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harboring and executing it, it is an adequate temptation, and he is sinless in it.” The narrative is not, thus, to be understood literally in all its details; and, on the other hand, it is not “a parable misunderstood by the disciples and afterward confounded by them with Jesus' personal experience,” but an account of thoughts which actually entered the mind of Christ under the influence of the circumstances in which he was placed. In respect to the great question concerning the time of the Last Supper, the author thinks that John's account may be reconciled with that of the Synoptics. In respect to the examinations of Jesus, he seems inclined to favor the view that there were two-that referred to in John being before Annas, and that mentioned in the earlier gospels being before Caiaphas. “This is the more plausible," he says, “if we may assume Annas to have had an apartment in the same house with Caiaphas, to which there was one court or yard where the denials of Peter took place.” Some writers regard this last supposition as quite beyond the region of probability, but we are unable to see why it is necessarily so. We have quoted enough, perhaps, to excite interest in an examination of the volume. It has merits, and its author will doubtless find numbers of readers in his own section of the Church who will accept all his conclusions; while, outside of that circle, it will meet, as we believe, a scholarly consideration of its views and a just appreciation of what is good in it.
HISTORY OF THE CHURCH IN THE EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH CENTURIES.*_We are glad to see the complete work of Hagenbach presented to English readers in their own language. A partial translation has before been printed from another hand. The difficulty with all abridgments is that the reader cannot be certain that the best things are not left out. This is one objection, but others of equal weight might readily be stated. The volumes before us contain the best account which we know of, of the progress of theology, literature, and culture in Germany for the last century and a half; the best account, that is, for cultivated readers, whether clerical or lay. Hagenbach is evangelical without being narrow, and he writes, in these lectures, without the stiff
* History of the Church in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth centuries. By K. R. HAGENBACH, D. D., Professor of Theology in the University of Basle. Translated with additions, &c. By JOHN F. HURST, D. D. New York: Charles Scribner & Co. 1869.
ness and pedantry which are often characteristic of German treatises of this nature. The translation appears to be substantially correct. That it lacks the force and flavor which belonged, in old times, to English translations from foreign tongues, is a failing which it has in common with most other efforts made, at the present day, in the same line. There is a lack of freedom and idiomatic richness and strength, which make it evident, in every page and almost every sentence, that the book was not written in English.
THE FORMATION OF CHRISTENDOM.*— The first of these volumes, from the pen of a thoughtful English writer of the Roman Catholic Church, describes the effect of Christianity upon the individual, or the moulding influence of the Christian religion in its historical influence upon man, considered as an individual. The second volume takes up the social man, from a similar point of view. Both are parts of a more comprehensive plan which remains to be carried out. There is a good degree of learning, a spirit of moderation and candor, and no inconsiderable degree of philosophical power, in these discussions. Yet they are thoroughly Roman Catholic in their conceptions of the course of civilization and in the theological ideas that underlie them. Occasionally we mark an uncritical acceptance of documents as genuine which are pot so: as in Vol. I, p. 340, where the Clementine Epistles on Virginity—spurious productions--are referred to as authentic. The entire work will repay a perusal for those who wish to acquaint themselves with Roman Catholic theories as to the philosophy of history.
COLEMAN ON THE PRIMITIVE CHURCH.T—The new edition of this carefully written manual has been revised by the author. The book is a compact, correct, and instructive exposition of the polity of the churches in the Apostolic Age and of the changes resulting in the prelatical system. There are statements occasionally occurring which are open to criticism. For example, on page 159, it is said that the terms bishop and presbyter are used by this ancient father [Irenæus] as perfectly convertible terms. Irenæus calls bishops presbyters, but he does not call presbyters—meaning the second grade of Church officers—bishops. His use of terms shows that the bishop had come to be an officer distinct from and elevated above the presbyters, while he still had essentially the same functions.
* The Formation of Christendom. Part First and Part Second (Two vols.) By T. W. ALLIES. London: Longman & Co. 1865 and 1869. New York: Catholic Publication Society. 1869.
The Apostolical and Primitive Church, Popular in its Government, Informal in its Worship: A Manual in Prelacy and Ritualism. Carefully revined and adapted to these discussions. By LYMAN COLEMAN, D. D., Professor in Lafayette College, &c. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co. 1869,
THE JESUS OF THE EVANGELISTS.* _This work has been published for a year, but is little known as yet in this country. It is of sufficient merit to entitle it to the attention of the theological public. It is, in some respects, original in its construction of the argument for the truth of the evangelical history. Taking the portraiture of Christ which is presented in the Gospels, it shows that “this portraiture cannot be an ideal or mythical creation.” The impossibility of accounting for this portraiture on any other supposition than that of its authenticity, is the proposition which the author ably and successfully defends. The following are the titles of the chapters: I. Introduction ; II. The Portraiture of Jesus as it is exbibited in the Gospels ; III. The Portraiture of the suffering Jesus of the Evangelists; IV. The union of Holiness and Benevolence in the person of the Jesus of the Gospels; V. The Moral Teaching of the Lord; VI. The Law of our Religious and Moral Development; VII. The Preparations made in the Gentile World for the Advent of Christianity; VIII. The Preparations made by Providence for the Introduction of Christianity through the Development of Judaism; IX. Messianic Conceptions in the Old Testament; X. The Development of Messianic Conceptions between the Prophetic Period and the Advent; XI. The Development of Judaism between the Termination of the Prophetic Period and the Advent; XII. The Portraiture of Christ as it is depicted in the Gospels constitutes an Essential Unity ; XIII. The limits which can be assigned to the historical Jesus in the relation of Christianity on the supposition of His purely Human Character; XIV. The Jesus of the Gospels do Mythical Creation; XV. The Moral Aspect of our Lord's Character an Historical Reality; XVI. The limits of the Period which Authentic History assigns as that during which the Conception of the Mythical Christ must bave been created and developed in its fullness; XVII. The Evidence afforded by the Epistles for the early existence of the Portraiture of the Christ; XVIII. The Nature and Character of the Mythic Gospels; XIX. Features of the Gospels which are inconsistent with the supposition of their unhistorical character.
* The Jesus of the Evangelists: His Historical Character Vindicated; or, an Examination of the Internal Evidence for Our Lord's Mission, with reference to Modern Controversy. By the Rev. C. A. Row, M. A., of Pembroke College, Ox ford, &c., &c. London: Williams & Norgate. 1868.
These various topics are treated candidly and in a scholarly spirit. The impression of the argument is somewhat weakened by the want of severe consecution in the statement of it and by the introduction of so many themes which bear on the main proposition to be sure, and which are instructively handled, but which do not always tend directly to establish the case. On the whole, the work will be found a very useful one, and it is peculiarly timely.
HARDWICK'S CHURCH HISTORIES.* _Among the publications of Macmillan & Co. (who have now established a branch of their house in New York), the works of the late Archdeacon Hardwick are of much value to theologians. His “Christ and other Masters” is a thorough survey of the heathen or ethnic religions, their history and doctrinal characteristics. The manuals of Church History, of which the titles are given below, are not mere compilations, but exhibit the fruits of original research. At the same time, the best works in this department, especially the German writers, have been well studied and faithfully used.
LightFOOT'S EDITION OF CLEMENT OF ROME. - This is the first installment of a new edition of the Apostolic Fathers, which is to be edited by the learned Hulsean Professor of Divinity at
* History of the Christian Church. Middle Age. By Charles HARDWICK, formerly Teller of St. Catharine's Church and Archdeacon of Ely. Second Edition. Edited by Francis Proctor, M. A. Cambridge and London: Macmil. lan & Co. 1868.
* A History of the Christian Church during the Reformation. [Same author editor, and publishers. 1865.]
+ S. Clement of Rome. The Two Epistles to the Corinthians. A revised text with introduction and notes. By J. B. LIGHTFOOT, D. D., Hulsean Professor of Dirinily, and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. London and Cambridge: Macmillan & Co. 1869. New York: 62 Bleecker street.
Cambridge, Dr. Lightfoot. The commentaries of Dr. Lightfoot upon the Epistle to the Galatians and the Epistle to the Philippians are of the highest merit, and will secure a favorable attention to the important literary undertaking which he has now in hand. The present volume contains the carefully-revised text of the first, or genuine, Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, and of the spurious fragment, called the second epistle-together with an elaborate introduction and numerous marginal notes. The judicious and candid spirit of the edition are everywhere manifest. We may adduce, as an example, his remarks on chapter xi. of the first epistle—the passage relative to the High Priest, the Priests and Levites, on which so much reliance has been placed by High Church theologians. “Does the analogy"-between the Old Testament Priesthood and the Christian ministry_"extend to the three orders ?” The answer to this seems to be that, though the episcopate seems to have been widely established in Asia Minor at this time (see Philippians, p. 209), this epistle throughout only recognizes two orders, presbyters and deacons, as existing at Corinth.” “Later writers, indeed, did dwell on the analogy of the three-fold ministry; but we cannot argue back from them to Clement, in whose epistle the very element of threefoldness, which gives force to such a comparison, is wanting.” We cannot agree with everything that is said on this subject by Dr. Lightfoot, in this volume and in the Essay on the Ministry, which is connected with his work on the Philippians. But the points of difference between us would not be very great, and if the discussion were always conducted in the enlightened and fair spirit which he exhibits, the so-called Episcopal controversy might soon be terminated.
BINNEY'S SERMONS.* _We need not eat the whole of a pineapple to get some idea of its pungent flavor. As far as we have examined this book of sermons, we have received an impression that it is one of the strongest contributions to this kind of literature that these last days, so fruitful in publications of this sort, have produced. The exceedingly high reputation of its author as a pulpit-orator is amply sustained by these sermons. While they do not possess the elegance and the rare philosophic tone of Rub
* Sermons preached in the King's Weigh-house Chapel, London, 1829–1859. By T. Binney. London: Macmillan and Co. 1869.