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Consequent Necessity to the Americans of a Counterpoise to British

Navy 6

This obtained through Burgoyne's Surrender 6

The Surrender of Burgoyne traceable directly to the Naval Cam-

paigns on Lake Champlain, 1776, 1776 7

The subsequent Course of the War in all Quarters of the world due

to that decisive Campaign 7

The Strategic Problem of Lake Champlain familiar to Americans

from the Wars between France and Great Britain prior to 1776 8

Consequent prompt Initiative by Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold 8

Energetic Pursuit of first Successes by Arnold 9

Complete Control of Lake Champlain thus secured .... 9

Invasion of Canada by Montgomery, 1776 9

Arnold marches through Maine Wilderness and joins Montgomery

before Quebec .10

Assault on Quebec. Failure, and Death of Montgomery . . 10

Arnold maintains Blockade of Quebec, 1776 10

Relief of the Place by British Navy . 11

Arnold Retreats to Crown Point 12

Arnold's Schemes and Diligence to create a Lake Navy, 1776 . . 13

Difficulties to be overcome 18

Superior Advantages of the British 13

The British by building acquire Superiority, but too late for effect

in 1776 13

Ultimate Consequences from this Retardation 14

Constitution of the Naval Force raised by Arnold .... 14

He moves with it to the foot of Lake Champlain .... 16

Takes position for Defence at Valcour Island 16

Particular Difficulties encountered by British 16

Constitution of the British Lake Navy 16

Land Forces of the Opponents 17

Naval Forces of the Two at the Battle of Valcour Island ... 17

Magnitude of the Stake at Issue .18

Arnold's Purposes and Plans 18

Advance of the British 19

Arnold's Disposition of his Flotilla to receive Attack ... 20

The Battle of Valcour Island 21

The Americans Worsted 22

Arnold Retreats by night Undetected 23

Pursuit by the British 24

Destruction of the American Vessels 25

British Appreciation of the Importance of the Action, as shown . 26

Criticism of the conduct of the Opposing Leaders .... 26

Arnold's Merit and Gallantry 27

PAOK

Admiral Keppel puts to Sea with the British Channel Fleet . . 61

First Guns of the War with France 62

Extreme Length of Byron's Passage 62

He turns back to Halifax 62

D'Estaing's slowness allows Howe to escape from Delaware Bay.

Howe's Celerity 62

Evacuation of Philadelphia by British Army, and its precipitate

Retreat to New York 63

Escape of both Army and Fleet due to d'Estaing's Delays . . 63

Rapid Action of Lord Howe 64

D'Estaing Arrives off New York 64

Howe's elaborate Dispositions for the Defence of New York Bay . 65

Statement of British and French Naval Force 66

D'Estaing decides not to attempt Passage of the Bar, and puts to Sea 67

Anchors off Narragansett Bay 69

Forces the Entrance to Newport and Anchors inside the Bay . . 70

The British garrison besieged by superior American and French

forces 70

Howe appears with his Fleet and anchors off the entrance, at Point

Judith 71

Sustained Rapidity of his action at New York 71

D'Estaing Withdraws from Siege of Newport and puts to Sea . . 73 Manoeuvres of the two Opponents .74

D'Estaing quits the Field, and both Fleets are scattered by a heavy

Gale 75

Howe returns to New York and collects his Fleet .... 76

D'Estaing calls off Newport; but abandons the Siege finally, taking

his Fleet to Boston 77

Critical Condition of British garrison in Newport. D'Estaing's

withdrawal compels Americans to raise the siege ... 77

Howe follows d'Estaing to Boston 77

Discussion of the Conduct of the opposing Admirals ... 78

Howe gives up his Command and returns to England ... 80

CHAPTER V

THE NAVAL WAR IN EUROPE. THE BATTLE OF

USHANT

1778

Admirals Keppel and D'Orvilliers put to Sea from Portsmouth and

Brest 82

Instructions given to the French Admiral 83

Preliminary Manoeuvres after the two Fleets had sighted one another 83

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