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whom I gave my son in charge when in the islands, is founded on the prinI get out.
ciples of the Sanskrit alphabet, withGe. I have already heard that you out adhering to its artificial classificaaccuse us all, without the smallest tion. Like other semibarbarous dia. reason too, especially myself, who am lects, it is deficient in generic terms, the least to blame. What would you and redundant in those expressive of wish that I had done? The laws do individuals. But the great source of not permit a slave to plead, nor even its copiousness springs from the poto be a witness.
litical fabric of society. There is an Dem. All you say, I pass ; my son, ordinary dialect, and another expres. from inexperience, was afraid-wallow. sive of respect. ed. You are a slave; I know that too. 66 A servant addresses his master in the But, after all, however strong the language of deference, a child his parent, proof that she was his relation, Anti - wife her husband, if there be much pho was not obliged to marry her. disparity in their ages, and a courtier his You should have given a dowry, as prince. The superior replies in the ordi. the law directs, and let her find an- nary dialect, the language still affording other husband. Why bring home a modifications and distinctions according to beggar for his wife?
the rank of the person he addresses, until Ge. That's very true--but where the rank rises to equality ; when, if no in
timacy subsists between the parties, the was money to be found ?
language of deference is adopted by both; Dem. He might have found it
or when, if there does, ceremony is laid somewhere.
aside, and the ordinary language becomes Ge. Somewhere? that's an easy the only medium of conversation.” thing to say.
" The Javanese literature may be diDem. If no way else was found to vided into lyrical compositions or songs ; raise it, why not borrow upon interest? romances founded on Hindu legends ; no
Ge. A pretty fancy truly! Who mances founded on native story; histories would lend to him while his father of modern transactions ; legal and etbical lived ?
tracts, chiefly in prose; and compositions Dem. No, no, it cannot, and it chiefly on matters of jurisprudence and reshall not be. Does one imagine l’li ligion, founded on Arabic originals.” allow she be his wife a single day?
Books are written on palm leaves, No, for the world I won't. That or paper, with pens made of the twigs man I must directly see, or have it of the Aren palm, or of quills, as told me where he lives.
among ourselves. There is a wonderGe. What? Phormio, you mean?
ful feebleness and imbecility, an utDem. I mean the woman's patron. ter absence of that energy, ardour, and
Ge. You shall have him here di- sublimity, which so often characterize rectly.
the compositions of rude nations, obDem. Where is Antipho just now? servable in every species of their Ph. He is
writings, arising not, as is presumed, Dem. I wish you, Phædria, to go from want of talent, but from the de in search of him, and bring him here. pressing influence of despotism. Ph. This moment I shall go.
The subject of religion is consider
(Exit. ed under four heads :--the Ancient Ge. (aside to Phædria) To Pam- Religion--Modern Hinduism-Maphila's, you mean?
homedanism--and Christianity. The Den. But I'll step in and do my ancient religion was that of Buddha, homage to the household-gods, and as is evident from the ruins of his afterwards go to the Forum, where temples, and other remains of his I'll meet some friends, and beg their worship
, which exist in the country. aid in this affair. When Phormio The ruins of Brambanan occupy an comes, he shall not find me unprepar. area 600 feet long, and 550 broad. They ed.
consist of a groupe of temples built of
hewn stone, in a pyramidal form. REMARKS ON CRAWFURD'S HISTORY
The blocks of stone are covered with à profusion of sculpture. The en
trances face the cardinal points, and (Continued from p. 32.) the apartments contain figures of vaThe language of Java, the most rious kinds. The temple of Boro improved and copious of those spoken Budur, in the mountain of Kadu, is
OF THE INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO.
a square building of a pyramidal are Christians, possess a share of energy shape, ending in a dome. There are and intelligence, not only superior to their also remains of brick temples. The Pagan and Mahomedan brethren of the architectural ornaments consist of same islands, but superior also to all the friezes, cornices, architraves, and flat
western inhabitants of the Archipelago, to pilastres; but there are no balus- the very people who, in other periods of trades, colonnades, nor pillars of any and civilization upon them. They not
their history, bestowed-laws,-language, shape. The groupes of figures in the only excel these, but the more advanced temples represent audiences, proces nations of Hindustan, as well in energy of sions, religious worship, hunting and character, as in intrepidity and intelligence. maritime scenes.
A well-known fact will place this beyond The Hindu religion is at present al- the reach of doubt. In the intercolonial most entirely confined to the Island navigation of all the nations of Europe in of Bali, where it is the prevailing the Indies, the natives of Manila are alform of worship. The Balinese are
most universally employed as gunners and Hindus, chiefly of the sect of Siwa, steersmen ; that is, in those offices where divided into four casts: a priesthood, it is necessary to combine skill and firma military, a mercantile, and a servile it is an acknowledged fact, that the na
ness with mere physical labour and agility, class. There are no religious mendi- tives of Hindustan, with their present chacants, nor devotees to extravagant racter, are incapable of being bred to fill acts of self-mortification in the island. such offices. But the practice of the wife sacrificing " The natives of Amboyna, who are herself on the funeral pile of her hus- Christians, are much superior, both in moband is carried to an excess unknown rals and intelligence, to their countrynen even in India. In 1813, twenty wo
who are Mahonicdans, and, notwithstand. men were burnt on the funeral pile ing all the oppression they have endured, of one man.
áre a peaceable and most inoffensive race The religion of Mahomed was pro- ed above all the other Asiatic troops, and
In the Dutch armies, they rank. pagated in the Indian islands from Arabia, and is now very generally scale of merit.
were paid, equipped, and considered on this professed. And the islanders, espe “ Without venturing at present to decially the Malayan tribes, are exem- cide upon our right to impose our religion plary in their attention to the positive upon the people of this portion of India, precepts of the Koran, such as festi or our claim to arbitrate for them in a vals
, fasting, prayer, attendance on matter of conscience, it will be fair to view the
mosque, and performance of the Christianity in its influence as a mere in pilgrimage. But the only negative strument of civilization. The most scepti. precept of the prophet which they cal, then, may admit that it must tend to obey is the prohibition against eating the unspeakable benefit of the governed to the flesh of hogs. Yet in violation be of the same religious belief with their of the Koran, they consume annually be strengthened, and benevolence and
governors,—that mutual confidence must an enormous quantity of opium, and kindness increased, by an accordance of partake freely of wine and spirituous opinion on so material a point. It is not, liquors.
indeed, possible to conceive that the barChristianity is the prevailing reli- barians of the Archipelago should ever gion in the Philippines and the Spice adopt a material and beneficial portion of islands. Jy the former, the converted the humanity, --improvement, and monatives are Catholics, and in the latter, rality of Europe, without, at the same they are Protestants.
time, adopting the religion with which these “ Under all the disad yantages of into- interwoven." Vol. 11. pp. 277--279.
concomitants of civilization are so closely lerance, bigotry, and oppression, in the Philippines, and of a state of slavery in the Our limits will not permit us to Moluecas, amounting to a privation of al- enter into the details of the historical most every genial right which belongs to narrative of these islands; but we the natural situation of these people, some
must take some notice of their politiadvantage may still be discovered in the influence of the Christian religion. It has eal institutions. The people are dieither given rise to an energy and intelli. vided into six classes, namely, the gence superior to that which characterizes royal family, the nobles, the priests, the followers of the other modes of wor- the cultivators, debtors, and slaves. skip, or has bred manners more mild, and The title to the throne is regarded morals more inoffensive.
as divine, and is guarded by public " The natives of the Philippines, who opinion. The nobility depends upon
the will of the sovereign; and though whole procedure conducted with calmevery man's title dies with himself, ness, deliberation, and decorum. The yet no people are fonder of titles, nor punishments are various, often arbi. behave with greater arrogance when trary, and cruel. Mutilation is in. clothed with a little brief authority. flicted for theft, and death, by stran. The third class, or priesthood, seems, gulation, and stabbing with the kris, says our author, never to have ac- is, in too many cases, wantonly aquired an undue and pernicious in- warded. Auence in society. The tenure of The commerce of the Archipelago, land depends upon the will of its pro- in all its bearings and relations, is prietor, and the condition of the pea- treated of at great length. And as the santry is determined by the utility author brought his personal expeand necessity of their labour to their rience, in an especial manner, to this superiors. Among themselves they part of the subject, we have reason to live on terms of much equality; and be satisfied that his facts were well in some parts of Java, the village is a ascertained, and his speculations enkind of corporation in which the chief titled to respect; though we could officers, including the priest, are elect- have wished he had been less disposed by the cultivators of the soil. The ed to vituperation, and appealed with class of debtors are such as voluntarily greater frequency to the sources of or by the laws of their country mort- his own information. His strictures gage their services for a certain period on the impolicy of monopoly and reto discharge come obligation, which striction would, we are confident, have they have no other way of liquidat- commended themselves to his readers ing. Their condition is in fact a with more persuasive influence, had mitigated kind of slavery.” Slavery, they been given with less acriinonious in the true sense of the term, exists keenness of language. The account in all the islands, except Java, and of the commerce of the islands, how. constitutes the sixth class into which ever, is a very valuable part of the society is distributed. “ The origin work before us, and fraught with inof this state is referable to four heads formation both to the philosopher and -prisoners of war-debtors who can- the merchant; and is especially acnot redeem themselves — criminals ceptable at this time as the benefits of condemned to slavery by sentences of free trade, in a national point of view, courts of law—and persons kidnap- are beginning not only to be under,
stood but recognised, and even to be The revenue of the islands is de- partially enjoyed. rived from a land-tax, poll-taxes, and The account of the internal corntaxes on consumption. That from merce of the country is curious. land is the most important. The im- Trade is honourable, and the higher post is regarded as the price of super. class of dealers are remarkable for intending the water of irrigation ; but fairness, spirit, and integrity. In Jamuch of the land is unclaimed and va, the women are almost the sole uncultivated. The amount of the merchants and brokers. The markets poll-tax is a mere trifle. In Java a present scenes of great bustle and acdirect tax is imposed on fisheries, and tivity; for besides the numerous venon all goods exposed to sale in the ders and purchasers, artisans, such as public markets.
blacksmiths, goldsmiths, braziers, dyThe laws of the islanders are a mix- ers, and many others, mingle in the ture of the Hindu and Arabic law. throng in quest of einployment. The The supreme court of justice at the islanders have commercial intercourse seat of government consists of four with several of the Asiatic nations, persons called “the nails which fix and chicfly with China. The trade, the kingdom"—the sovereign_his of all others, the Chinese are the least minister-the high priest—and the jealous of, is that of the Indian islands. judge of common law. The court is This trade is carried on from the maopen, and held in the portico of the ritime province of Fokien ; and the principal mosque. Civil disputes are cargo of a junk (or Chinese vessel) is settled in the inferior courts, rather the property of several individuals, by arbitration than by judicial pro- each'having his share stowed in a sea cess. In all important cases the evi- parate compartment of the junk. dence is reduced to writing, and the
“ The articles of importation from Chi
na may be enumerated in the order of their earls, knights, judges, privy counsel-
hence said indeed to embrace, without exception, the origin of the monopolies granted every article of the produce of the Archi
to the Indian commerce by the napelago. The most prominent are the fol. tions of Europe. Mr Crawfürd thinks lowing: Black pepper, cloves, mace, and great advantages will arise to the trade nutmegs, long pepper, clove bark, ebony, from the partial freedom which it sandal, sapan, and Agila wood, benzoin, now enjoys; and is a zealous advocate camphor, ivory, tin, rattans, Kawul, or tin- for entire liberty. Were that the case, der of the Gomute palm, betel-nut, bees our manufactures (at least many of wax, Gambir, and cotton wool, agar-a-gar, them) would find a market in the or sea-weed, tripang, or sea-slug, edible East.' We should enjoy the tea, spicebirds' nests, jerk-beef, or dendeng, sharks' fins
, fish maws, rhinoceros' horns and hides, ries, and other produce of those fera ox and buffalo hides and horns, tortoise- tile regions at an immensely cheaper shell
, gold-dust, silver coins, European rate; we should constitute a nursery woollens and cottons, &c.”
for the training of skilful seamen ; Vol. III. p. 181. and reap a variety of other advanta
ges. This commerce engages 30,000 tons of
Such is a brief survey of the subshipping. The trade with the Hindus is of the Indian Archipelago.” And though
jects contained in “ The History of old date, and comprehends cargoes it must be obvious, that many things consisting of betel-nut, damar, bees
are omitted, and others treated of wax, ivory, lignum-aloes, Indian slightly, yet we trust we have sucfrankincense, cloves, nutmegs, and ceeded in giving such a view of the mace, black pepper, and tin. The work, as to induce those who delight trade of Arabia with the East is at in Oriental literature, and those who present confined to a few ports of the design to extend their commercial adwestern islands. Arabia, a poor country, has no commodities to exchange, themselves of the valuable informa
ventures to the Archipelago, to avail but the genius and enterprise of its tion with which it is so well fitted to people. A few dried fruits are occa- furnish them. sionally brought, and the rest of the investment is in bullion. The returns are cloves and nutmegs, black pepper,
DESCRIPTION OF A STORM. frankincense, betel-nut, rice, sugar, FROM MARCIAN COLONNA. and the manufactures of Europe and THERE was a tempest brooding in the air
Far in the west. Above, the skies were
fair, “ Down to the close of the fifteenth cen
And the sun seemed to go in glory down : tury, the consumers of Europe were igno. One small black cloud (one only) like a fint of the name and situation of the coun.
Touched his descending disk, and rested
there. discovery of Vasco di Gama, in 1498, Slow then it came along, to the great wind changed the commercial history of the Rebellious, and (although it blew and blew) world, which had remained nearly station. It came increasing, and across the blue ary for three thousand years ; and fourteen Spread its dark shape, and left the sun be. years thereafter the Portuguese obtained hind the first cargo of spices on the spot where the day-light sank, and the winds wailthey grew.” Vol. III. p. 212.
ed about In the first English voyage the The barque wherein the luckless couple whole subscribers were 237, the great And from the distant cloud came scattering er part of whom for sums under 1.300. The subscribers, in the se Rivers of fire ; it seemed as though the day cond joint stock company, were 954, Had burst from out the billows, far away. of whom 338 were merchants ; and No pilot had they their sınall boat to steer the rest adventurous - dukes and Aside from rocks, no sea worn mariner
Who knew each creek and bay and shel. Talking of hope, and smiled like morning tering steep,
-There And all the many dangers of the deep. They sate together in their sweet despair : They fled for life, (for happiness is life,) At times upon his breast she laid her head, And met the tempest in his hour of strife, And he upon her silent beauty fed, Abroad upon the waters : they were driven Hushing her fears and 'tween her and the Against him by the angry winds of heaven :
storm And all around the clouds, the air, the sea Drew his embroidered cloak to keep her Rose from unnatural dead tranquillity, And came to battle with their legions : She thanked him with a look upturned to Hail
bis, Shot shattering down, and thunders roared The which he answered with a gentle kiss aloud,
Pressed and prolonged to pain. Her lip And the wild lightning from his dripping was cold ; shroud
And all her love and terror mutely told. Unbound his arrowy pinions blue and pale, And darted through the heavens: Below, the gale
CORRESPONDENCE OF THE DE COVERSang like a dirge, and the white billows
lashed The boat, and then like ravenous lions
No. III. dashed Against the deep wave-hidden rocks, and
Bandyborough, July 4. told
MR EDITOR, Of ghastly perils as they backward rolled.
FANNY has had a letter from her
brother George, who considers himThe lovers, driven along from hour to
self exceedingly aggrieved, by not hour, Were helpless, hopeless, in the ocean's having, as yet, had the honour of a
particular introduction to your knowpower. -The storm continued, and no voice was ledge,—an honour he was the more heard,
ambitious of, as, from literary habits Save that of some poor solitary bird, and similarity of tastes, he could the Which sought a shelter on the quivering more highly appreciate its value. As mast,
the vacation at Oxford is commenced, But soon borne off by the tremendous
we shall soon have hiin at home; and, blast Sank in the waters screaming. The great best amends I can for my seeming ne
in the meantime, I will make the Bared like a grave its bosom silently ;
glect of him, by giving you a detailed Then sank and panted like an angry thing, account of him. Of his birth and paWith its own strength at war: The vessel rentage, you have already been sufflew
ficiently informed; and as to his eduTowards the land, and then the billows cation, perhaps the less I say about grew
that the betier; for, like the Vicar of Larger and white, and roared as triumph. Wakefield's son Moses, he received a ing,
very miscellaneous one,
You may Scattering afar and wide the heavy spray
remember that my own education was That shone like loose snow as it passed much neglected, of which I so often
away. -At first the dolphin and the porpoise
felt the disadvantage, that I was the
more desirous that my children should dark Came rolling by them, and the hungry be well brought up. As soon as my shark
eldest son was born, I applied myself Followed the boat, patient and eager-eyed, earnestly to the study of every book And the gray curlew slanting dipped her on education that had ever been writ. side,
ten; and you may easily surpose, my And the hoarse gull his wing within the dear Sir, with what a inedley of theofoam ;
ries and hypotheses my poor heau But some had sank, the rest bad hurried
was soon bewildered. Luckily for my home.
two eldest children, they slipt through And there pale Julia and her husband, my fingers into the hands of the go
clasped Each in the other's arms, sate viewing verness and the schoolmaster, before Death :
I could satisfy or inature my ideas on She for his sake at times in terror gaspel,
so many ditlerent systems, so that But he to cheer her kept his steady breathi, the whole violence of my experiments