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And bite thy tongue, that slanders him with cowardice.
Whose frown hath made thee faint and fly ere this.

Clif. I will not bandy with thee word for word,


But buckle with thee blows, twice two for one.
Q. Mar. Hold, valiant Clifford! for a thousand causes
I would prolong awhile the traitor's life.
Wrath makes him deaf: speak thou, Northumberland.
North. Hold, Clifford ! do not honour him so much

To prick thy finger, though to wound his heart.
What valour were it, when a cur doth grin,
For one to thrust his hand between his teeth,
When he might spurn him with his foot away?
It is war's prize to take all vantages,
And ten to one is no impeach of valour.



[They lay hands on York, who struggles.

Clif. Ay, ay, so strives the woodcock with the gin.
North. So doth the cony struggle in the net.
York. So triumph thieves upon their conquer'd booty;

So true men yield, with robbers so o'ermatch'd.
North. What would your grace have done unto him now?
Q. Mar. Brave warriors, Clifford and Northumberland,

Come, make him stand upon this molehill here,
That raught at mountains with outstretched arms,

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47, 48. And . . . slanders . . . Whose . . . fly ere this] 36, 37. And slanderst. whose verie looke hath made thee quake ere this Q. I will not deaf... Northumberland] 37-41. I will not prolong the traitors life a while. . death (deafe Qq 2, 3) Northumberland Q. 54-60. Hold, Clifford !

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prolong... life

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valour . . . It is war's vantages of valour] 42-48. Hold Clifford ... valure. Tis warres advantages in warres; Fight and take him Q. 61, 62. Ay, ay net] 49, 50. I, I . . cunnie with the net Q. 63-65. So triumph... with overmatch'd would... unto him now ?] 51-53. So triumphs. . . by robbers overmatcht . . . will .. with him? Q. 66-69. Brave warriors arms, Yet... hand] 54-57. Brave warriors... That aimde... arme, And . hand Q.

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48. faint] See above, 1. i. 129. 49. bandy word for word] Again in Taming of Shrew, v. ii. 172. Shakespeare is very partial to this metaphor from tennis. Compare Marlowe's Edward II. (Dyce, 185, a): "I'll bandy with the barons and the earls"; where the meaning is exchange blows but no more words.

50. buckle with thee] grapple or couple with in combat. See note to 1 Henry VI. 1. ii. 95.

53. deaf] misprinted "death," Q. 60. impeach] accusation, reproach, as in Comedy of Errors, v. 269. Elsewhere "impeachment.'

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61. woodcock gin] See Twelfth Night, 11. v. 92.

67, 68. molehill mountains] An old antithesis, or proverb. Again in Shakespeare in Coriolanus. New Eng. Dict. gives an example from Foxe's Acts and Monuments, 1570. See Pecham's True Discourse (Hakluyt ed. 1811, iii. 223), 1583: "They will take upon them to make Mountains seeme Molehilles and flies elephants." Greene, Nashe and Harvey all use it, the latter in 1573.

68. raught] reached.

Yet parted but the shadow with his hand.

What! was it you that would be England's king? 70
Was 't you that revell'd in our parliament,

And made a preachment of your high descent?
Where are your mess of sons to back you now?
The wanton Edward, and the lusty George?
And where's that valiant crook-back prodigy,
Dicky your boy, that with his grumbling voice
Was wont to cheer his dad in mutinies ?


Or, with the rest, where is your darling Rutland ?

Look! York: I stain'd this napkin with the blood
That valiant Clifford with his rapier's point
Made issue from the bosom of the boy;


And if thine eyes can water for his death,

I give thee this to dry thy cheeks withal.

Alas! poor York, but that I hate thee deadly,
I should lament thy miserable state.


I prithee grieve, to make me merry, York.

What, hath thy fiery heart so parch'd thine entrails
That not a tear can fall for Rutland's death?

Why art thou patient, man? thou should'st be mad;
And I, to make thee mad, do mock thee thus.
Stamp, rave, and fret, that I may sing and dance.
Thou would'st be fee'd, I see, to make me sport:
York cannot speak unless he wear a crown.


71-77. Was 't you


And where's

70. What!... king ?] omitted Q. crook-back mutinies?] 58-64. Was it you Or where is...


Crookbackt.. mutinies? Q. 78-85. Or, with





stain'd... with the


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dipt. . . in the Rutland's death ?]

the boy deadly state] 65-72. Or amongst thy boy much state? Q. 86-88. I prithee 73-76. I prethee Yorke ? Stamp. dance (1. 91 transposed) Rutland's death? Q. 89-90. Why art thou

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thee thus] omitted Q.
92-95. Thou would'st ..

Stamp... dance] 74. Stamp dance Q.
Hold you... it on] 77-80. Thou wouldst . . . So: hold. . . it on Q.

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Hardyng (468), 1543, says of Richard : "he was lytle of stature, euill feautured of lymms, croke backed, the left shulder much higher then the right, harde fauoured of.. warlike visage."

91. Stamp... dance] The transposition of this line from its position after "make me merry, York" (86) in the Quarto in consequence of the addition of the two new lines, "Why art thou... mock thee thus" (89, 90) has been a disputed point. Malone replaced it.

A crown for York! and, lords, bow low to him:
Hold you his hands whilst I do set it on.


[Puts a paper crown on his head.

Ay, marry, sir, now looks he like a king!

Ay, this is he that took King Henry's chair:
And this is he was his adopted heir.
But how is it that great Plantagenet

Is crown'd so soon, and broke his solemn oath?


As I bethink me, you should not be king

Till our King Henry had shook hands with death.

And will you pale your head in Henry's glory,

And rob his temples of the diadem,

Now in his life, against your holy oath?


O! 'tis a fault too too unpardonable.

Off with the crown; and, with the crown, his head;
And, whilst we breathe, take time to do him dead.


95. Puts...] omitted Q, Ff. 96-100. Ay, marry, sir, now

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Ay, this .. solemn oath ?] 81-85. I now King? This . . . holie oath, 101-108. As I bethink pale your head in.. do him dead] 86-93. As I bethinke Till our Henry... impale your head with ... doe him dead Q.


95. paper crown] The passage quoted from Hall at the death of Rutland above (Scene iii. 1. 47) continues: "Yet this cruell Clifford, and deadly bloud supper not content with this homicyde, or chyld killyng, came to ye place wher the dead corps of the duke of Yorke lay, and caused his head to be stryken of, and set on it a croune of paper, & so fixed it on a pole, & presented it to the Quene, not Îyeng farre from the felde . . . but many laughed then that sore lamented after" (p. 251, ed. 1809). This paper crown is referred to again in Richard III. 1. iii. 175.


100-102. broke his . . . oath death] Holinshed writes here (iii. 269, ed. 1808): "Manie deemed that this miserable end chanced to the duke of York, as a due punishment for breaking his oth of allegiance unto his Souereigne lord King Henrie: but others held him discharged thereof, because he obteined a dispensation from the pope, by such suggestion as his procurators made vnto him, whereby the same oth was adiudged void, as that which was receiued vnaduisedlie, to the preiudice of himselfe, and disheriting of all his posteritie." "A purchase of Gods cursse with the popes blessing" (margin).

101, 102. As I bethink . . . with death] Margaret quotes here Suffolk's words to her in Contention, about the murder of the good Duke Humphrey (III. i. 116-118):

"And so thinke I, Madame . . .
If our King Henry had shooke
hands with death,

Duke Humphrey then would looke

to be our King." See note at 2 Henry VI. II. i. 265. Peele comes near it with "shook hands with sin," in David and Bethsabe. Seems to have escaped Schmidt. Shakespeare quoting his own words from The Contention into the finished 3 Henry III. is an interesting phenomenon.

103. pale] enclose in the pale or circle of a crown. The same as "impale below, III. ii. 171, and III. iii. 189. Compare Antony and Cleopatra, 11. vii. 74. Elsewhere "pales in."

106. too too] A very common mode of intensification at this time and earlier.

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Clif. That is my office, for my father's sake.


Q. Mar. Nay, stay; let's hear the orisons he makes.
York. She-wolf of France, but worse than wolves of France,
Whose tongue more poisons than the adder's tooth!
How ill-beseeming is it in thy sex

To triumph like an Amazonian trull,
Upon their woes whom fortune captivates!
But that thy face is, vizard-like, unchanging,

Made impudent with use of evil deeds,

I would assay, proud queen, to make thee blush:
To tell thee whence thou cam'st, of whom derived,


Were shame enough to shame thee, wert thou not shame-

Thy father bears the type of King of Naples,
Of both the Sicils and Jerusalem,

Yet not so wealthy as an English yeoman.
Hath that poor monarch taught thee to insult?
It needs not, nor it boots thee not, proud queen,
Unless the adage must be verified,
That beggars mounted run their horse to death.

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.. sake Q. Mar. Nay, stay; let's makes] 94, 95. Queen. Yet stay: and lets

Thats death.
wolf... poisons.. their woes

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makes Q. with use blush:]

poison'd. his woes by use... blush Q.

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needs not, nor


derived, Were . . . both the .
To tell thee of whence thou art, from whom deriude, Twere
needes not, or . . . that oft makes .. wots . . . small Q.

doing hand" (Faerie Queene, II. iii. 8). At III. x. 32 is found: "But soone he shall be found, and shortly doen be dead." And again later. "Dead-doing" is nearer. "Do" means make, or cause to be. See note at II. i. 103 below.

110. orisons] prayers. Five times in Shakespeare. 112. poisons.

adder's tooth] See again 2 Henry VI. 11. ii. 76, Richard II. III. ii. 20, and Richard III. 1. ii. 19.

113. ill-beseeming] undecorous. See 1 Henry VI. IV. i. 31; and later in 2 Henry IV. and Romeo and Juliet. Unhyphened in Quartos and I Henry VI. See note at the latter reference. See, too, Cymbeline, v. v. 409. And "wellbeseeming" in 1 Henry IV. 1. iii. 267, and in Titus Andronicus. Shakespeare affected the word "beseem," and compounds of it.

111-118. She96-103. She wolfe 119-129. To .

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114. trull] See 1 Henry VI. 11. ii. 28. "Strumpet " usually, here rather a ramp or female bravoo.

115. captivates] subdues, captures. See Love's Labour 's Lost, III. 126, and Venus and Adonis, 281. This verb is several times in Locrine. See Kyd, Spanish Tragedy, 11. i. 131:—

"Thus hath he tane my body by his force,

And now by sleight would captivate my soule."

116. vizard-like] as expressionally fixed as a mask.

121. type] badge. Compare Richard III. iv. iv. 244. The crown. But perhaps used for title.


127. beggars. death] A proverb found in a variety of shapes. "Set a beggar on horse backe they saie, and hee will neuer alight" (Greene, Carde of Fancie (Grosart, iv. 102), 1587), and repeated in Greene's Orpharion, a

'Tis beauty that doth oft make women proud;
But, God he knows, thy share thereof is small:
'Tis virtue that doth make them most admired;
The contrary doth make thee wonder'd at:
'Tis government that makes them seem divine;
The want thereof makes thee abominable.
Thou art as opposite to every good


As the Antipodes are unto us,


Or as the south to the Septentrion.

O tiger's heart wrapp'd in a woman's hide!

How could'st thou drain the life-blood of the child,

To bid the father wipe his eyes withal,

And yet be seen to bear a woman's face?


Women are soft, mild, pitiful, and flexible;
Thou stern, obdurate, flinty, rough, remorseless.

Bidd'st thou me rage? why, now thou hast thy wish:
Would'st have me weep? why, now thou hast thy will.


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130-140. 'Tis virtue that doth . . . 'Tis government . . . abominable. woman's hide! . . . woman's face?] 115-125. Tis government that makes Tis vertue abhominable womans hide? . . womans face? Q. 141-149. Women are soft, mild . . . Thou rough .. wish: will.. wind. showers, And . cries... death, 'Gainst Frenchwoman] 126-134. Women are milde . . . Thou indurate, sterne, rough... will . . . So thou. wish... windes blowes up a storme of teares, And... begs vengeance as it fals, On . . . French woman Q.




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rehash of the former (xii. 36). The proverb is in Cyril Tourneur's Revengers Tragedy, Lord Cromwell, Jonson's Staple of News, Camden's Remaines, Motteux's Don Quixote, etc. Peacham has that old verse:

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Asperius nihil est humili, cum
surgit in altum,

There's nothing more perverse and
proud than She,

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tack upon Shakespeare in the Groats-
worth of Wit (Grosart, xii. 144). See
Introduction. Nashe has a familiar
expression: "An apes hart with a
lions case (Terrors of the Night
(Grosart, iii. 231), 1593), in which he
probably recalled Spenser's Mother
Hubberd's Tale. Malone quotes
from Acolastus his Afterwitte, 1600:
woolvish hart, wrapp'd in a

Who is to Wealth advanced from woman's hide," an obvious recollec-
tion of this. See Introduction to Part II.
142. obdurate] See 2 Henry VI. IV.
vii. 114, in this ed. Always so accented
in Shakespeare. It does not occur in
First Contention, and here the True
Tragedie (Q) has "indurate." Marlowe
has "Might have entreated your ob-
durate breasts" in Tamburlaine, Part
I. v. i. (Dyce, 31, a); and the same
expression occurs in Sylvester's Du
Bartas (ed. 1621, p. 37): “One single
sigh from thy obdurate brest" (1591).
Marlowe's use is the earliest, applied
to persons, in New Eng. Dict.
was older.

136. Septentrion] North. Not again in Shakespeare. This line is recalled in_Soliman and Perseda, III. iv. 5: "From East to West, from South to Septentrion."

137. O tiger's heart...] The famous line made use of by Greene in his at

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