Isaac, both he and in the infinite extent of the divine goodness to mankind, his wife were dead to all the purposes of procreationucho spared not his own Son, but delirered him up for us that his birth was a kind of life from the dead--that the all, let Abraham feel by experience, what it was to lose a promise of God was most positive, In Isaac shall thy seed beloved son, the son born miraculously, when Sarah was be called, chap. xxi. 12.--that this promise could not failpast child-bearing, as Jesus was miraculously born of a that it was his duty to obey the command of his Maker ; virgin. The duration too of the action, ver. 4. was the and that it was as easy for God to restore him to life after same as that between Christ's death and resurrection, both he had been a burnt-offering, as it was for him to give him which were designed to be represented in it; and still life in the beginning. Therefore he went fully purposed farther, not only the final archetypical sacrifice of thc Son to offer his son, and yet confidently expecting to have him
9 And they came to the place which God had 15 | And the angel of the LORD called unto told him of; and Abraham built an altar there, Abraham out of heaven the second time, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his 16 And said, By myself have I sworn, saith son, and * laid him on the altar upon the wood. the LORD, for because thou hast done this thing,
10 And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son: and took the knife to slay his son.
17 That in blessing I will bless thee, and in 11 | And the angel of the Lord called unto multiplying I will multiply thy seed ' as the stars him out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abra- of the heaven, & and as the sand which is upon ham! and he said, Here am I.
shore; and i thy seed shall possess 12 And he said, Lay not thine hand upon the gate of his enemies; the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him: 18 i And in thy seed shall all the nations of for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing the earth be blessed; m because thou hast obeyed thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son my voice. from me.
19 So Abraham returned unto his young men, 13 And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and and they rose up, and went together to Beerlooked, and behold, behind him a ram caught in sheba; and Abraham dwelt at Beer-sheba. a thicket by his horns: and Abraham went and 20 | And it came to pass after these A. M. cir. 2112 took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt- things, that it was told Abraham, say: offering in the stead of his son.
ing, Behold, Milcah, she hath also borne chil14 And Abraham called the name of that dren unto thy brother Nahor; place Jehovah-jireh: as it is said to this day, 21 P Huz
his first-born, and Buz his brother, In the mount of the Lord it shall be seen. and Kemuel the father 9 of Aram,
B. C. cir. 1962
a Heb. 11. 17. Janes 2. 21.-1 Sam. 15. 22 Mic. 6. 7, 8-c Ch. 26. 5 Rom. 8. 32. James 2 2 1 John 4. 9, 10.- That is, The LORD trill see, or, provide.-- Psa. 105. 9. Ecclus. 44. 21. Luke 1. 73. Heb. 6. 13, 14. - Ch. 15. 5. Jer. 33. 22
g Ch. 13. 16.-h Heb. lip.-i Ch.24. 60.-k Mic. 1. 9.-1 Ch. 12.3. & 18 18 & 25. 4. Ecclus. 44. 22 Acts 3 25. Gal. 3. 8, 9, 16, 18.- Ver. 3. 10. Ch. 25. 5.- Ch. 21.31.- Ch. 11. 29.-p Job 1. 1.- Job 32. 2.
restored to life again. We will go yonder, and worship, himself binds him on the wood or to the cross ; in neither perform a solemn act of devotion which God requires, and case is the son forced to yield, but yields of his own come again to you.
accord-in neither case is the life taken away by the hand Verse 6. Took the wood—and laid it upon Isaac) Pro- of violence-Isaac yields himself to the knife; Jesus lays bably the mountain top, to which they were going, was down his life for the sheep. too difficult to be ascended by the ass; therefore either the Verse 11. The angel of the Lord] The very person father or the son must carry the wood; and it was most who was represented by this offering; the Lord Jesus, becoming in the latter.
who calls himself Jehovah, ver. 17. and, on his own Verse 7. Behold the fire and the wood: but where is the authority, renews the promises of the covenant : He was lamb?] Nothing can be conceived more tender, affection ever the great Mediator between God and man. See this ate, and affecting than the question of the son, and the reply point proved, chap. xv. 7. of the father on this occasion. A paraphrase would spoil Verse 12. Lay not thine hand upon the lad] As Isaac it-nothing can be added, without injuring those expres was to be the representative of Jesus Christ's real sacrisions of affectionate submission on the one hand, and dig. fice, it was sufficient for this purpose, that in his own will, nified tenderness and simplicity on the other.
and the will of his father, the purpose of the immolation Verse 8. My son, God will provide himself a lamb] was complete. Isaac was now fully offered both by his Here we find the same obedient unshaken faith, for which father and by himself. The father yields up the son--the this pattern of practical piety was ever remarkable. But son gives up his life : on both sides, as far as will and we must not suppose that this was the language merely | purpose could go, the sacrifice was complete. God of faith and obedience; the patriarch spoke prophetically, simply spares the father the torture of putting the knife to and referred to that Lamb of God which He had provided his son's throat. Now was the time when it might profor himself, who, in the fulness of time, should take away perly be said, "Sacrifice and offering, and burnt-offering the sin of the world; and of whom Isaac was a most and sacrifice for sin thou wouldest not, neither hadst pleaexpressive type. All the other lambs which had been sure in them : then said the Angel of the covenant, Lo! I offered from the foundation of the world had been such as come to do thy will, O God." Lay not thy hand upon MEN chose, and Men offered: but this was the Lamb the lad: an irrational creature will serve for the purpose which GOD had provided—emphatically the LAMB OF of a representative sacrifice, from this till the fulness of God.
time. But without this most expressive representation, Verse 9. And bound Isaac his son] If the patriarch of the father offering his beloved, only begotten son, had not been upheld by the conviction that he was doing what reference can such sacrifices be considered to have, the will of God, and had he not felt the most perfect con to the great event of the incarnation and crucifixon of fidence that his son should be restored, even from the Christ? Abraham, the most dignified, the most immacudead; what agony must his heart have felt at every step late of all the patriarchs; Isaac, the true pattern of piety of the journey, and through all the circumstances of this to God, and filial obedience ; may well represent God, the extraordinary business! What must his affectionate heart Father, so loving the world as io give his only-begotten have felt at the questions asked by his innocent and amiable son, Jesus Christ, to die for the sin of man. But the son! What must he have suffered while building the grand circumstances necessary to prefigure these impor. altar-laying on the wood-binding his lovely son tant points, could not be exhibited through the means of placing him on the wood-taking the knife, and stretching any or of the whole brute creation. The whole sacrificial out his hand to slay the child of his hopes! Every view system the Iosaic economy had a retrospective and we take of the subject interests the heart, and exalts the prospective view ; referring from the sacrifice of. Isaac character of this father of the faithful. But has the char
to the sacrifice of Christ; in the first, the dawning of acter of Isaac been duly considered? Is not the consider the Sun of"righieousness was seen in the latter, his ation of his excellence lost, in the supposition that he was meridian splendour and glory. Taken in this light, and too young to enter particularly into a sense of his danger; this is the only light in which it should be viewed, and too feeble to have made any resistance, had he been Abraham offering his son Isaac, is one of the most importunwilling to submit ? Josephus supposes that Isaac was ant facts and most instructive histories in the whole Old now twenty-five; see the chronology on ver. 1. some rab- Testament. See farther on this subject, chap, xxiii. 2. bins, that he was thirty-six; but it is more probable that Verse 14. Jehorah-jireh] Gynni Yehovah-yireh, he was now about thirty-three, the age at which his great literally interpreted, in the margin, The Lord will see ; Antitype was offered up: and on this medium I have that is, God will take care that every thing shall be done ventured to construct the chronology, of which I think it that is necessary, for the comfort and support of them who necessary to give this notice to the reader. Allowing him trust in him : hence the words are usually translated, The to be on'y twenty-fide, he might have easily resisted; for Lord will proride; so our translators, ver. 8. IT'S can it be supposed that an old inan, of at least one hundred elohim yireh, God will provide ; because his eye ever and twenty-five years of age, could have bound, without afferts his heart; and the wants he sees, his hand is ever his consent, a young man in the very prime and vigour of ready to supply. But all this seems to have been done life? In this case we cannot say that the superior strength under a divine impulse, and the words to have been spoken of the father prevailed; but the piety, filial affection, and prophetically : hence Houbigant and some others, render obedience of the son yielded. All this was most illus the words thus, Dominus videbitur, the Lord shall be triously typical of Christ. In both cases the father seen ; and this translation the following clause seems to himself offers up his only-begotten son ; and the father I require, as it is said to this day, ritu na behar,
22 And Chesed, and Hazo, and Pildash, and 2 And Sarah died in Kirjath-arba ; the same Jidlaph, and Bethuel.
is e Hebron in the land of Canaan; and Abra23 And - Bethuel begat Rebekah: these ham came to mourn for Sarah, and to weep for eight Milcah did bear to Nahor, Abraham's her. brother.
3 | And Abraham stood up from before his 24 And his concubine, whose name was dead, and spake unto the sons of Heth, saying, Reumah, she bare also, Tebah, and Gaham, 4 ''I am a stranger and a sojourner with you? and Thahash, and Maachah.
& give me a possession of a burying-place with CHAPTER XXIII.
you, that I may bury my dead out of my sight.
5 And the children of Heth answered AbraThe Age and death of Sarah, 1, 2 Abraham mourns for her, and requests a burial
place from the sous of lleth, 24. They freely offer him the choice of all ham, saying unto him, their wpuchne, 5, 6. Abraham refuzars to receive any as a free gifl, and requests 6 Hear us, my lord: thou art ha mighty the held in which it was situated as a free gift unto" Abraham, 10, 11. Abrahum prince among us i in the choice of our sepulinsists on giving its value in money, 12, 13. Ephron at last consents, and names the euro of four hundred shekels, 14, 15 Abraham weighs him the money in the
chres bury thy dead ; none of us shall withhold presence of the people in conquece of which, the case, the whole field, trees from thee his sepulchre, but that thou mayest being completed, Sarah is buried in the cave, 19. The sons of Heth rauify the bury thy dead. bargain, 28.
7 And Abraham stood up, and bowed himself ND Sarah was an hundred and seven to the people of the land, even to the children
and twenty years old: these were of Heth. the years of the life of Sarah.
8 And he communed with them, saying, If it
a Ch 24. 15, 24, 17. & 5. 20. & 2.25.--- Called Rom. 9. 10. Rebecca.-- Ch. 16.
3 & 25.6.- Josh. 14. 15. Judge l. 10.
e Ch. 13. 18. Ver. 19. Ch. 17. & 1 Chron. 29. 15. Psa. 105. 12. Heh. 11. 9, 13.
& Acts 7. 5. --- Heb. a Prince of God. -iCh. 13.2 & 14. 14. & 24. 35.
Yehovah yirch ; ON THIS MOUNT, THE LORD SHALL BE approaches the concubine, and shares the bed, &c. of the
From this it appears, that the sacrifice offered by real wife with her. The pilgash or concubine, (from Abraham was understood to be a representative one; and which comes the Greek Fannara pallaké, and also the a tradition was kept up, that Jehovah should be seen in a Latin pellex) in Scripture, a kind of secondary wife, sacrificial way on this mount. And this renders the not unlawful in the patriarchal times; though the progeny opinion stated on ver. 1. more than probable, viz. that of such could not inherit. The word is not used in the Abraham offered Isaac on that very mountain, on which, Scriptures in that disagreeable sense in which we comin the fulness of time, Jesus suffered. See Bishop War- monly understand it. Hagar was properly the concubine, burton.
or pilgash, of Abraham; and this, annuente Deo, and Verse 16. By myself hare I sworn) So we find that with his wife's consent. Keturah, his second wife, is the person who was called the angel of the Lord, is here called a concubine, chap. xxvi. 15. 1 Chron. 1. 32. and called Jehovah, see on ver. 1. An oath, or an appeal to Bilha and Zilpah were concubines to Jacob, chap. xxxv. God, is among men an end to strife; as God could swear 22. After the patriarchal times, many eminent men had by no greater, he swore by himself: being willing more concubines, viz. Caleb, 1 Chron. ii. 46, 48. Manasses, abundantly, says the apostle to show unto the heirs of Chron. vii. 14. Gideon, Judg. viii. 31. Saul, 2 Sam. promise the immutability of his counsel, he confirmed it iii
. 7. David, 2 Sam. v. 13. Solomon, 2 Kings xi. 3. by an oath, that by troo immutable things, (his PROMISE and Rehoboam, 2 Chron. xi. 21. The pilgash, therefore, and his VATH) in which it was impossible for God to lie, differed widely from a prostitute ; and however unlawful we might have a strong consolation, who have fled for under the New Testament, was not so under the Old. refuge to lay hold on the hope set before us. See Heb. vi. From this chapter a pious mind may collect much 13-18.
useful instruction." From the trial of Abraham, we again Verse 17. Shall possess the gate of their enemies] see, 1. That God may bring his followers into severe straits Instead of gates, the Septuagint has tonos, citics ; but as and difficulties, that they may have the better opportunity there is a very near resemblance between readas, cities, of both knowing and showing their own faith and obediand -vas, galcs, the latter might have been the original ence : and that he may seize on those occasions to show reading in the Septuagint, though none of the MSS. now them the abundance of liis mercy; and thus confirm them acknowledge it. By the gates may be meant all the in righteousness all their days. There is a foolish saying strength, whether troops, counsels, or fortified cities, of among religious people, which cannot he too severely their enemies. So Matt. xvi. 18. On this rock will I reprobated; untried grace is no grace. On the contrary, build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail there may be much grace, though God, for good reasons, against it—the counsels, stratagems, and powers of darkness does not think proper to put it to any severe trial or proof. shall not be able to prevail against or overthrow the true But grace is certainly not fully known, but in being called church of Christ—and possibly our Lord had this promise to trials of severe and painful obedience. But as all the to Abraham and his spiritual posterity in view, when he gists of God should be used, and they are increased and epoke these words.
strengthed by exercise, it would be unjust to deny trials Verse 18. And in thy seed, &c.] We have the authority and exercises to grace, as this would be to preclude it of St. Paul, Gal. iii. 8, 16, 18. to restrain this to our from the opportunities of being strengthed and increased. blessed Lord, who was THE SEED through whom alone, 2. The offering up of Isaac is used by several religious all God's blessings of providence, mercy, grace, and glory, people in a sort of metaphorical way, to signify their should be conveyed to the nations of the earth.
easily besctling sins, beloved idols, &c. But this is a Verse 20. Behold, Milcah hath borne children unto thy most reprehensible abuse of the Scripture. It is both brother] This short history seems introduced solely for insolent and wicked to compare some abominable lust, or the purpose of preparing the reader for the transactions unholy affection, to the amiable and pious youth, who for related chap. xxiv. and to show, that the providence of his purity and excellence was deemed worthy to prefigure God was preparing, in one of the branches of the family the sacrifice of the Son of God. To call our vile
passions of Abraham, a suitable spouse for his son Isaac.
and unlawful attachments by the name of our Isaacs, is Verse 21. Uz] He is supposed to have peopled the land unpardonable : and to talk of sacrificing such to God, is of Uz or Ausilis, in Arabia Deserta, the country of Job. downright blasphemy. Such sayings as these appear to
Buz his brother] From this person Elihu the Buzite, be legitimated by long use; but we should be deeply and one of the friends of Joh, is thought to have descended. scrupulously careful not to use any of the words of God
Kemuel the father of Aram] Kamouel, ratie* Every, in any sense in which he has not spoken them. If, in the the father of the Syrians, according to the Septuagint course of God's providence, a parent is called to give up to Probably the Kamiletes, a Syrian tribe, to the westward death, an amiable, only son, then there is a parallel in the of the 'Euphrates, are meant: they are mentioned by case ; and it may be justly said, if pious resignation fill the Strabo.
parent's mind, such a person, like Abraham, has been Verse 23. Bethud begat Rebekah] Who afterward called to give his Isaac back to God. becarne the wife of Isaac.
Independently of the typical reference in this transacVerse 24. His concubine). We borrow this word from tion, there are two points which
seem to be recommended the Latin compound, concubina, from con, together, and particularly to our notice. 1. The astonishing faith, and cubo, to lie, and apply it solely to a woman cohabiting prompt obedience of the father. 2. The innocence, filial with a man without being legally married. The Hebrew respect, and passive submission of the son, Such a father word is wobb pilgash, which is also a compound term, and such a son, were alone worthy of each other. contracted, according to Parkhurst, from 350 palag, to
NOTES ON CHAPTER XXIII. divide or share, and w» nagash, to approach; because the Verse 1. And Sarah was an hundred and seren and hushand, in the delicate phrase of the Hebrew tongue, twenty years old] It is worthy of remark, that Sarah is VOL. 1.-13