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should be from ten to fifteen or twenty thousand dollars. The time of holding them, also, should be lengthened from two years, as in the case of the existing scholarships, to four-or even six years. They would, thus, become really valuable, and would be a powerful stimulus to many minds. Even one such fellowship, opening itself to competition in every year, would be of the greatest possible service. It would benefit not only the successful candidate, but others likewise. It would, in many cases, be the means of drawing both the unsuccessful and the successful ones into this section of the University. The means for such fondations should be earnestly solicited. They can be secured, as we believe, at no very distant day.
But here again we must admit, that there will be an interval of time before this result can be reached. Cannot anything be done in this interval? Perhaps not in the way of pecuniary aid. In other ways, however, we are sure that a beginning may be made at once. It appears to us, that the prospects for the future for this class of students might be rendered much brighter and more certain than they now are. At present, a young man in this department of study is in the inost uncertain of all positions. He has not a fraction of the ground for confidence respecting an opening for the exercise of his powers in after life, which a lawyer or a minister may have. This, 110 doubt, is largely owing to circumstances beyond control. The age of scholarly culture is only just dawning, and the places for scholarly men are comparatively few. We do not see, however, why the Tutorships or Assistant Professorships in the college might not be regularly filled from stu. dents of this class. On the present system, the elections to the Tutorship are made from among the highest on the list of “ appointments" at Commencement. Two or three years after graduation, the valedictorian or salutatorian of a class is called to this office of instruction, because he had such a rank as a scholar in his college course, and because the Faculty judge, from what they remember of him, that he will discharge its duties well. It can be no wonder, surely, if, on such a system, mistaken choices are sometimes made. Valedictorians are, now and then at least, not distinguished as real scholars, when they gradnate. They are, by no means, certain to be so three years afterwards--and even less certain to be good teachers. But if this important office of instruction is filled in the way we sniggest, the candidates will be all of them persons who are known to be continuing their studies, and to be making real progress. They can be observed by the college authorities, a: they go forwards. The best among them can be chosen. The appointment can become a reward, the hope of which will make all of them as good as possible. An arrangement of this character will tend toward beneficial results for the college itself, while it will, at the same time, encourage the stadents of the Department. It will encourage them, because these students, looking as they naturally will toward an academic or literary life, will hold such an official position in very different esteem from their college classmates who become doctors or merchants. They will find here a stepping-stone to a higher position, or a preparation for their chosen course of life. The authorities of the College might, also, systematically aid, so far as in their power,—and might let it be distinctly known that they would aid, these students to obtain places as teachers, or other more purely literary posts, elsewhere. It cannot be doubted, that this is the class of men who ought to be teachers. The grwth and needs of the country are such, now, that teaching is beginning to be as much a profession as the ministry is. Why should not the profession be filled, like that of the ministry, froin those who have been specially educated for it?
If, in these ways, the prospects for the future of these graduate students could be made more certain than they now are, the influence of such greater certainty would be, undoubtedly, to increase the number of young men who would thus devote themselves to general studies. Our Universities must, it is true, wait for their highest success and most perfect developinent, until the demands of the country are greater. But they must educate the country, continually, toward the higher demands, by keeping steadily in advance of the present public sentiment. They must provide every inducement, which they can, even now, and must furnish all possible aid, if they are to fulfill their mission. It is thus, that they are to prepare the way for the better future, as well as to be ready for it when it comes.
There is another thing, which, we think, can be done, and done immediately, for the growth and success of this sectiou of the University. Students, if they are to enter upon these higher studies in philosophy, philology, &c., need not only the encouragements of present aid and future rewards. They need, also, an inspiration to make them ready to choose the course, which thus offers itself to them. They need, in their undergraduate life, to have their love for the studies awakened, so that they shall be glad to go forward in them. Especially is this the case in the classical languages. Young men, at the age of graduation, are somewhat prone to like mental and moral philosophy—studies which makes them realize, more than any others, the intellectual powers just maturing within themwhile, in regard to the mathematics, the gift for these is a comparatively rare one and is usually accompanied, where it exists, by its own inspiration. The almost universal complaint, on the other hand is, that there is little enthusiasm for classical studies; and great numbers even of college graduates are declaring, largely on this account, we believe, that they onght not to be required in a collegiate course. We do not propose here to discuss the general question respecting these studies. So far as our present purpose is concerned, this question may be settled in either way. It is enough for us to take the general admission, that it is well to have a class of classical students, and, if so, to make them as ardent in their work as pos. sible. But, if this be admitted, everything ought to be done in the Academical department of the University to awaken this ardor in such minds. If there are to be a goodly number of these students in the section devoted to the higher general studies, it must be thus awakened. But how shall this object be accomplished ?
A step has been taken at Yale College, already, in connection with this matter, which is likely to be helpful to the end in view. The students are not compelled to go forward, as they were formerly, all together—and, thus, no faster or far. ther than the slower ones could advance. They are arranged in divisions, according to their scholarship, and the higher VOL. XXIX.
ranks make correspondingly greater progress. The results of this experiment—which met objections from some persons of great wisdoin, at its first suggestion-have been eveu more favorable, if we mistake not, than most of the college officers anticipated. But there are other steps which, we think, still need to be taken. The classical languages, as we conceive, are taught with too exclusive reference to what is called " discipline.” Now every body, who knows anything on this subject, knows that these languages, like all others, must be studied and understood in their construction and all their grammatical minutiæ, if they are to be thoroughly acquired. All persons, also, agree, that one of the great advantages of the study of these languages, is the mental discipline which is gained frsm this sort of investigation of them. But a man will never love a language of which he knows nothing but the grammar. It is doubtful it even the celebrated German professor, who lamented that he had not devoted his life exclusively to the dative case, would have appreciated the beauty of such a study, unless he had learned something beyond this. Avd it is, by no means, strange, if young men in our colleges, whose minds have been so largely confined to grammatical points,-to analysis of words and similar matters-should, at their graduation, have little enthusiasın for the classical authors, or should, at that time, lay them aside, once for all. How much would men study or enjoy the modern languages of Enrope, or even our own, if this were the aim of all their reading? In every other case, we study the grammar for the lan. guage, while, in this case, we reverse the process and make the language the means and the grammar the end. We cannot help believing, that there is a great mistake here, in the arrangements of our college instruction. The best scholars, even, while they are drilled in analysis and forms and rules, are most tryingly deficient in knowledge of the vocabulary of Latin and Greek. They have not learned to dispense, in any considerable measure, with the dictionary, though they may have the grammatical principles most perfectly at command. Only one-half of the work has been accomplished for them; and, so far as the matter of their enthusiasın is concerned, only that half which is least likely to awaken it. A person who
cannot lay aside his German lexicon, but must refer to it a score of times for every page he reads, will, almost certainly, like English better. The scholar in Greek or Latin is subject, according to his measure, to the same rule. We say, according to his measure, for we fully admit, that, in the case of Greek particularly, we cannot easily hope for such entire freedom from bondage, in this regard, as we often attain in German or in French. Nevertheless, we believe it to be possible that our students shonld know far more of the vocabulary of the classical languages, at the close of their college course, than they now do; and, just in proportion as they do know more in this way, will their interest in these languages be increased. And while no one believes in the necessity of grammatical study more than we do, we are ready to go so far as to say, that it is better, in every point of view, for a man to be able to read fluently, at graduation, a dialogue of Plato or a chapter of Tacitus, than it is for him ever to have been able to repeat all the forty or fifty exceptions to some minor rule of Latin prosody. Let us carry forward the grammatical studies as far as we can consistently with other ends—let us demand of the preparatory schools a more perfect drill in this department, But do not let us lose everything else in the pursuit of this one object.
The reading, then, of Greek and Latin, with a view to familiarity with the langnage as distinguished from the grammar, we believe to be a thing of very essential importance. Our college curriculum ought to include such studying of these languages as should deliver the young inen, in some degree, from the bondage of school-boys, and should introduce them to somewhat, at least, of the freedom of real scholars. But not only should this be accomplished. In connection with it, another result should be aimed at, which, under the existing system, is very difficult to be attained. The mind of the st11dent should be awakened to an appreciation of the richness of thonght, of the grace, of the rhetorical power, of all that is beautiful in the style, of the words which he reads. These things vanish from the sight of him who is searching only amid dry details. They hide theinselves in a higher sphere. It we could suppose a person to study the poems of Milton or