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officers and privates after surrender in at ing Russian aggression in Manchuria is least two authenticated instances, here- not to be wondered at when we remember after. “the members of any commando by the horrors of the Amur massacre of a which such an outrage is coinmitted who year ago. That matter has never been fully may be captured, and, after trial, proved explained, but Russian papers asserted to have been present on such occasion, that it was due largely to the misunderwill be held guilty, whether they actually standing of a telegram from St. Peterscommitted the deed or not; that the burg to the Russian general in command, leader of the commando will be sentenced General Gribski. It has been believed to death, and that the other members will that General Gribski committed suicide be punished with death or less, according on account of the serious reprimand reto the degree of complicity.” English ceived by him from St. Petersburg, but it papers very generally condemn this meas- is now stated that he was, in point of fact, ure, for two reasons: first, because it is banished to Kamchatka. Simultaneously not believed to be in accordance with the comes the statement from Russia that laws of war to visit the sins of the guilty the number of Chinese who were mason the guiltless in summary execution, and sacred at the Amur River, where men, it is evident that such summary punish- women, and children were driven into the ment might very likely fall upon soldiers river to drown, was not five or six thouor officers who had nothing whatever to sand, as previously reported, but only do, directly or indirectly, with an act which three thousand! Various reports come might be committed, without orders, by a also from the interior of China to the few men or even by one man ; secondly, Shanghai papers to the effect that scenes because it is considered that the measure of disturbance and riot abound in the will be totally futile, as, in the nature of country, especially in northeast Shantung, the case, it will be impossible to produce and that anti-foreign placards are being the evidence called for by the proclama- posted even in Canton. These rumors tion. No important actions have taken must be taken with reserve, as reports place lately; the most sensational event from missionaries indicate that they are of last week was Lord Kitchener's report resuming their work in many places. Last that sixty-eight British soldiers had been week Prince Chung and Li-Hung-Chang captured by the Boers, and, as usual, dis- notified the foreign Ministers that they armed and released. It is stated in the were at last ready to sign the protocol for despatches that General French has col- China, and by the time this paragraph is umns closely following all the Boer com- read the protocol, in all probability, will mandos of any size.
actually have been signed. Edicts have
been received from the Emperor and Conflicting reports have Empress agreeing to the conditions of the More Massacres in Manchuria
arrived during the past Ministers in regard to the punishing of
week in regard to renewed Chinese officials, the destruction of the bloodshed in Manchuria. One account forts, and the suspension of examinations states that several Christians have been for office. Probably the Court will soon killed by the Chinese ; another asserts return to Peking. We can hardly take that two hundred peaceable Chinese sub seriously the statement from Peking that jects were lately killed by the Russians Prince Chun, who is now in Berlin for by mistake for Bazouk bandits,
the purpose of officially apologizing to supplementary story asserts that, in addi- Germany for the murder of her Minister, tion, five hundred of the Bazouks were has asked by cable whether he is to commercilessly put to death. It is doubtful ply with the demands of Emperor William whether the exact facts about these occur- that, when presented to the Emperor, the rences will ever be known, but there is Prince must bow three times, while the some reason for believing that there are Secretary of the Mission and other substill serious disturbances in Manchuria, ordinates shall prostrate themselves and especially near the Korean frontier, where knock their heads nine times on the floor Russia, according to the Shanghai " Mer- before the Emperor. Certainly this would cury," has now some twenty thousand men. be a court ceremony which inany would That there should be uneasiness concern- go far to see.
“ Seven cap
Those who have read tive powers of a new rifle. European Savagery the story of Living- tives, their arms tied behind them, were in Africa
stone's Christian life placed in line, each with his belly to the and peaceful exploration in Africa, or the next man's back. A corporal took the record of the achievements of Mr. J. Thom- rifle; the officers looked on critically. son, author of “ Through Masai Land,” in The word was given, and the corporal fired traversing unexplored African territory straight at the breast of the first captive. without arousing the enmity of the natives, All seven fell, pierced by the ball. The will not admit that wholesale bloodshed new rifle was declared a success." It is is inseparable from expeditions of dis- not surprising to learn that attacks upon covery in the Dark Continent. Yet that the rear guard followed, but the natives is practically the ground assumed by had no modern arms or military efficiency, many leaders; the Germans and French and so long as night surprises were more especially have a dark record of guarded against the white men and their killing and devastation attached to their paid native soldiers had little resistance attempts at conquest and occupation in to meet in their “sport of shooting Africa. A striking illustration of this natives”—to quote one of the headlines of is found in an account of Major Mar- the narrative. From beginning to end the chand's famous march from the Congo to story as told by this American is one of the Nile, lately written for “ Collier's death-dealing, cruelty, ravishment of native Weekly” by Mr. W. S. Cherry, a young women, and wholesale burning of villages. American engineer and soldier of fortune, Usually the excuse is made of some act of who had charge of a decrepit river steamer wrong-doing on the part of the natives, which followed Marchand -as a basis of but it is impossible to decide who was the supplies. The object of the expedition original aggressor, while it is not strange is frankly stated to have been to strike a that the ignorant natives should take a hard blow at British prestige on the Upper hostile attitude to armed bodies of forNile. This effect of the Fashoda expedi- eigners suddenly invading their country. tion was neutralized by the firmness of That any serious attempt was made to. the British Foreign Office—firmness re- establish friendly relations or reassure the garded by the French as brutal, and the terror-stricken barbarians does not appear. retreat in diplomacy forced upon France Such tales of tracks of devastation left by did much to arouse in the French people advancing civilization may well suggest the old, bitter anti-English prejudice. It that the next International Peace Congress may be doubted whether France gained might properly consider the subject of the materially in any way by Major Mar- conduct of arined expeditions into uncivilchand's exploit, but personally he became ized lands. a national hero. At what cost of life this honor was obtained may be judged from Mr. Cherry's narrative. He says that
This great interMajor · Marchand's name was a terror
The Methodist Ecumenical
Conference among the natives; above Brazzaville, on
of the Methodist the Congo, in one preliminary campaign, Church begins its session in London next two hundred native villages were burned, week. The attendance of American deleand the chief's head was cut off and brought gates is large ; among them are Bishop in triumph to Brazzaville. Cumba, a popu- Hurst, Bishop. Vincent, Dr. A. B. Sanford, lous native village, was surrounded before Dr. F. N. North, and many others. of equal daybreak, a bugle-blast aroused the sleep- prominence in the Church. The Consering people, and as they rushed from their ence will be so large as to be unwieldy huts two hundred and fifty repeating rifles in a single body, and it will be divided, were turned on them, and the whole popula- therefore, into two sections, one of three tion-men, women, and children-were ex- hundred and the other of two hundred terminated; "the wounded, appealing for members. The larger of these sections mercy withoutstretched arms, were finished will be called the Western section, and where they fell.” At another village, Mr. will be composed of delegates from the Cherry was informed, Major Marchand's United States and Canada, and the misSenegal soldiers wished to test the penetra- sion fields of these countries, while the Eastern section will probably be composed lections are taken in the meetings, as a of the delegates from Great Britain and rule. Everything is avoided that could from British missions. As the Conference possibly be misconstrued by the most is purely of an ecumenical character, it skeptical. The cost the first year was has, of course, no legislative functions, about $9,000; the second, over $11,000, but will employ its energies in discussing the entire amount being raised by indiimportant matters relating to the Method- vidual gifts. Eight weeks have elapsed ist polity, doctrine, and discipline. The since the committee entered upon its presdelegates will be about equally divided ent summer campaign, and the interest between ministers and laymen. The open- displayed in the movement is most encouring sermon is to be delivered by Bishop aging. Doubtless many have been brought Galloway, of the American Methodist into touch with Christian workers who Church South, and all American Meth- could have been reached in no other way. odists are proud of the distinction thus During one week alone 20,000 persons conferred upon this country. A few of were in attendance at the various tents. the subjects to be discussed at the Con- Evangelists and helpers are endeavoring ference are formulated in the following to enlist volunteer workers and are starttitles: “Methodism and Education,” “ Bib- ing them over the community. During lical Criticism and Christian Faith,” a single week over five hundred homes “ Dealing with the Liquor Traffic,” “ Per- have been visited in this careful individversion of Wealth,” « The Influence of ual manner, and eleven cottage prayerMethodism in Promoting International meetings have been conducted.
The Peace.” The Outlook will, of course, give committee now has in operation seven its readers in due time an account of the Gospel tents, and in addition is conductdiscussions in the Conference as viewed ing noonday services in Independence by representative delegates.
Square and at the City Hall. Two
churches are being built as a result of
It was in April, the tent work.
1899, that Mr.
The summer assemblies cepted an invitation from the Presbyterian
of the Disciples of Christ Social Union of Philadelphia to address are growing both in number and in eduthis representative body of laymen of the cational and religious significance. The Presbyterian Church in one of their month oldest and most important of these is ly meetings. As one result of this address Bethany Assembly at Bethany Park, Ind., the Social Union appointed a committee which occupies about three weeks each of twelve men to consider the matter summer, and is devoted to the interests of summer evangelistic work. After a of the Disciples in Indiana especially, number of meetings of the committee, it and to their work in general. Missionary was finally agreed to try one tent. This conventions, Sunday-school conferences, proved successful, and soon another was ministerial associations, popular lectures secured, and still later a third. During on current religious and educational the first summer three tents were kept in themes, Christian Endeavor rallies, and use, with meetings every night except other like matters, constitute the proSaturday. The second year five tents gramme. One of the best features of the were placed in operation. Tents have assembly is the series of lectures given the advantage over church buildings or each year to the preachers by some strong halls as places of meeting in that they educator. Eureka Assembly, at Eureka, are cooler, more attractive and inviting Ill., is conducted along similar lines, but to the people who are not accustomed to is more distinctly educational in character attending church, and who, in some cases, than Bethany Assembly. The second could not be persuaded to enter a church. annual Assembly held at Gordonsville, The tents are well lighted, have light Va., was more successful than the first, folding chairs, and there is a platform and the outlook for future summer gathlarge enough to accommodate twenty five erings there is bright with promise. The singers, an organ, and the speakers, erected programme at Gordonsville consists largeat the side or end of each tent. No col- ly of popular lectures and preaching. The South Kentucky Institute at May- reading, and short addresses. The final field was especially successful, considering meeting is a preaching service. the fact that it is new. The principal popular feature of this summer school was the series of able lectures on science The Epidemic of Savagery and revelation showing the compatibility between the two. This in
During the month just ended there largely attended by young ministers of were in this country four lynchings in the Gospel. The newest of all is the which the victims were burned at the Bethany Beach Assembly, opened in July stake. The details of the horrible scenes last at Bethany Beach, Del. Preaching have been published far and wide, so that services, popular lectures and entertain- the whole country has been made to know ments, comprised the essential features. the depths of the savagery to which our
race, in widely separated communities, has Ocean Grove Meetings
Perhaps the most pop- reverted.
ular and largely at- Ten years ago cruelty such as the mobs tended summer services in the world are have exhibited sickened us when we read those annually held at Ocean Grove on of it in Parkman's account of Mohawk the New Jersey coast, under the auspices wars, and we thought of it as showing of the Methodists. The summer gather- how completely we had outgrown the ings at Northfield are more interdenomi- instincts of barbarous races. To-day the national, as they are more strictly educa- communities where these horrors occur tional in character and prove more preserve as mementos the evidences of attractive to preachers, Sunday-school their savagery, and newspapers all over teachers, and Christian workers in general. the country treat the details as sensation But Ocean Grove is attended more largely and not as a disgrace. There is, in fact, by the public in general, and the days of only one hopeful feature to the increasservice on the beach are crowded full of ingly depressing situation, and that is varied religious interests, including even that clear-sighted men at the South have some features which have an over-sensa- begun to recognize that the horrors pertional flavor. Eleven or twelve distinct petrated by the mobs do not check the services are held each day: an early con- crimes against which they are directed; secration meeting at 5:45; an hour later, and there is reason to hope that in the in the auditorium, family devotions, for North communities, if not newspapers, will the benefit of the families in the hotels, soon begin to perceive that the detailed are conducted. This latter is a unique narration of these horrors simply demoralservice and is largely attended. At 9 A.M. izes the larger part of the public which on Sundays three or four meetings are comes in contact with it. As to contact held simultaneously, consisting of young with physical evil we are all quite clear. No people's consecration service, evangelist one in his senses will touch physical dismeetings, testimonials, and love feasts. ease unless his work is to cure. There is The great service of praise is held at ten the same danger from contact with moral o'clock; in this an orchestra of forty disease, and the same need of restricting musicians and a chorus of two hundred it to those who have purpose to heal. voices leads the congregations, consisting Even these, unless they have the equipsometimes of as many as twelve thousand ment of moral physicians, approach crime people. This is followed by the preaching at their peril. service. At 2:30 (on Sundays) the Sun- But the awakening needed at the North day-school is held, succeeded an hour to check the brutalizing descriptions of later by a meeting for children in the brutality is apart from the purpose of Temple. After this comes the service of the present article. That which now exhortation, in which many ministers take deserves attention is the awakening already part, followed by the great open-air service begun at the South respecting the ineffiat the foot of Ocean Pathway, when thou- cacy of lynching as a deterrent for the sands of people gather for this surf service, crimes committed by the victims. Several as it is sometimes called, which consists Southern newspapers have recently given of singing, praying, responsive Bible expression to this thought, which the Columbia (South Carolina) “State” puts canonize the victimized representatives of in the following striking terms:
their faction regardless of their personal An epidemic of the most horrible of crimes qualities, while Wilkes in England and has swept over the country within the last few '- Markt in France show that radicals are weeks. "Following the triple lynching at Car. dominated by the same sentiments. Few rollton, Miss., came a series of crimes by negroes against white people, chiefly against personalities have been more repellent white women. The same thing was noticed than that of Wilkes, yet his wrongful after the Sam Hose affair in Georgia two: exclusion from Parliament not only made years ago. That “fearful example” was succeeded by a series of murders and assaults
him a hero among Liberals, but, Cowper by negroes, leading to a series of lynchings, in tells us, caused him to be the special some of which the methods then employed object of prayers among people who were imitated.
cared nothing for his sentiments, and only What, then, is the effect of lynchings? knew he was wronged. Marat still better There is certainly no evidence to substantiate a claim that lynching serves as a deterrent, illustrates the universal human sentiment, causing negroes to refrain from the crime or since his murder by Charlotte Corday not crimes for which it is employed as a punish- only made him a hero among his fellowfrom the gossip that is so rapid in its transit Jacobins, who had personally detested him, and in its exaggeration among the members but lifted into power the faction which of that race. By the time the subject has Charlotte Corday sought to destroy. It passed among a few of the negroes their is not, therefore, merely negro nature but characteristic ardor is aroused, and the victim, human nature which exalts the victims of instead of being a brute properly punished, is lynch law into positions of importance as in their eyes a hero and a martyr.
These are hard sayings, but every one who representatives of their race. knows the negro knows they are true. And, In its effect upon the crin inal, thereknowing them to be trae, it ought to be readily fore, the result of denying a fair trial is seen how impossible, it is to expect lynching to serve as a deterrent of crime among the
to transfer him from an object of execranegroes.
tion into an object of sympathy, and force The negro about to be lynched generally the members of his race to become his manages to retain his composure. The negro partisans. The evil thus done is merely methods were left to him he would choose the accentuated by the publicity of the execudeath that would attract greatest attention. tion, for the sudden importance of the vic
Close students of history and all stu. tim is thereby proportionately increased. dents of criminology will agree that it is
The theatrical instincts which are so not merely the characteristics of negro strong among the criminals and egotists nature that are noted here, but the of all races are appealed to by publicity, characteristics of human nature., Booker and the lawlessness designed to put down Washington has shown that more than lawlessness becomes a strong impulse four-fifths of the negroes lynched in this toward its perpetration. country are not even accused of the crime In its effect upon the community and of assault, and all negroes know that the the Nation the harmful results of lynching victims in most cases are killed without are of course still clearer, and this, too, is trial, not because of their crime, but because
now being recognized at the South in a of their color. When any man of any way that affords a hope of reformation. race is made the victim of hatred against The savagery of last week's mob in Tenthat race, he is immediately exalted into a nessee called forth this comment from the hero. Dreyfus and Kruger illustrate the Nashville “ American :” principle to-day, and every international
The mob spirit thrives through suggestion. episode in the past furnishes other illus
Lawlessness feeds on lawlessness. Formerly trations. Indeed, it is not necessary that the mob was satisfied to hang its victim. When the victim of obvious wrong shall appeal the Texas mob burned a negro, it was a shock to so powerful a sense of sympathy' as
to the country. The world regarded it with
horror. But as crime becomes familiar, its that which springs from race feeling. repulsiveness grows less. The first burning The men of every party who have been of a victim by a mob suggests the crime to the victims of hostility against it have others, and it has been repeated so often that become party heroes. Charles I. in Eng. it has ceased to be more shocking to the beland and Louis XVI. in France show how formerly was. It has grown to be the com
numbed public mind than an ordinary hanging royalist reactionaries have been ready to mon method of the mob. It will grow more