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room. This defect was met by setting aside for the use of children one of the periodical rooms. The first year 28,823 books were circulated from this room. Plans to enlarge the building are being made; about $3,000,000 has been given for the purpose. When completed the Library will contain the most beautiful reading-room assigned to the use of children in the world. The enlargement of the building, and a further gift to extend the usefulness of the Library by increasing the department of technical books, to which generous donations have been made each year, will increase its value to workingmen. A reader's assistant, a graduate of one of the leading technical schools and a man of experience, is now on the Library staff.
In all the schools of the city—public, sectarian, and private—are libraries loaned by the Carnegie Library. The books loaned to private schools are subject to recall if needed in the public schools. The organization of the library work in each school is left wholly to the teachers.
The Library authorities co-operate with the teachers, and direct only when requested. Each library has its distinctive mark and list of books—a wonderful system, making it possible to tell where each library is and the books in it. Teachers in the schools send a list of the books needed. The lists from the sectarian schools are followed as closely as possible. When all the books cannot be sent, a list of substitutes is submitted to the school for approval or disapproval. The result is, the utmost confidence has grown up between the people and the Library. The work of the Library in the schools is greatly facilitated by a most valuable catalogue, "Graded and Annotated Catalogue of Books in the Carnegie Library of Pittsburg, for use in the City Schools." Circulating catalogued envelopes of pictures for use in the children's rooms in the Library and the branches, in the class-rooms, home libraries, and children's clubs, have broadened the interests of the children, and greatly aided in the school work of every grade and the general culture of the people. Framed photographs are loaned in the homes. In the eleven playgrounds one thousand volumes were placed last summer. Ten books were lost.
The home libraries are placed in homes in the poorer sections of the city, and at points remote from the library centers. Some of these are under the care of one oi the Library assistants, some under volunteer workers. Some of the home library groups are organized as clubs, with one of the members as librarian. In these groups the effort is made to keep in touch with the grade teachers, that the books may supplement the school work. About one-third of the books in each home library are fiction. The hour or more spent with the home library groups is spent in story-telling, listening to stories retold by the children, and playing games.
A training-school for children's librarians will be opened in the Carnegie Library on September 30.
There are five branches of the Carnegie Library in Pittsburg. All are beautiful
buildings. Each has an assembly hall which may be used by the people for lectures, concerts, and public meetings; each has a beautiful children's reading-room, having open shelves. Pictures, casts, and special exhibits are a part of the educational attractions. Each children's room is in charge of an attendant who has received special training in children's work. Several of these attendants and of those in charge of the home libraries have been kindergartners. These rooms and the periodical and reference rooms are open every day in the week; on Sundays from 2 to 6 in the main library and the branches. The school-teachers have special privileges in drawing books for class work. The co-operation between the schools and the branch libraries is limited by the schools, never by the Library. Special efforts are made to win the children and working-people to the branches. Reading classes or clubs are maintained; study classes whenever possible; story hours for children; mothers' reading circles. Each library develops along the line that will meet the wishes of its own constituency. There is no limit to the efforts of the Library authorities to win and hold the people.
Another department developed to meet the special needs of another section of the community is the making of reference lists for the leading literary clubs. These lists are prepared on single papers as well as on courses of study, and copies are kept on file and prove valuable. Mr. Edward H. Anderson, the librarian, ably seconded by the officers of the trust and the city officials, studies the people as related to the great Library under his care. So perfectly is the relation to the people of the region maintained that every one who draws a book is made to feel that his personal view of the Library is important. The management is as noble and generous as the gift.
There is every indication at present that the Carnegie Schools of Applied Science will be located on grounds almost adjoining the Carnegie Institute. The scope of this school is but an indication of the foresight that has made Pittsburg.
The schools will include a Technical College, Experimental Shops and Laboratories, Technical High Schools for boys and girls, and the Artisans' Day and Evening Classes. That the school shall meet the needs of the whole community and the great commercial and industrial interests centering in the region was the intention of Mr. Carnegie. The consulting and the local committees, composed of men eminent in the educational, the business, and the technical world, are determined to be equal to the opportunity the princely gift makes possible. It was given to the people. That it shall be established to meet the demands of the whole people is the determination of the committee and trustees.
Shall it be that in Pittsburg the prayer of Paracelsus is to be answered?
Make no more giants, God,
But elevate the race at once! We ask
To put forth just our strength, our human
THE MAKING OF AN AMERICAN1
Author of " How the Other Half Lives," "A Ten \ ears' War,'' etc., etc.
Chapter XIII.—Roosevelt Comes—Mulberry
All of which has reference to other things I have in mind, not to the proof-reader, against whom I have no grudge to-day. As for him, perhaps he is just a sign that the world moves.
Move it did at last in the year (1894) that gave us the Lexow Investigating Committee, the Citizens' Seventy, and reform. Tammany went out, speeded on its way by Dr. Parkhurst, and an administration came in that was pledged to all that we had been longing and laboring for. For three years we had free hands and we used them. Mayor Strong's administration was not the millennium, but it brought New York much nearer to it than it had ever been, and it set up some standards toward which we may keep on striving with profit to ourselves. The Mayor himself was not a saint. He was an honest gentleman of sturdy purpose to do the right, and. normally, of singular practical wisdom in choosing the men to help him do it, but with an intermittent delusion that he was a shrewd politician. When it came uppermost he made bargains and appointed men to office who did their worst to undo what good the Warings. the Roosevelts, and their kind had wrought. In the struggle that ensued Mayor Strong was always on the side of right, but when he wanted most to help he could not. It is the way of the world. Nevertheless, as I said, it moved.
How far we came is history, plain to read in our streets that will never again be as dirty as they were, though they may not be as clean as Waring left them; in the threescore splendid new school-houses that stand as monuments of those busy years: in the open spots that let the sunlight into the slum where it was darkest and most foul; in the death-rate that came down from 26.32 per thousand of the living in 1887 to 19.53 in 1897. That was the "Ten Years' War" 1 wrote about and hav*e here before referred to. The three years of the Strong administration saw all