페이지 이미지

it was a homely and natural vessel that it arose from a mistaken set of borrowed from the utensils of daily gentlemen who were chattering, and life, and, therefore, fitted for poetical bustling, and dipping at a brook, use. Lamb and Lloyd dipped in a which they believed to be the true bright but in a shallower part of the Castalian. Their splashing, and dabstream. Coleridge went to the depths, bling, and gabbling, can only be imawhere he might have taken the purest gined by those who have seen a flock water, had he not unfortunately cloud- of geese wash themselves in a pond, ed it with the san:), which he himself and plume their quills with chatterdisturbed at bottom, by dipping too ing portance. There was the Hodeeply. Lamb and Lloyd stated, that nourable Mr Spencer with a goblet lent they should take their porrengers him by Lady Elizabeth Mug, -and home, and share the contents with Hayley, simpering and bowing, and the simple and amiable hearts that reaching with a tea-cup at the water, were dear to them there. Coleridge -and Bowles, laboriously filling fourwas not certain as to what use he teen nutshells, -and Lewis, pompousshould apply his portion of the waters, ly, mysteriously, and solemnly plung, till he had ascertained what were the ing an old skull in the brook,--and physical reasons for the sand's pro- Admiralty Croker swimming a little pensity to mount and curl itself in the cock-boat, “ by order of the Board,” stream. The Spirit declared he might and innumerable ragged young genand could do what he pleased with it, tlemen fussing, and fuming, and fid--and then uttered to him with a getting, with leaves of the Gentlesmile“ Remember poetry!" Cole- man's Magazine in their hands, and ridge, Lamb, and Lloyd, separated by all to no purpose ! Poor Cottle was mutual consent, when they quitted all abroad; and an obscure youth, of the margin of the water.

the name of Wiffin, was lost in a maze Wordsworth, with a confident step, of bad grammar. There seemed now no next advanced. The Spirit said, as encouraging signs in the eleinents, – she saw him, that no one had a greater nodelightfulsoundsofattending spirits, right to approach her than himself, -no springing up of flowers to cheer that no one had so great a natural these worthies in their pursuits. They right to the water,—but that he ap were satisfied with their own greatplied it to such inferior purposes, and ness, and flattered into bustle by their calumniated her favours by such fits own vanities. I could only hear Folof childishness and vanity, that she ly shaking the bells of her cap to enloved and yet regretted to see him. courage them on. The continual acHe began a long and very prosaic de- tivity of tongues soon fatigued me, fence of his system; but in the course and I turned myself from them to of it he became so egotistical, mysti- look again upon the Spirit. She had cal, and abusive, that she reproved put off her bedimming veil, and stood and silenced him. He made a bowl before me bright with excessive beauof the crown of his hat,* (it was so ty. One glance of her eye scared the natural !) anul scooped up the water silly multitude from the brook,—and with it. The Spirit smiled at his fol- she ascended into the silent heavens. ly, but the poet preserved a serious There, to my astonished and delighted countenance, and pronouncing certain eyes, appeared Shakespeare, surroundlines from his own Excursion, he quite ed with light, with Spenser on the ted the place.

one hand and Milton on the other, The sound of stirring wings now and with the best of our early poets subsided, the air became less bright, thronging around him. Amidst unand the flowers on the bank becamé earthly music he received the Spirit, less odorous and less beautiful. No -and they became all lost in light! other poet approached to obtain water I raised my imploring and enrapturfrom the Castalian stream. But still it ed hauds--and in so doing, I dropsparkled and played along with a melo- ped my common-place-book,—which dious and a soul-like sound. On a sud, awoke me. The fire was out, the den I heard a confusion of tongues room was dark, I was excited and hapbehind me. On turning round, I found py!-Such is dream the second !

P. S.-I have a third very good Sec the Excursion.

drcam in my head.

ESTABLISAMENT OF A GENERAL of the heads of the Medical DepartBOARD OF HEALTH FOR IRELAND. ment, for reasons sufficiently obvi

ous, and of some others distinguished The establishment of a General by their zeal and activity. It is not Board of Health is as interesting to a little recommendation of this Board, the community at large, as it is to the that, except a bare remuneration to medical profession. In its operation the Secretary for time and labour, it every one is deeply interested, and it costs the public nothing. It may do may be productive of much inconve- much good; cannot do any harm ; nience or of great advantage, accord- for it has no control over the profesingly as it is established upon just sion, it enjoys no patronage, nor posor false principles. Medical Police

sesses any exclusive rights. But its obis in fact not so much a professional jects, and the means which it has de study, as a branch of the science of vised for attaining them, cannot be so Political Economy. Its object is the well explained as by reprinting both preservation of the general state of the instructions furnished to the Board health, by obviating the general cau- by our enlightened countryman, the ses of disease. The state of Medical present Secretary of the Irish GovernPolice in this empire and in Germany ment, and the Queries circulated by is strikingly contrasted, and in nei- the Board; and we trust that, ere long, ther is it founded upon sound princi- similar Boards will be established ples. Except our quarantine regula- both in Scotland and England, which tions, and the inefficient corporation they might be at no other expence privileges of the various branches of than enabling them to conduct their the profession, we have no permanent correspondence free of expence. In medical police, and local or occasional the mean time, we shall feel gratified circumstances influence its applica- if the circulation of the queries should tion; while in Germany, a mistaken procure from the readers of our Magapolicy of regulating every thing con- zine communications on the causes, nected with health, has led to the progress, and decline, of epidemic disformation of a cumbrous code of con

eases in various districts in Scotland, tradictory, and often hurtful enact, which, if they should seem too profesments. The philosophy of Medical sional for our pages, we shall transPolice does not differ from that of mit to the Editor of the Medical the other branches of Political Econo- Journal. my, and its objects are to be obtained by facilitating the acquisition and Plan of Regulations for the Guidance of disseinination of the relative informa the Board of Hcalth ; as communicated tion, with as little enactment as pos to the Board by Mr Grant. sible, and no tendency to extend, or create, monopoly. We cannot there Ist. To obtain the earliest information fore adequately express the satisfac- respecting the appearance of Epidemic distion with which we have perused the ease, either of foreign or domestic origin ; first fruits of the General Medical to trace it in its progress, and to ascertain Board established in Dublin

the causes of its rise and diffusion. upon

2d. To collect information from intellithe soundest principles of political gent individuals in every part of the kingscience. The Board is of a mixed na- dom, including Members of Parliament, ture, neither consisting entirely of the Clergy of different denominations, Maprofessional men, nor excluding them gistrates, and Governors of Hospitals, and altogether. The lay members, if they Dispensaries, on the actual condition of the may be so called, are not selected on Poor, and the circumstances which affect account of their holding high official their health, as to locality, occupation, situations, which would interfere with state of dwellings, supply of fuel, food, their attending to its business, but clothing, or education. from those individuals who have, by

3d. To digest the information thus coltheir past zeal in the service of the lected into a methodical form, so contrived, poor and the public during the late different districts, it shall afford a just es

that, by contrasting the state of the poor in epidemic, given the strongest guaran- timate of the operative causes of disease. tee of their future exertions, and 4th. To obtain authenticated reports on whose rank in society is sufficient the measures used in other countries, to to give them due effect.

secure the public liealth, together with an The professional members consist account of their success, so that, if it shall

be deemed expedient, similar measures occasionally opened ? Arc the dwellings may be adopted in this country.

of the poor in general constructed with 5th. To procure statements from differ- chimneys ? ent parts of Ireland, on the means which 6. What improvements in the construc. have been lately resorted to, in order to tion of their dwellings, conducive to dryobviate sickness, and to ascertain those ness, ventilation, and light, are practicable ? causes which have principally contributed Are the poor disposed to adopt such in. to success or failure.

pprovements ? Be so good as to deseribe 6th. To inquire into the orgunization of the general internal state of their dwellings hospitals intended for the relief of contagi 7. Are their cabins much crowded, parous disease, in order to adapt them to ex. ticularly in the night time ? isting circumstances ; and, as far as pos 8. Do the inhabitants lie promiscuous. sible, to bring such institutions under a ly; and are cattle sheltered in their dwell. general system of improved regulation. ings?

7th. To ascertain the places where Dis 9. What is the condition of the poor in. pensaries are established ; how they are habitants as to bedding? Do they sleep governed, how the medical duties are dis- on straw, heath, rushes, or dried leaves ? charged, and what benefits the poor derive II. ,Clothing.-1. Of what materials does from them, and to acquire correct infor. the clothing of the poor generally consist ? mation as to the state and management of Is much or any attention bestowed on its their funds.

renewal or cleansing ? 8th. To be a medium of communication 2. Can you adduce any facts in proof of between Charitable Institutions for the the opinion, that disease is extended among prevention of sickness in different parts of the poor by infected clothing ? the kingdom, to supply information as to 3. Are the habits of the lower classes in the best modes of conducting such esta- your neighbourhood cleanly? If not, what blishments, so that each may avail itself of methods are most likely to introduce cleanthe experience of the rest, and be instruct. liness ? Has any plan for this purpose ed as to the best and most direct modes of been put in practice in your neighbourhood obtaining its object.

with success ? 9th. To communicate information to III. Diet

.. Is the diet of the lower Government on all the preceding topics, classes sufficient as to quantity; and is it and to present a General Report, at stated of good quality ? Does it give origin to periods, on the result of such inquiries. disease, or further its progress?

Toch. To submit for the consideration 2. Be so good as to state the price of of the Government, such measures of po. Bread, Potatoes, Oatmeal, Milk, and Salt, lice as are likely to improve the public generally, in your neighbourhood, with the health, and require the sanction of the ex average price of each of these articles ecutive government, or the support of posi- throughout the year. tive law.

3. Does fish form a considerable article

of dict amongst thre people ? Are fisheries Queries proposed by the General Board of encouraged ? Do any and what obstrucHeulth, Dublin.

tions exist to the further extension of the I. Drecllings.- 1. Are the dwellings of fisheries ; and by what means are these obthe poorer classes so situated in general, as structions likely to be removed ? to be not unfavourable to health? Is there IV. Fuel... Is turt the only fuel in much bog, or marsh, strictly so called, in your neighbourhood, or is there any conyour neighbourhood ?

siderable and regular supply of coal ? 2. Is the substratum or rock of the 2. Are the poor well supplied with fuel ? country limestone, slate, granite, or of Has the want of this article favoured the what other material is it composed ? extension of disease ?

* Does the custom prevail, of forming 3. In the mode of burning their fuel, are deposits of putrefying vegetable or animal any changes practicable, likely to dini. matter near the dwellings of the inhabit- nish its consumption and promote ventilaants? Have means been cmployed with tion ? success for the prevention of such nui V. Employment... What are the wages sances ?

of labour in your neighbourhood ? Is 4. Do any facts evince the unwholesome- there sufficient employment for the poor? ness of the ctfluvia proceeding from water Can you propose any means of employment in which flax has been steeped, contiguous productive to the community or to indivito the habitations of the poor?

duals, suggested by the locality of your dis5. Of what materials are the cabins trict ? mostly constructed ? Are they often built 2. How are females employed, and what in part below the ground ? What apere are the daily benefits which may accrue to tures have they for the admission of air a family from such employment ? State and light? If provided with windows, are also the effects of different kinds of employ. these so constructed, as to admit of being ment on the health of the poor.


VI. Contagion.-l. Do any customs, these Societies, or rendering their operacontributing to extend febrile or other in. tions more efficacious ? fection, at present exist amongst the poor? 6. Please to supply any information If so, can these be opposed or counteract which may not be connected with the ed with any probability of success ?

foregoing Queries, but which you shall 2. Are mendicants numerous ? Can you judge to be material in elucidating the oristate any facts in proof of the communica. gin and progress of such distresses of the tion of disease, by strolling or other beg. Poor of Ireland, as have a tendency to progars ? Can you point out any causes which duce, to propagate, and to continue disease produce or promote mendicity ?

amongst them.--And point out any prac3. Is fever now prevalent in your neigh- ticable measures, whether of a general or bourhood ? If so, does it spread through fa- local nature, which, if duly enforced by milies? State what has been the general Government, and by benevolent individu. prevalence of fever, within your memory, als or societies, may lay a foundation for amongst the poor.

the gradual improvement of their condi. 4. Are persons attacked with fever tion. This query is not meant to com. speedily removed to an hospital; and prehend Education, because it must be al. are measures employed to purify the cloth- lowed, that Schools for the Religious and ing and bedding of such patients, or of Moral instruction of the lower orders of their families ? and if this is the case, be so Ireland, extensively formed, and arefully good as to state particularly these or other superintended, should accompany every preventive measures. Also, if any mode measure which may be devised for the perof cleansing the walls and furniture of in- manent advantage of the country, fected houses has been resorted to with 7. To conclude-As the people of any

country can be effectually benefited only by 5. Have the lower classes readily con their own exertions; the importance of such curred in the measures of prevention which exertions vught to be impressed on their were generally recommended for adoption, minds, by every possible means.-Your during the progress of the late Epidemic opinion is therefore particularly requested Fever?

as to the measures which have a tendency 6. What means appear to you the most to excite and keep up such a laudable spilikely to remove their prejudices, and to rit amongst them, under the varying inconvince the sufferers, that cleanliness of fluence of favourable or adverse circunall kinds, free admission of air and light to houses and cabins, warm and dry clothing, the avoiding excessive fatigue and night air, and the immediate separation of the sick from the healthy, during the preva, OF ESSAYS ON PHRENOLOGY. letice of epidemic disease, are their best and surest preservatives from danger ?

MR EDITOR, VII. Endemic and General Diseases. ANOTHER great advantage attend-1. Are any other diseases prevalent in ing phrenology is, that it sets the phiyour vicinity, and from what causes do losopher, in his researches, free from they chiefly originate ?

the disturbing influence of his own 2. Does the Small-pox often make its mental peculiarities. It is amusing to appearance? Does it prove fatal to a large see how many systems of philosophy proportion of those whom it seizes ? Is have been founded on some mode of Vaccine Inoculation generally and success- thinking or feeling, peculiar, in a fully practised ?

3. Do any manufactures, peculiarly in. great degree, to their author. 'A mejurious to health, exist in your neighbour. taphysician endowed with a strong hood ? How do they operate, and how are

Benevolence, and feeble Conscientheir bad effects to be remedied ?

tiousness, could scarcely fail, by re4. Are spirituous liquors consumed to ex- flecting on his own consciousness, cess by the middle and lower classes in to resolve the sentiment of Justice your neighbourhood ? To what extent is into Benevolence. Another to whom malt liquor in use amongst them? Do nature had denied powerful sentiyou think that the habit of intoxication ments either of justice or benevolence, gains ground amongst the poor? If you but to whom she had given a vigorous can devise any practicable means of check- and comprehensive intellect, woull ing so serious an evil, state them in de- be prone to resolve it into perceptions tail.

5. Do any Charitable Societies exist in of Utility: On the other hand, those your neighbourhood, for the relief of the individuals in whom the Sentiments poor during sickness, and for the encour.

were stronger than the Intellect, would agement of good and healthful habits ? be naturally prone to exalt feeling inCan you suggest any mode of extending to supreme authority over judginent.



Now phrenology sets us free from all volve the theory of the great diversisuch partial views. The phrenologist ty in human sentiment and judgment, does not take his own mind as a stande combined with that degree of coinciard of human nature. Although be- dence which every where exists. Supnevolence were weak in himself, pose the case to be stated of a person whence he would have a natural tena who has lost an immense property by dency to regard selfishness as the a casual conflagration, and who has ruling principle of human conduct, he thereby been rendered insolvent, and would be restrained from adopting that a creditor has stript him by a lethis idea as the principle of his philo- gal execution, of the last remnant of sophy, by finding other individuals in his property, and left him in utter destiwhose life and conversation benevo- tution and want, and that the opinion lence, in all its native simplicity and of different individuals is asked upon worth, bore the predominating sway, the proceeding. One will probably and perceiving that they had a great regard the proceeding as cruel and undevelopement of brain where he had a just; while another will call it hard, small one. In like manner, a phreno- but not unjust, for, in his opinion, logist would not set down the love of every one is entitled to his own. The praise as the universal passion, merely sceptical philosopher, on hearing these because he had an inordinate love of different decisions, would affirm that approbation in his own mind; for ex- there is no standard of right and tended observation would soon make wrong in human affairs, and no nahim acquainted with many individuals tural sentiment of justice in the huto whom praise conveyed but little man mind; otherwise, he would say, pleasure, and who had no desire to that as all who have eyes see the same climb the dizzy heights of Fame. object, green or black,--so, if such a

The Metaphysicians, in studying sentiment existed, all who possess it the mind by exclusive reflection on ought to see the same object right or their own consciousness, laboured also wrong. Every metaphysician has felt under another great disadvantage. No the difficulty of answering this objecfact is more certain than that indivi- tion ; but phrenology enables us to Cuals differ in their natural capacities throw the light of the meridian sun of feeling and of thinking. One, per- upon it. It proves that there is, in haps, has naturally a powerful capaci- fact, an innate sentiment of justice in ty of feeling benevolence and a weak the human mind, but it shews that sensibility to justice: Another has it is strong or weak, according to the a combination precisely the reverse; size and activity of a particular porhis sentiment of justice is eminentlý ţion of the brain. It proves, also, strong, but his benevolence weak. It however, that there are other innate is a highly interesting problem in the sentiments in the mind besides jusphilosophy of the mind to discover tice, such as benevolence, veneration, how each of these individuals will feel and others; and that these also are and be disposed to act in the affairs of strong or weak in proportion to the size life, and how disposed to view the and activity of particular parts of the great questions in politics, legislation brain to which they are attached. and religion, that may be submitted And, in the third place, it proves that, to their decision. The philosopher who in the affairs of life, our judgments merely reflects on his own conscious- are the results, not of onc faculty ness, has very inadequate means to alone, but of all our faculties acting throw light on such a question. If together and exerting a mutuul influhe confine his attention strictly to his Thus, the individual in whom own mind, it is impossible that he the sentiment of Justice is weak, and can discover even the fact that the na- Benevolence strong, would feel stroroze tural powers of feeling and thinking ly by his benevolence for the unhapare different in different individuals. py debtor, and weakly by his justice But, suppose him to have discovered for the crcditor, who was deprived of the fact by intercourse with society, his right, and he would pronounce his mode of philosophizing, which the act cruel and unjust. Another, in never carries him beyond the circle of whom justice was great and benevohis own bosom, cannot afford him a lence small

, would by his justice feel ray of light upon the subject. And strongly the claim of right on the part yet the point itself is of great import of the creditor, and his benevolence ance, for the solution of it must in- would be weakly affected by the situa


« 이전계속 »