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A

DICTIONARY

OF THE

ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

S A B

has in English the same hissing sound as in other languages, and unhappily prevails in so many of our words that it produces in the ear of a forcigner a continted sibilation. In the beginning of words it has invariably its natural and genuine sound: in the middle it is sometimes uttered with a stronger appulse of the tongue to the palate, like & as rose, rofeste, rosy, osier, nose!, resident, busy, Business. It sometimes keeps its natural sound ; as loose, designation ; for which I know not whether any rules can be given. In the end of monosyllables it is sometimes s, as in this ; and sometimes z, as in as, has ; and generally where es stands in verbs for eth, as gives. It seems to be established as a rule, that no noun singular should end with 3 single: therefore in words written with diphthongs, and naturally long, an e is nevertheless added at the end, as goose, bouse; and where the syllable is short the s is doubled, and was oncesse, as ass, anciently asse; wilderness, anciently ‘wildernesse ; distress, anciently distresse. SABA'OTH. n.s.. [Hebrew.] Signifying an arz777.

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S A B
I purpose, -

And by our holy stoo-th have I sworn
To have the due and forfeit of my bond. Soak.

Giad we return'd up to the coasts of light, Ere sabbath ev'ning. Milton.

Here ev'ry day was fałbath: only free From hours of pray’r, for hours of charity, Such as the Jews from servile toil releast, Where works of mercy were a part of rest: Such as blest angels exercise above, Vary'd with sacred hymns and acts of love; §§ sabbaths as that one she now enjoys,

Ev’n that perpetual one, which she employs:

For such vicissitudes in heav'n there are,

In praise alternate, and alternate pray’r. Dryd. 2. Intermission of pain or sorrow ; time

of rest.

Never any rabbath of release Could free his travels and aflictions deep. Dar. Nor can his blessed soul look down from

eav'n, Or break th' eternal sabbath of his rest, To see her miseries on earth. Dryden. Peaceful sleep out the sabbath of the tomb, And wake to raptures in a life to come. Poo. SA B B ATA’k I A N. m. J. L.from sabbath.] One who observes the sabbath with unreasonable rigour; one who observes the seventh day of the week in opposition to the first. SA/B B At HB REAKER. m. s. sabbath and break.] Violator of the sabbath by labour or wickedness. The usurer is the greatest salbathbreaker, because his plough goeth every Sunday. BaccaSA B B A^T sca L. ads. . sahbazicut, Lat. Jabbatique, Fr. from sabbath..] Resembling the sabbath ; enjoying or bringing intermission of labour. The appointment and cbservance of the rabbatical year, and atter the seventh saliatical year a year of jubilee, is a circunstance c1 great moment. I} Peré.

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If ample powers, granted by the rulers of this world, add o to the persons intrusted with these powers, behold the importance and extent of the sacerdotal commission. Atterbury. SA'ch El... n.s. Isacculus, Lat.] A small sack or bag. SACK. m.s. (pty Hebrew ; arizzo: ; saccur, Lat., raec, Sax. It is observable of this word, that it is found in all languages, and it is therefore conceived to be antediluvian.] 1. A bag; a pouch ; commonly a large bag. 6. sacks shall be a mean to sack the city, And we be lords and rulers over Roan. Shakir. Vastius caused the authors of that mutiny to be thrust into tacks, and in the sight of the fleet ... tast into the sea. Anolles.

3.The measure of three bushels. 3. A woman's loose robe. To SAC K. v. a. [from the noun.] 1. To put in bags.

- Now the great work is done, the corn is ground,

The grist is sack'd, and every'sack well bound. Betterton. a. [from sacar, Spanish. To take by storm ; to pillage ; to plunder. Edward Bruce spoiled all the old English pale inhabitants, and sacked and rased all cities and corporate towns. Spenser. I'll make thee stoop and bend thy knee, Or sack this country with a mutiny. jo. What armies, conquer'd, perish'd with thy sword * What cities rarck'd? Fairfax. Who sees these dismal heaps, but would demand What barbarous invader rack'd the kand? Denbin. The pope hitnself was ever after unfortunate, Rome being twice taken and sacked in his reign. South. The great magazine for all kinds of treasure is the bed of the Tiber: when the Romanslay under the apprehensions of seeing their city sacked by a barbarous enemy, they would take care to hestow such of their riches this way as could best bear the water. Addison. SAC K. n.s.. [from the verb.] 1. Storm of a town; pillage; plunder. If Saturn's son bestows The sack of Troy, which he by promise owes, Then shall the conqu'ring Greeks thy loss restore. rydon. 2. A kind of sweet wine, now brought chiefly from the Canaries. [Sec, Fr. of uncertain etymology; but derived by Skinner, after Mandesto, from 2Xeque, a city of Morocco. The sack of Shakspeare is believed to be what is now called sherry.] Please you drink a cup of sack. Shakspeare. The butler hath great advantage to allure the Tmaids with a glass of rack. Swift, SA'ck BUT. m. s. [sacabuche, Spanish ; Jambuca, Lat. sambuque, Fr.] A kind of pipe. The trumpets, sackbuts, psalteries and fife, Make the sun dance. Slakoprare. SA'ck clot H. m. s. [sack and c/oth.] Cloth of which sacks are made; coarse cloth sometimes worn in mortification. Coarse stuff made of goats hair, of a dark colour, worn by soldiers and mariners; and used as a habit among the Hebrews in times of mourning. Called sackcloth, either becausa sacks were made of this sort of stuff, or because hair-cloths were strait and close like a sack. Calmet. To augment her painful penance more, rice every week in ashes she did sit, And next her wrinkled skin rough sackcloth wore. - Spenser. Thus with sackcloth I invest my woe, And dust upon my clouded foreńead throw. Sandyr. Being clad in sackcloth, he was to lie on the ground, and constantly day and night to implore God's mercy for the sin he had committed. yoff. SA'ck ER. m. s. [from sack.] One that takes a town. Sack ful. n. . [ack and fol.] A full bag. Wood goes about with faciful of dross, odious misrepresenting his prince's countenance.Savi SA'ck posse r. n. . [fact and posset. A posset made of milk, sack, and some other ingredients. Snuff the candles at supper on the table, because the burning snuff may fall into a dish of soup or Jacopogret. - Swift. SACRAMENT. m. s. [sacrement, Fr. Jatramentum, Lat.] 1. An oath; any ceremony producing an obligation. 2." An outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace. - - As often as we mention a sacrament, it is improperly understood; for in the writings of the ancient fathers all articles which are peculiar to christian faith, all duties of religion containing that which sense or natural reason cannot of itself discern, are most commonly named sacraments : our restraint of the word to some few principal divine ceremonies, importeth in every such ceremony two things, the substance of the ceremony itself, which is visible; and besides that, somewhat else more secret, in reference whereunto we conceive that ceremony to be a to traocat. - Hooker. 3. The eucharist; the holy communion. Tentiousand French have ta'en the sacrament To rive their dangerous artiller Upon no christian soul but English Talbot. Slal peare. As we have ta'en the sacrament, We will unite the white rose with the red. Shakspeare. Before the famous battle of Cressy, he spent the greatest part of the night in prayer; and in the merring received the sacrament, with his son, and the chief of his officers. Addison. Sack A M E/N T A L. ads. [ sacramental, Fr. from sacrament.] Constituting a sacramert ; pertaining to a sacrament. To make complete the outward substance of a sacrament, there is required an outward form, which form sacramental elements receive from sacramental words. Hooker. The words of St. Paul are plain; and whatever interpretation can be put upon them, it can only vary the way of the sacramental efficacy, but it cannot evacuate the blessing. Taylor. S4C R A M H 'N IA I. L. Y. adv. [from sacra

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mental.] After the manner of a sacra

Inent. - - My body is sacramentally contained in this sacrament of bread. Hall. The law of circumcision was meant by God *acramentally to impress the duty of strict purity. Bamzoad.

SACRED. adj. [sacre, Fr. acer, Lat.] 1. Immediately relating to God. Wolves shall succeed for teachers, grievous wolves, w Who all the sacred mysteries of heav'n Tooheir own vile advantages shii torm. Mit. Before me lay the aire? text, The help, the guide, the bain, of souls perplex’d. Arduthnot. 2. Devoted to religious uses; holy. Those who came to celebrate the sabbiri, made a conscience of helping themselves or to honour of that most sacr:4 day. Maccabeer. They with wine-off’rings pour'd, and sacred feast, Shall spend their days with joy unblum'd. Most. This temple, and his holy ark, With all his sacred things. Milton. 3. Dedicated; cease, rate ; consecrated : with to. O'er its eastern gate was rais's above A temple, sacred to the queen of love. Dryden. 4. Rolating to religion; theological Smit with the love of sacred song. . Moon. 5. Entitled to reverence ; awfully venerable. Bright officious lamps, In thee concentring all their precious beams Of sacred influence. Milton. Poet and saint, to thee alone were giv'n, The two most aired names of earth and heav'n. - Cowley. 6. Inviolable, as if appropriated to some superiour being. | The honour's sacred, which he talks on now, Supposing that I lackt it. Shakspeare. ow hast thou yielded to transgress The strict forbiddance how to violate The sacred fruit * Milton. Secrets of marriage still are sacred held s There sweet and bitter by the wise conceal’d. Dryden. Soo RED EY, adv. [from sacred.] Inviola. bly; religiously. When God had manifested himself in the flesh; how acredy did he preserve this ori. lege $o. SA'ck F is Ess. n. . [from sacred.] The state of being sacred ; state of being consecrated to religious uses; holiness; sanctity. In the sanctuary the cloud, and the cracular *Yers, were prerogatives peculiar to the ra. credness of the place. ` South. This insiouates the sacredness of power, less. administration of it be what it j. L'Estrange.

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To SA’CR 1 F ice...w.. n. To make offerings; to offer sacrifice. He that sacrifteeth of things wrongfully gotten, his offering is indiculous. scclesiasticut. Let us go to sacrifice to the Lord. Exodus. Some mischief is befallen To that meek man who well had sacrific'd, - Milton. SA’c R ific E. n.s.[sacrifice, Fr. sacrificium, Lat.] 1. The act of offering to heaven. God will ordain religious rites Of sacrifice. - Milton. 2. The thing offered to heaven, or immolated by an act of religion. Upon such sacrifice The gods themselves throw incense. Shakspeare. Go with me like good angels to my end, And as the long divorce of steel falls on me, Make of your prayers one sweet sacrifice,

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My life if thou worvo, my life Thy sacrifice shalibe; And death, if death must be my doom, Shall join ny soul to thee. Spectator. 3. Any thing destroyed, or quitted for the sake of something else; as, he made a sacrifice of his friendship to his interest. 4. Anything destroyed. SA/CR'i Fic ER. m. s. [from sacrifice.] One who offers sacrifice; one that immolates. Let us be sacrificers, but not butchers. Shaku. When some brawny sacrificer knocks, Before an altar led, an offer'd ox. Dryden. A priest pours wine, between the horns of a bull: the priest is veiled after the manner of the old Roman sacrificers. Addison. SA cK1 F 1'C1 A L. adj. [from sacrifice.] Performing sacrifice; included in sacrifice. Rain sacrificial whisp'rings in his ear; Make sacred even his stirrop. Shakspeare. Tertullian's observation upon these sacrificial rites, is pertinent to this rule. aylor.

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sacrilegium, Latin.] The crime of appropriating to himself what is devoted to religion; the crime of robbing heaven; the crime of violating or profaning things sacred. By what eclipse shall that sun be defac'd, What mine hatherst thrown down so fair a tower! What sacrilege hath such a saint disgrac'd? -- Sidney. Then 'gam a cursed hand the quiet womb Of his great grandmother with steel to wound, • And the hid treasures in her sacred tomb With sacrif ge to dig. Fairy Queen. We need inot go many ages back to see the vengeance of God upon some families, raised upon the ruins of churches, and enriched with the spoils of sacrilege. South.

SAC R LE'Gious. adj. [sacrilegus, Latin ; from sacrilege.] Violating things sacred; polluted with the crime of sacrilege. To sacrilegious perjury should I be betrayed, I should account it greater misery. King Charles. By vile hands to common use debas'd, With sacris'gious taunt, and impious jest. Prior. Still green with bays each ancient altar stands, Above the reach of sacrilegious hands. Pope. Blasiocry is a malediction, and a sacrilegious detraction from the Godhead. Ayliffo.

SACRI LE'Gious LY. adv. [from sacrilegicus.] With sacrilege. When these evils befell him, his conscience tells him it was for sacrilegiously pillaging and invading God's house. South. SA’CR N G. part. [This is a participle of the French sacrer. The verb is not used in English.]. Consecrating. I'll startle you, Worse than the sacring bell. Shakspeare. The sacring of the kings of France is the sign of their sovereign priesthood as well askingdom, and in the right thereof they are capable of holding all vacant benefices. Tempse.

SA/C R IST. n. J. [sacristain, French.j SA’C R is T AN. He that has the care of the utensils or moveables of the church. A sacrist or treasurer are not dignitaries in the church of common right, but only by custonn. - Ayliffe. SA’c RIsry. n.s. ssacristie, Fr.] An apartment where the consecrated vessels or moveables of a church are reposited. Bold Amycus from the robb'd vestry brings A sconce that hung on high, With tapers fill'd to light the sacristy. Dryden. A third apartment should be a kind of sacrity for altars, idols, and sacrificing instruments. Addison. S.A.D. adj. [Of this word, so frequent in the language, the etymology is not known. It is probably a contraction of sagged, heavy, burdened, overwhelmed, from To sag, to load.] 1. Sorrowful; full of grief. Do you think I shall not love a sad Pamela se well as a joyful ? Sidney. One from sad dismay Recomforted, and after thoughts disturb’d, Submitting to what seem'd remediless. Milton. The hapless pair Satin their sad discourse and various plaint. Milt. Up into heav'n, from Paradise in haste Th’ângelic guards ascended, mute and sad. Milt. l now must change These notes to tragick; sad task! Milton.

Six brave companions from each ship we lost: With sails outspread we fly th' unequal strife, Sad for their loss, but joyful of our life. Pope. 2. Habitually melancholy; heavy; gloomy; not gay; not cheerful. It ministreth unto men, and other creatures, all celestial influences: it dissipateth those sad thoughts and sorrows, which the darkness both begetteth and maintaineth. - Aaleigh. See in her cell sad Eloisa spread, Propp'd on some tomb, a neighbour of the dead. Pope. 3. Gloomy 5 showing sorrow or anxiety b; outward appearance. . - e not as the hypocrites of a sad countenance. - - AMatthew. Earth trembled from her entrails, as again In pangs, and Nature gave a second groan; Sky lour'd, and muttering thunder, some sad dro Wept at &mplains of the mortal sin Original. - Milton. 4. Serious; not light; not volatile; grave. He with utterance grave, and countenance rad, From point to point discours'd his voyage. Spens. The lady Katharine, a sad and religious woman, when Henry v1.11's resolution of a divorce from her was first made known, said that she had not offended; but it was a judgment of God, for that her former marriage was made in blood. Bacon. If it were an embassy of weight, choice was made of some fad person of known judgment and experience, and not of a young man, not weighed in state matters. Bacon. A sad wise valour is the brave complexion That leads the van, and swallows up the cities: The gigler is a milk-maid, whom inflection, Or a fir’d beacon, frighteth from his ditties. Herbert. 5. Afflictive ; calamitous. Thoughts in my unquiet breast are risen, Tending to some relief of our extremes, Or end, tho' sharp and sad, yet tolerable. Milt. 6. Bad ; inconvenient; vexatious. A word of burlesque complaint. These qualifications make him a sad husband. Addison. 7. Dark-coloured. Crystal, in its reduction into powder, hath a vale and shadow of blue; and in its coarse pieces is of a sadder hue than the powder of Venice glass. Brown. I met him accidentally in London in sad coloured clothes, far from being costly. Walton. Scarce any tinging ingredient is of so general use as woad, or glastum; for though of itself it dye but a blue, yet, it is used to prepare cloth for green, and many of the sadder colours, when the dyers make them last without fading. Boyle. Woad or wade is used by the dyers to lay the foundation of all sad colours. Mortimer. 3. Heavy; weighty; ponderous. With that his hand, more sad than lump of lead, Uplifting high, he weened with Morddure, His own good sword, Morddure, to cleave his head. Fairy Queen. 3. Cohesive; not light; firm ; close. Chalky lands are naturally cold and sad, and therefore require warm applications and light compost. Mortimer. To SA’D DEN. v.a. [from sad.] 1. To make sad ; to make sorrowful. 2. To make melancholy; to make gloomy. Her gloemy presence sadden; all the scene, Shades ev'ry flow'r, and darkens ev'ry green; Deepens the murmurs of the falling floods, And breathes a browner horror on the woods. Pope,

3. To make dark coloured. 4. To make heavy ; to make cohesive. Marl is binding, and saddening of land is the great prejudice it doth to clay lands. Mortimer. SADDI.E. n. 4. [rabl, Saxon; sades, Dutch..] The seat which is put upon the horse for the accommodation of the rider. His horse hipped, with an old moth-eaten sadde, and the stirrups of no kindred. Shakspeare. The law made for apparel, and .# in sadles, after the English fashion, is penal only to Englishmen. - Davies. One hung a pole-ax at his saddle bow, And one a heavy mace. . Dryden. The vent'rousknight isfrom the saddle thrown; But 'tis the fault of fortune, not his own. Dryd. To SA’d D le. v. a. from the noun..] . 1. To cover with a saddle. I will saddle me an ass; that I may ride there- - 2 Samuel. Rebels, by yielding, do like him, or worse, Who saddled his own back to shame his horse.

- - - - Gleaveland.
No man, sure, e'er left his house,
And saddl"d Ball, with thoughts.so wild,
To bring a midwife to his spouse,
Before he knew she was with child.

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Prior,

.2. To load ; to burden. . . .

Resolv'd for sea, the slaves thy baggage pack, Fach saddl'd with his burden on his back; Nothing retards thy voyage. Dryden. SA’d D L E B A C K E D. ads, [saddle and back.] Horses, saddlebacked, have their backs low, and a raised head and neck. Farrier's Dictonary. SA’d D L E MAKER. R. m. s. [from saddle.] SA'D D LER. One whose trade is to make saddles. Sixpence that I had To pay the saddler for my mistress' crupper, The saddler had it. Shakspeare. The utmost exactness in these belongs to farriers, saddlers, and smiths. Digby. The smith and the saddler's journeyman §: to partake of your master's generosity. Swift. Sa’d LY. ada. [from sad.] 1. Sorrowfully; mournfully. My father is gone wild into his grave; For in his tomb lie my affections; And with his spirit sadly I survive, To mock the expectations of the world. Slassp. He griev'd, he wept, the sight an image brought Of his own filial love; a sadly pleasing thought. Dryder. He sadly suffers in their grief, Out-weeps an hermit, and out-prays a saint. Dry. 2. Calamitously; miserably. . We may at pres; nt easily see, and one da sadly feel. South. SA’d N Ess. n.s.. [from sad.] 1. Sorrowfulness; mournfulness; dejection of mind. The soul receives intelligence By her near genius of the body's end, And so imparts a sadness to the sense. Daniel. And let us not be wanting to ourselves, Lest so severe and obstinate a sadness Tempt a new vengeance. Denham. A passionate regret at sin, a grief and sadness of its memory, enter into God's roll of mourners. Decay of Picty. 2. Melancholy look. Dim sadness did not spare Celestial visages. 3. Seriousness; sedate gravity. If the subject be mournful, let everything in it have a stroke of sadness. loyden.

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