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LINE, n. s.

Fr. line ; Lat. linea. The the whole lineage is descended, there is a traverse LIN'EAGE, path of a mathematical where she sitteth.

Bacon. Linseal, adj point : extension longi

Here, while his canting drone-pipe scanned LIN'EALLY, adv. tudinally ; limit : hence The mystic figures of her hand, LIN'Ear, adj. sketch; outline; marks or

He tipples palmestry, and dines

On all her fortune-telling lines. Cleaveland. LINEA'TION, n. s. features of the hand or

When the sun below the line descends, face; contour; an extended thread or string;

Then one long night continued darkness joins. family, ascending or descending; and, particu

Creech. larly, the equinoctial circle; a rank, or disposition, If he had been the person upon whom the crown of soldiers; a trench, or work, in fortification; had lineally and rightfully descended, it was good as much as is written, or printed, from margin law.

Clarendon. to margin in a book or manuscript; a verse; a

Eden stretched her line

From Auran eastward to the royal towers measure of extension, containing one-tenth of an inch : lineage is race; progeny; family: lineal, Of great Seleucia. Milton's Paradise Lost. containing or composed of lines; in direct de- His empire, courage, and his boasted line,

Were all proved mortal.

Roscommon. scent; hereditary: lineally, in a direct line: lineal, composed of lines : lineation, lineal form; draught of dearest value

, hang on slender

strings ;

Well sung the Roman bard; all human things, of a line, or lines.

O see the then sole hope, and in design And it hadde a wall greet and high hauynge of heaven our joy, supported by a line. Waller. twelue ghatis, and in the ghatis of it twelue aungelis Victorious with their lines and eyes, and names writen yn that ben the names of twelue They make the fishes and the men their prize. Id. lynagis of the sones of Israel. Wiclif. Apoc. xxi.

You have generous thoughts turned to such specuTheir line is gone out through all the earth; and lations ; but this is not enough towards the raising their words to the end of the world. Psalm xix. 4. such buildings as I have drawn you here the lines of,

unless the direction of all affairs here were wholly i. Joseph was of the house and lineage of David.

your hands.


We as by line upon the ocean go,
O Conqueror of Brut'is Albion !

Whose paths shall be familiar as the land.
Whiche that by lyne and fre eleccion

Ben very kinge. Chaucer. Unto the Kinge.

Now snatch an hour that favours thy designs, Let calle thyn trewe frendes alle, and thy linage, Unite thy forces, and attack their lines. Id, which that ben wise, and telleth to hem your cas,

A golden bowl and herkeneth what they saye in counseilling, and The queen commanded to be crowned with wine, governe you aftir hir sentence. Id. Cant. Tales.

The bowl that Belus used, and all the Tyrian line. Both the lineage and the certain sire

Id. From which I sprung, from me are hidden yet. O that your brows my laurel had sustained !

Spenser. Well had 'I been deposed if you had reigned : I shall have good fortune; go to, here's a simple The father had descended for the son ; line of life; here's a small trifle of wives.

For only you are lineal to the throne.


Men of mighty fame,
Long is it since I saw him,

And from the’ immortal gods their lineage came. But time hath nothing blurred those lines of favour

Id. Which then he wore.

To re-establish, de facto, the right of lineal sucHe chid the sisters

cession to paternal government, is to put a man in When first they put the name of king upon me, possession of that government which his fathers did And bade them speak to him; then, prophet-like, enjoy, and he by lineal succession had a right to. They hailed him father to a line of kings. Id.

Locke. Queen Isabel, his grandmother,

A line seldom bolds to strain, or draws streight Was lineal of the lady Ermengere.

in length, above fifty or sixty feet.

Moron, Peace be to France, if France in peace permit Our just and lineal entrance to our own.


Ran smoothly on, productive of a line (Knowledge) A climbing height it is, without a Of wise heroick kings.

Philips. head,

In moving lines these few epistles tell Depth without bottom, way without an end; What fate attends the nymph who loves too well. A circle with no line environed,

Garth. Not comprehended, all it comprehends,

The real lineage and succession of wit is plainly Worth infinite, yet satisfies no mind

founded in nature.

Shaftesbury, Till it that infinite of the Godhead find.

No longer shall the widowed land bemoan

Sir Fulk Greville. A broken lineage, and a doubtlul throne, The Tirsan cometh forth with all his generation or But boast her royal progeny's increase, lineage, the males before him, and the females follow- And count the pledges of her future peace. ing him; and, if there be a mother from whose body

Addison, Vol. XIII.- Part 1.




The years






They pierce the broken foe's remotest lines. Id.

. Let no man tell me now of that just wonde of The soul, considered with its Creator, is like one the world, the Jewish temple; white marble with of those mathematical lines that may draw nearer to

out, lined with gold within.

Bp. Hall. another for all eternity without a possibility of touch

Thus from the Tyrian pastures lined with Jove, ing it: and can there be a thought so transporting, He bore Europa, and still keeps his love. as to consider ourselves in these perpetual approaches

Notwithstanding they had lined some hedges to him, who is not only the standard of perfection, with musqueteers, they were totally dispersed. but of happiness! Addison.


Was I deceived, or did a sable cloud When any thing is mathematically demonstrated weak, it is much more mechanically weak; errors

Turn forth her silver lining on the night? ever occurring more easily in the management of gross materials than lineal designs.

A box lined with paper to receive the mercury that might be spilt.

Boyle. Where-ever it is freed from the sand stone, it is

The fold in the gristle of the nose is covered with covered with linear striæ, tending towards several a lining, which differs from the facing of the tongue. centers, so as to compose flat stellar figures.

Grew's Cosmologia. Woodward on Fossils.

The gown with stiff embroidery shining, There are in the horney ground two white linea- Looks charming with a slighter lining. Prior. tions, with two of a pale red.


He, by a gentle bow, divined Even the planets, upon this principle, must gravi. How well a cully's purse was lined. Swift. tate no more towards the sun ; so that they would Nor name nor title, stamped behind, not revolve in the curve lines, but fly away in direct

Adorns its outer part; tangents, till they struck against other planets.

But all within 'tis richly lined,
A magazine of art.

Oh lasting as those colours may they shine,
Free as thy stroke, yet faultless as thy line! Pope.

LINE, EQUINOCTIAL. See ASTRONOMY. In the preceding line, Ulysses speaks of Nausicaa, graduated upon scales, sectors, &c. It is also

LINE, GUNTER's, a logarithmic line, usually yet immediately changes the words into the masculine gender.

called the line of lines, and line of numbers ; There is a sort of masonry in poetry, wherein the being only the logarithms graduated upon a ruler, pause represents the joints of building, which ought which therefore serves to solve problems instruin every line and course to have their disposition mentally in the same manner as logarithms do varied.

arithmetically. It is usually divided into 100 To dote on aught may leave us, or be left, parts, every tenth of which is numbered, beginIs that ambition ? then let flames descend,

ning with 1 and ending with 10: so that if the Point to the centre their inverted spires,

first great division, marked 1, stand for one-tenth And learn humiliation from a soul

of an integer, the next division, marked 2, will Which boasts her lineage from celestial fire.

stand for two-tenths, 3 for three-tenths, and so Young.

on; and the intermediate divisions will in like A poet does not work by square or line, As smiths and joiners perfect a design ;

manner represent 100th parts of the same inteAt least we moderns, our attention less,

ger. If each of the great divisions represent ten Beyond the example of our sires digress,

integers, then will the less divisions stand for inAnd claim a right to scamper and run wide, tegers; and, if the greater divisions be supposed Wherever chance, caprice, or fancy guide. each 100, the subdivisions will be each ten.

Couper. To find the product of two numbers. From 1 Nor less amazed, that such a blot

extend the compasses to the multiplier; and the His noble 'scutcheon should have got,

same extent, applied the same way from the mulWhile he was highest of his line. Byron.

tiplicand, will reach to the product. Thus, if LINE, v. a. 1. From Lines, which see; or the product of 4 and 8 be required, extend the

Lin'ing, n. s. ) Lat. linum. To cover inside; compasses from 1 to 4, and that extent laid from to guard or protect within; place within ; double; 8 the same way will reach to 32, their product. impregnate: a lining is an inward covering or 2. To divide one number by another. The exguard.

tent from the divisor to unity will reach from the Her women are about her : what if I do line one dividend to the quotient: thus, to divide 36 by of their hands?

Shakspeare, Cymbeline. 4, extend the compasses from 4 to 1, and the Line and new repair our towns of war

same extent will reach from 36 to 9, the quotient With men of courage, and with means defendant.

sought. 3. To three given numbers to find a Shakspeare.

fourth proportional. Suppose the numbers 6, 8, Son of sixteen, Pluck the lined crutch from thy old limping sire.

9: extend the compasses from 6 to 8; and this

extent, laid from 9 the same way, will reach to

Who lined himself with hope,

12, the fourth proportional required. 4. To find Eating the air on promise of supply.

Id. a mean proportional between any two given The lining of his coffers shall make coats

numbers. Suppose 8 and 32: extend the comTo deck our soldiers for these Irish wars. Id. passes from 8, in the left-hand part of the line,

The two armies were assigned to the leading of to 32 in the right; then, bisecting this distance, two generals, both of them rather courtiers, and as

its half will reach from 8 forward, or from sured to the state, than martial men ; yet lined and 32 backward, to 16, the mean proportional assisted with subordinate commanders of great expe- sought. 5. To extract the square root of any rience and valour.

. number. Suppose 25: bisect the distance beThe charge amounteth very high for any one man's

tween 1 on the scale and the point representing purse, except lined beyond ordinary, to reach unto. 25; then the half of this distance, set off from 1,

Career. will give the point representing the root 5. In



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the same manner the cube root, or that of any Where is my fashioner ? my feather-man? higher power, may be found by dividing the dis- My linener, perfumer, barber? Ben Jonson. tance on the line between 1 and the given num- Unseen, unfelt, the fiery serpent skims ber into as many equal parts as the index of the Between her linen and her naked limbs. power expresses; then one of those parts, set

Dryden. from 1, will find the point representing the root A pampered spendthrift, whose fantastic air, required.

Well fashioned figure, and cockaded brow, LINE, Meridian. See GEOGRAPHY.

He took in charge, and underneath the pride Line of Battle is the disposition of the Of costly linen tucked his filthy shroud. Young. fleet in the day of engagement, on which occa- A drawer, it chanced, at bottom lined sion the vessels are usually drawn up as much as

With linen of the softest kind, possible in a straight line, to gain and keep the

With such as merchants introduce advantage of the wind and to run the same board.

From India, for the ladies' use. Cowper. See Naval Tactics.

LINEN. The fabrication of linen is a most LINE, SHIP OF THE, a vessel large enough to be important branch of the staple manufactures of drawn up in the line, and to have a place in a Great Britain. On this account we have already sea-fight.

fully examined the agricultural processes conLINEA Alba, in anatomy, the concourse of nected with the cultivation of flax; the dressing the tendons of the oblique and transverse muscles of hemp has also been briefly considered, and of the abdomen; dividing the abdomen in two we must now proceed to the operation of in the middle. It is called linea, line, as being spinning. straight; and alba, from its color, which is The most ancient mode of spinning is by the white.

spindle and distaff, and this method is the LIN’EAMENT, n. s. Fr. lineament ; Lat. simplest of all others. The spindle is nothing lineamentum. From LINE, which see. Feature; more than a piece of hard wood, made round, discriminating mark.

and sharp pointed at one end, so that it can be Noble York

made to whirl upon its point in the same manner Found that the issue was not his begot :

as a child's top: the upper part is reduced to a Which well appeared in his lineaments, pin or peg, and it is this part which has the Being nothing like the noble duke, my father. fibres united to it, the lower or enlarged part


being only to give sufficient weight to make it Man he seems

revolve. The spinner must be seated upon the In all his lineaments, though in his face The glimpses of his father's glory shine.

ground, and after having put the distaff in Milton.

motion upon its point, by twirling it between God our parent hath stamped on our nature some the hands, get it up to a rapid motion by striking lineaments of himself, whereby we resemble him. it occasionally with the hand, with a motion very

similar to that by which a child keeps up the There are not more differences in men's faces, and motion of his whipping-top, when he draws the the outward lineaments of their bodies, than there lash of a whip round it. are in the makes and tempers of their minds; only The flax, after having been properly prepared, there is this difference, that the distinguishing cha- is lapped round the end of the distaff, which is racters of the face, and the lineaments of the body, grow more plain with time, but the peculiar phy- holds

in his left hand, so as to be conveniently

nothing more than a stick that the spinner siogpomy of the mind is most discernible in children. situated to draw off from it a few fibres at a The utmost force of boiling water is not able to

time with the finger and thumb of the right destroy the structure of the tenderest plant : the hand, to form the thread. The upper part of the lineaments of a white lily will remain after the strong- the ends of the fibres which are to form the

spindle, which is made smaller like a pin, has I may advance religion and morals, by tracing thread attached to it before it is put in motion. some few lineaments in the character of a lady, who These fibres are drawn out of the bunch which hath spent all her life in the practice of both. Swift. is wound upon the distaff, and held between the These are the moral attributes of the Divine Being,

finger and thumb, so as to be in the direction of in which he requires us to imitate him ; the express

the length of the spindle; therefore, when the lineaments of the divine nature, in which all good men spindle is once made to revolve, it twists

these bear a resemblance to him ; and for the sake of which

fibres together, to form a thread, and, as fast as only they are the objects of his delight.

the thread forms, the spinner draws off more flax 2 Sax. linen; Goth.

from the distaff, and guides the fibres between LIN'ENER:

the finger and thumb, so that they shall be reguLat. linum; Gr. Aivoy. Cloth of hemp or flax. larly delivered out, and make an even thread.

And thei tooken the bodi of Jhesus and bounden The motion of the spindle is constantly kept up, it in lynnun clothis with swete smellynge oynementis, by striking it as often as the hand can be spared as it is the custom to iewis for to byrie.

from the operation of guiding the thread. Wiclif. Jon. xx.

When by these means as great a length of thread Here is a basket, he may creep in; throw foul is formed as is convenient to reach from the end linen upon him, as if going to bucking. Shakspeare.

A linen stock on one leg, and a kersey boot hose of it to the spindle, the thread is wound upon on the other, gartered with a red and blue list. Id.

the outside of the small part or pin of the Death of thy soul! those linen cheeks of thine spindle, for which purpose the spinner applies Are counsellors to fear. What soldiers, whey-face? the fore-finger against the thread, close to the

end of the spindle, and bends the thread at that



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part, so that it will be at right angles with the touching it. The end of the thread is fastened direction of the spindle, instead of being nearly to the bobbin, and conducted through a hook in the direction of its length; and also, that it fixed in the flyer, so that it proceeds from the will be guided opposite to the middle of the circumference of the bobbin to this book, in a pin, or small part of the spindle, instead of direction perpendicular to the bobbin, but turns being at the extreme end thereof. In this situa- round the hook so as to come into the direction tion the motion of the spindle, which is continu- of the spindle. ally kept up, occasions the thread to wind up, The thread is then conducted through a peror lap upon the pin of the spindle, instead of foration made in the centre of the end of the twisting round upon itself, as in the former case; spindle or pivot, upon which it revolves, and to but, when nearly all the length of thread is thus this end of the thread the fibres are supplied. disposed of, the finger is removed from the The twisting motion given by the revolution of thread, and it immediately assumes its original the spindle forms them into a continuation of the direction, by slipping to the extreme end of the thread, which is gathered up upon the bobbin as spindle, so as to be twisted round itself by the fast as the spinner lets it go through her fingers, motion of the spindle, and more fibres are now by a tendency which the bobbin has to turn supplied to it from the bunch upon the distaff, slowly, at the same time that the flyer to which to form a fresh length of thread. In this manner the thread is hooked is revolving rapidly round the spinning proceeds, until as much thread is the bobbin. For this purpose a ring is passed spun and wound upon the pin of the spindle as round a small neck upon the bobbin, and, one will make a moderately sized ball.

end of the string being fastened to the frame, the This simple and inconvenient method of spin- other has a small weight to draw it tight round ning becomes very efficient, when the spindle, the neck of the bobbin, and occasion friction. instead of being spun upon the ground, is In other spinning wheels a second band from mounted in a proper frame, and turned by a the great wheel is made to turn the bobbin more wheel and band; this forms a machine which is slowly than the spindle. The thread which called the one-thread wheel, and is still used in passes over the hook of the flyer is rapidly carsome parts of the country for spinning wool : ried round the circumference of the bobbin; but, the spindle is made of iron, and placed horizon- as the bobbin follows the motion of the flyer, it tally, so that it can revolve freely; and the ex- only winds up as much thread upon the bobbin tremity of the spindle, to which the thread is as the difference of the two motions; and this applied, projects beyond the support.

tendency to wind up can be increased or dimiThe wheel which turns it is placed at one nished at pleasure, by the friction which is ocside, the pivots of both being supported in casioned by the string or band which passes upright pieces, rising up from a sort of stool. round the neck of the bobbin. When the windThe spinner puts the wheel in rapid motion by ing-up of the thread upon the bobbin has accuits handle, and its weight is sufficient to con- mulated a ridge of thread, upon it opposite, to the tinue the motion for some seconds; then walk- hook in the flyer, the thread must be shifted to ing backwards from the spindle, in the direction another hook opposite to a different part of the of its length, she supplies the fibres regularly, bobbin, for which purpose the arms of the flyer and the motion twists them into a thread; but, are furnished with different hooks, and this when a convenient length is spun, the spinner must be repeated several times, until the whole steps on one side, and reaches out that arm length of the bobbin is filled ; it is then taken off which holds the end of the thread, so as to alter to be reeled, and replaced by another empty the direction of the thread, and bring it nearly bobbin. perpendicular to the length of the spindle, which An improvement was made in the spinningmotion gathers or winds up the thread upon the wheel by Mr. Antis some years ago, which was middle of the projecting part of the spindle. an application of what Sir Richard Arkwright This being done, she holds the thread in the direc- had before invented. The object is to obviate tion of the spindle, so that it will receive twist, the necessity of stopping the wheel to remove and retreats again to spin a fresh length of thread. the thread from one hook to another, in the

A spinning-machine more perfect than this is manner just described. For this purpose, the the one-thread flax-wheel, with spindle and Ayer; bobbin is made to move regularly backwards and it has the property of constantly drawing up the forwards upon the spindle a space equal to its thread as fast as it is spun, instead of spinning a length, so that every part will, in succession, be length, and then winding it upon the spindle. presented opposite the hook over which the For this purpose the spindle is made longer than thread passes, and thus receive the thread reguthe other, and is turned by a band and wheel; larly upon the whole length of the bobbin. The but the wheel receives motion from the foot by á additional parts necessary for producing this small treadle, because the spinner sits before the movement are as follow: a pinion of only a sinwheel to work the spindle, which is supported gle leaf is made to project from the extremity of upon its two extreme ends, and near one end the the pivot of the great wheel, or a worm or endflyer is fixed; this is a piece of wood curved to less screw formed on the end pivot will answer an arc, the vertex of which is fixed on the spin- the same purpose, which is to actuate a wheel of dle, and from the extremities of the arc two seven inches diameter, and ninety-seven teeth ;

roceed, so as to be parallel to the spin- therefore ninety-seven revolutions of the great dle, and at such a distance from it as to admit a wheel will produce one revolution of this smaller wooden bobbin to be fitted loosely upon the wheel ; upon the face of which a circular ring of spindle; and at the same time the arms of the wire is fixed, and supported from the wheel by flyer can revolve round the bobbin without six_legs, so as to be oblique to the plane of the



wheel, as it touches it at one part, and at the op- upon the end of the spindle A, connected with posite side of the ring projects nearly three-quar- the wheel C, of eighty teeth, fixed upon the end ters of an inch. This ring of wire gives motion of a small iron spindle F, covered with wood, to an upright lever, about tifteen inches long and and extending through the whole frame; D, a moving on a centre at three inches from its lower slack or intermediate pinion of any size at disextremity, where it has a pin fixed in it and rest. cretion, connected with another similar pinion, ing against the oblique ring of wire ; therefore, the latter connected with a wheel of 120 teeth, when the wheel turns round, it communicates which is fixed upon an iron spindle G, of about a small motion to the lever in consequence of its an inch and a half in diameter, and extending obliquity to the plane in which it revolves. The through the whole frame; but the wheels B, C, D, upper end of the lever is connected to an hori- and E, may be varied in their numbers, to inzontal sliding-bar situated beneath the spindle, crease or diminish the draught of the substance and having an upright piece of brass, which operated upon, as may best suit its quality or works in the notch of a pully formed in the ends the ideas of the workman. The pinion B is so of the bobbin, and drives the bobbin backwards contrived as to slip off the end of the spindle A, and forwards upon the spindle, according as the to make room for a smaller or larger one; by oblique ring of wire forces the pin at the lower means whereof a larger or shorter thread may be end of the lever in or out, when the wheel moves spun from the same sized rovings; a a a a a a a

To regulate and return this alternate a a a represent ten roved slivers of hemp, flax, motion, a small weight hangs by a line to the tow, or wool, passing between the iron spindle sliding-bar, and, passing over a pulley, rises and G and rollers in pairs pressed against them by falls as the bobbin recedes and advances, and springs or weights; these springs or weights tends constantly to keep the pin at the lower end must operate with sufficient force to hold back the of the lever in contact with the wire. It is evi- slivers or rovings so securely, that they may only dent from this description, that one staple only pass on with the movement of the spindle; these is wanted to the arms of the flyer, which being pairs of pressing rollers are placed behind the placed near the extremity, the thread passes spindle. The use of the small iron spindle F, through it, and by the motion of the bobbin is covered with wood, and left rather larger than laid regularly upon it from one end to the other. the spindle G, is, with pressure of the small

The invention has also another advantage over wood-roller, made up in pairs bbbbb, and so the old method, which always winds the thread contrived that each pair may roll upon two in ridges upon the bobbin; and, if the thread slivers, to bring them down straight, and preserve breaks in reeling the yarn, the whole bobbin may the twist which they receive in the roving-maas well be thrown away, because the thread can- chine till the slivers leave them. The bosses on the not easily be found again ; but this improved spindle A, have likewise wooden rollers in pairs wheel always winds the threads across upon one pressed against them by springs or weights, beanother, by which means the end can never between which the drawn, lengthened, or extended lost.

slivers pass to the spindle, the rollers having In order to regulate the friction on the bobbin, each a tin conductor, c cccccccc c, to bring and retard its motion in a greater or less degree the material under operation as centrically as at pleasure, there is a neck of brass or steel possible between the wood-rollers and the bosses; fastened to one end of it, and embraced by a but all the above-mentioned parts of the machine kind of small vice, or pincers, fixed to the slid- are so similar to the common upright frames, ing-bar. This vice must be made either with that a person conversant with them will not be two elastic springs with wooden tops, or of wood at a loss to understand its arrangement. H, is a wholly, and faced with leather; but, if made of wheel of wood four feet in diameter, having its wood only, then a spring must be made beneath rim about two inches thick, with a groove in its the shoulder of the screw, to answer the same periphery for a small cord or band. În its centre purpose. By tightening this screw, more or less, is a rule or stock of wood, through which the spinthe friction on the bobbin may be regulated to dle I passes, and extends into its frame about the greatest nicety, provided the springs are of a one-fourth of its length. To enable the person strength rightly proportioned to their functions. that turns the winch to reach all the spindles at It will readily appear, that all this may be done work, with the hand that is not engaged in turnwithout the least effect on the velocity of the ing, to remove any obstacle that may arise to the whole machine, as thereby nothing is added to spindles, the arbor or spindle of the wheel I has the general friction so as to obstruct it.

its bearing on the sides of the frame that contains We shall now proceed to give a description of it, marked LLLL; this frame, with the wheel a patent, obtained in 1806, by Messrs. Clarke H, the arbor I, and the winch K, is similar to and Bugby, for effecting certain improvements that part of a machine called a mule-jenny, used in a machine, intended to be worked by hand- for spinning cotton ; this frame is supported in labor, for the spinning of hemp, fax, &c. :- a horizontal position at the outer end by two

Plate LINEN MANUFACTURE, tig. 1, represents legs marked M M, and a screw-pin which passes an oblique view of the front of a frame con- through K, the front upright a A, fig. 2, and taining ten spindles (but the frames may contain made tight with the thumb-screw a; the screw an indefinite number of spindles). A, the spin- passes through a groove or mortise at the eud of dle or a bow passing through the whole frame, the wheel frame, to enable the workman to adhaving ten bosses of brass or cast-iron thereon, just the wheels N and 0, as it will each about four inches diameter, each boss sup- necessary to change the wheel N, to make such plying one spindle; B, a pinion of twelve leaves alteration in the twist as the size of the yard may


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