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and gravel (not including office work, traveling expenses, or wear and tear of plant and tools): Superintendence, including overseers and sub-overseers.
$0 40 Labor, including quarrymen, drillers, blacksmiths, watchmen, and carpenters.. 1 35 Giant powder...
03 Blacksmith's coal
Total cost per cubic yard
Number of holes drilled...
4,914 Total depth of drilled holes, feet
9, 828 Average depth of each hole, feet. Average cost per foot for drilling
$0 15 Total cost of drilling 9,828 feet
1, 474 20 At the close of the season's operations about 250 cubic yards of blasted rock remained in the channel immediately above Wallace's Creek. This is not included in the above statement of rock removed.
The cost of building the crib-dams was increased by the low stage of the water, which, as already stated, prevented the transportation of stone.
At Hawk Mountain Shoal a small sand-bar remains to be remored.
The amount needed to complete the improvement (June 30, 1882) is $40,170, and I would respectfully recommend an appropriation of $15,000 for the year ending June 30, 1884.
The following appropriations have been made: March 3, 1879.
$5,000 June 14, 1880
7,500 March 3, 1881
IMPROVEMENT OF STAUNTON RIVER, ABOVE BROOKNEAL. The act of appropriation for rivers and harbors, approved March 3, 1881, provided for an examination of the Staunton River, Virginia, between Pig River and Brookneal. This duty having been assigned to me, a reconnaissance of the river was made, and a report upon the same, with estimates for the improvement, was submitted February 16, 1882, and accompanies this report.
The plan of improvement proposed is to secure a channel 20 feet wide and 2 feet deep at low-water for bateau navigation, by blasting rock and dredging through gravel bars, and also by contracting the stream by means of spur-dams the width between the dams being not less than 35 feet.
The estimate for the improvement is $40,000. This estimate was, however, based upon a reconnaissance, which will need to be supplemented by more detailed surveys as the work proceeds.
An appropriation of $10,000 is recommended for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1884.
Money statement. July 1, 1881, amount available.
$€, 965 63 July 1, 1882, amount expended during fiscal year, exclusive of outstanding liabilities July 1, 1881.....
8,727 66 July 1, 1882, amount available....
237 97 Amount appropriated by act passed August 2, 1882 Amount available for fiscal year ending June 30, 1883. Amount (estimated) required for completion of exi-ting project... Amount that can be profitably expended in tiscal year ending Juve 30, 1684. 15,000 00
5, 000 00
5, 237 97
35, 200 00
STAUNTON RIVER, ABOVE BROOKNEAL.
Money statement. mount appropriated by act passed August 2, 1882
$2,000 00 mount (estimated) required for completion of existing project
38, 000 00 mount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1884.. 10,000 00
EXAMINATION OF STAUNTON RIVER, FROM BROOKNEAL, IN CAMPBEL
COUNTY, TO MOUTH OF PIG RIVER, VIRGINIA.
UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE,
Washington, D. C., February 16, 1882. GENERAL: I have the honor to submit the following report of recon naissance of part of the Staunton River, Virginia, between Pig River and Brookneal, provided for in the act of appropriation for rivers and barbors approved March 3, 1881, and assigned to me by your letter of March 23, 1881.
The source of the Staunton is in Bedford County, Virginia, near the foot of the Blue Ridge, not far from the Peaks of Otter. Its entire length is nearly 200 miles, descending 1,000 feet in the first 20 miles. It flows between Campbell and Charlotte counties on the north, and Pittsylvania and Halifax counties on the south, and enters Mecklenburg County 8 miles above Clarksville. Uniting with the Dan River near this town it takes the name of Roanoke River.
From Smith's Gap, in the mountains, to Clarksville, the distance is 112 miles, and the descent is 322.61 feet.
According to a survey made in 1823 by Mr. Isaac Briggs the distance from Pig River to Brookneal is 52 miles, and the descent 221 feet, giving an average fall of about 4.3 feet per mile. This distance has been assumed as correct in this report. The differences of level of special rapids were taken by hand level, and the length of the same estimated by the eye. Soundings were also taken to determine the depth of the water and the character of the bottom.
The duty of making this reconnoissance was assigned to Mr. W. W. Anderson, assistant engineer, who completed his examination in October, 1881. The stage of the water during the examination was unusually low, and he was compelled to employ the aid of two men, with poles, in order to effect his passage down the stream.
DESCRIPTION OF THE RIVER.
The following description is taken from Mr. Anderson's report:
Pig River, the starting point of the survey, is between 50 and 75 feet wide at its month, and enters the Staunton about 5 miles below the gap of Smith Mountain. The portion of the Staunton examined is from 150 to 330 feet wide. It is contracted at many points by islands, and the valley through which it flows varies in width from one-fourth of a mile to one mile. About 25 miles below Pig River the Virginia Midland Railroad crosses the Staunton. Hurst's Station on the line of railroad at this point might prove convenient for reshipping from the bateaux. This is a fine section of country, and a good quality of marble underlies the surface in apparently inexhausti. ble supplies. To avoid long hauls, the next sbipping-point might be at Brookneal, to which point the river is now being improved for steamboat navigation. At Corn-Row Falls, 10 miles above Brookneal, the fall is about 20 feet in one-fourth of a mile.
The country through this section of the proposed improvement is well timbered and steam saw-mills could furnish all necessary lumber for any improvement. Near the head of the proposed improvement iron is found, nines of which are being successfully worked. Brookneal, the lower terminus of the examination, is a small village
of 150 to 200 inhabitants, and is situated in the midst of a productive country, but has comparatively little business owing to the want of easy communication with the market.
The Roanoke Navigation Company, up to within a few years, ran bateaux over this portion of the river. Some of their towing walls and sluices still remain, but are ont of repair. Bateaux would probably serve the purpose of transportation for five or six months in the year if the channel is improved for low-water navigation.
PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT.
The fall of the river is so great that the cost of improving it for steam navigation would not be justified by the small amount of produce which at the present time is likely to find its way to market. As stated in Mr. Anderson's report, the Roanoke Navigation Company have partially im. proved the river for bateaux, but the work is now so much out of repair and the depth at low-water so small that a canoe can with difficulty make its way. As the water rises, however, navigation becomes practicable with larger boats. The freshets rise to a height of from 20 to 30 feet. In some of the rapids the water has a velocity of from 5 to 7 miles an hour. This is generally overcome by the crews of the different boats combining to assist one another, in poling over the rapids.
The only method of improvement which seems advisable is that which would increase the facilities for bateau navigation. An argument for its prompt execution may perhaps be found in the fact that many of the farmers in this section of the country are now obliged to haul produce from 30 to 40 miles in order to reach market.
The bottom of the river is for the most part of solid rock. Occasionally gravel bars are found, which no doubt cover a rocky bed.
Through the rocky rapids a sufficient depth can be gained by blasting, and also by contracting the stream by means of spur-dams. These spurdams should project from opposite sides of the river, leaving a gap for the water-way of not less than 35 feet. It is intended that these dams should swell the water about 3 inches, and it will therefore be necessary to determine by investigation the exact width of the water-way. In the tabular statement submitted herewith, made from the notes of Mr. Anderson, the cost of improving each locality and the total cost of improv. ing the part of the stream between Pig River and Brook Neal is given.
The crib.dams are assumed to have an average height of 2} feet, with a width of 5 feet; they are estimated at the cost of $2.50 per linear foot. The excavation will have an average width of 20 feet and a depth of ? feet at low-water, and is estimated at $3 per cubic yard. The dredging, which will be generally of gravel, is estimated at 75 cents per cubic yard, and will be removed to the corrvex side of the river. For those points which could not be estimated in the rapid inspection given, it would be safe to estimate (according to Mr. Anderson) at 20 per cent. of the cost of the entire work.
Estimate for improving Staunton River, Virginia, from Brookneal to the mouth of Pig River, distant 52 miles ; depth of improved channel, 2 feet at
low-water; width of cutting, 20 feet; channel-way between spur-dams, approximately, 35 feet.