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to know what they need, and, much less, how to get it when they enter upon their course there. There is, as it seems to us, therefore, abundant work for this department of our own University. It will at least qualify its students to go abroad, if it cannot secure them what can be given abroad. It will do much to accomplish the result which we think must be hoped for in the future—name'y, to keep young men from entering upon the active work of life, before they have escaped their immaturity. The restless spirit which makes us impatient to be preachers or lawyers—to be "settled," as we say, in some great business—as soon as possible after manhood commences, must, it would seem, give way as our nation grows older and more populous. When it does, men will be content to prepare themselves more thoroughly for their work. They will have a broader and larger education than they are now willing to wait for. The wide-spread want of confidence in every man who knows anything, in any department, which we see in our country now, will give way to a juster estimate of things. Even public office, it is to be hoped, will open itself only to those who are, in some measure, qualified for it. But all this is not be secured without any efforts or means for securing it. The popular mind must be educated through the higher education that is given to the more favored classes at the Universities. The better influences must come from these higher sources. There is, then, as it seems to us, abundant ground for every effort to develop the department of which we speak. It is a way in which we are to move onward towards the completeness of the University itself. It is a way in which we are to gain for culture its true place in the national life. It is a way in which we are to give to many an ardent youth one of the greatest blessings that can be bestowed upon him. It is a way in which—if that result is ever to be attained—we are to put ourselves, at some future time, in this regard, on a level with the European world.
We have referred, in these pages, to this section of our University and to what should be done for it, not because we regard it as of more importance than the professional and scientific schools, or than the Aca demical department, but be cause it is the section which, as yet, is least perfectly developed. Elsewhere, we have not only the form, but, in some measure, the actual and successful organization of the parts of the complete University. Here we have the form, but. as yet, little more. The entire working power has been from outside of the section itself, and the results have been very limited. Believing, as we do, that the work of the coming era is that of making the institution no longer a college with outside schools, but a university composed of coordinate and co-equal branches —it becomes us, in any more particular discussion of that work, to consider, at the outset, that branch which has attained the least completeness. If we are deficient, anywhere, in the form of the University, certainly, one of earliest works to which we are called is, to fill out the deficiency. If we have, in any part, the form without the fullness of the reality, we should, as soon as possible, attempt to reach that fullness. So the great end is to be accomplished. The weaker parts, also —as we have said in our previous Article—need the first thought and the most tender care. Do not let us neglect anything, whether it be weaker or stronger—but, while we give thought enough to that which is already moving on successfully, let us bestow especial attention on that which needs helping that it may move at all. This is the part of the wise general, or the wise statesman, or the wise guardian of any work, for the accomplishment of which the varied parts must move on together in a successful way. The officers of a university must obey the great general laws of human life, if they would honorably and usefully discharge their trust. Moreover this section is the one which, in a certain sense, seems to gather into itself, more than any other, the university spirit. Culture for its own sake, and not merely for its practical Maw, —culture as a good in itself—this is one of the mottoes of a University. Not to despise—rather to glory in the uses of knowledge and its beneficial influence on mankind—but, at the same time, not to despise, but to glory in Jcnmoltdge as the enrichment of tlie mart's own soul, this is the spirit ot the halls consecrated to learning. The section of the University, where the student is learning only for learning's sake—where his studies are, least of all, connected with the practical works of life (except, indeed, the work of leading others to knowledge)—this section is the sanctuary, as it were, of this spirit, and ought to be guarded with jealous care, and adorned with everything that is beautiful, by those who watch for the welfare of the whole University. We hope and believe, that those who may have in charge the interests of Yale College will not lose sight of this great work of the coming era. It is one which may appropriately follow, or connect itself with, or even make a part of, that which we set forth in the last number of the New Englander, and without which, as we believe, the glory of the future will be lost.
Article IV.—MODERN JUDAISM.
What is Judaism? or a Few Words to the Jews. By Kev. Raphael D'C Lewin. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 90, 92, and 94 Grand street. 1870.
Taking up casually the little volume that heads this Article, our thoughts have been drawn to the subject of God's ancient people, and to some new developments of modern Judaism that are not without interest.
The Reformation, with its broader light of reason and charity, did not bring with it more liberal and intelligent views in respect to the Jews; and it entirely failed to awaken the least right Christian sentiment toward this people, or to lead to a better treatment of them; and down to this day in Europe, Jewish persecution has continued, more silent than in the middle-ages, yet almost equally great, only substituting the written law for the violent hand. And yet it is a wellproved historical fact that the Jews, in no age since their dispersion, have been, unless stirred up by persecution, a troublesome people in the State; on the contrary, they have been an industrious part of the population, minding their own affair?, and, from fear and policy, scrupulously regardful ot law. They have often borne Christian persecution with Christian patience. Children of a true faith but of a perverted hope. amid convulsions sufficient to have annihilated the strongest national life, they have seen vigorous nations die, and yet haTe preserved their individuality of race and moral characteristics; and, can we doubt, that they are kept for something greater and better? Intertwined in the past and the future with the religious destiny of the world, is not the Jew really a representative religious man? He was once recognized to be a child of God as a Jew; and may he not, in some sense, in the future, still be accepted of heaven, and be right in the sight of God, as a Jew? Judaism is held by its adherents to be the very essence and substance of religion, as representing the foundation principle of belief in "the one only God." This is true in regard to the pure religion of the Jews. Here is the substratum on which true religion is built. Let Christian and Jew dig down to their original foundations, and the9e will be seen to be composed of this same great underlying truth. The glory of the Jew is, that he preserved, more faithfully than all other peoples, the original revelation made to man of the unity of God. Erneat Renan makes this the theme of one of his eloquent but fanciful generalizations; and he thus portrays with facile pen, the Semitic character and religion, applying this description especially to the Hebrew race:
"Their character is religious rather than political, and the mainspring of their religion is the conception of the unity of God. Their religious phraseology is simple, and free from mythological elements. Their religious feelings are strong, exclusive, intolerant, and sustained by a fervor which finds its peculiar expression in prophetic visions. Compared to the Aryan nations, they are found deficient in scientific and philosophical ingenuity. Their poetry is chiefly subjective or lyrical, and we look in vain among their poets for excellence in epic and dramatic compositions. Painting and the plastic arts have never arrived at a higher than the decorative stage. Their political inability to organize on a large scale has deprived them of the means of military success. Perhaps the most general feature of their character is a negative one— their inability to perceive the general and the abstract, whether in thought, language, religion, poetry, or politics; and, on the other hand, a strong attraction toward the individual and personal, which makes them monotheistic in religion, lyrical in poetry, monarchical in politics, abrupt in style, and useless for speculation."
Max Miiller justly criticises this analysis of Renan, and shows its unsoundness in some essential particulars; and especially he proves the falsity of Renan's theory that the monotheistic principle of the Jew, and of the Semitic nations generally, springs from a constitutional instinct; he shows the absurdity of the idea that the Semitic nations who have been at turns worshipers of Elohim, Jehovah, Sabaoth, Moloch,