« 이전계속 »
sunne my labours; the dreams of ambition mating details of plots, conspiracie should replace those of love, and by fast- and politics, to feel any great concern ing and penance I would drive Angela about those famous subjects of disfrom my thoughts. Yet, I was resolved
which to grant my passion one indulgence,.-! doms, and in which even monarchs
once agitated whole kingwould own it to its object ; I would wring sometimes condescended to take a from her a confession of a mutual attach
share. ment, and then resign her for ever. And
The Nominalist and Realist I did not long watch in rain for an oppor. now sleep together in equal oblivion ; tunity.
the feelings of men are no longer so * One day, as the shade of twilight stole extremely combustible on metaphysiover the lovely gardens filled with a thou- cal controversies; and one may, theresaad odours, and gently tinged with the fore, pretend to give a theory even of beams of the setting sun, the two pairs of Impersonal Verbs, without the apmarried lovers left us alone together.- palling anathema above-mentioned beConscious of the weakness of her own ing cast in one's teeth. heart, and suspecting that of mine, Angela
in that very learned and ingenious rose, and would have followed them; but book, fred Tregosvid, or Diversions of I forcibly detained her, and, grasping her trembling arm, pointed to the objects of Purley, the author, by a process of our united envy, and exclaimed, Sec, decomposition, the most rigid and de- , Angela ! see those happy husbands! and monstrative, has shown that what has think what tortures 1 endure, who love as been commonly denominated the fatenderly as they do, and never must hope culty of Abstraction is a mere nonto be as happy ! ---Speak, thou whose beau- entity, and is in fact a name which ty has undone me ! Say, have you no pity we have borrowed from the schoolfor a wretch whom you have made? Tell
men, without ever having inquired me, Angela, do I suffer alone?'
whether it has any precise and defi* As I spoke with passionate violence, but in a voice subdued even to woman's nite meaning. In language, every gentieness, 1 pressed her to my heart; and word, when traced to its source, is as her head fell upon my shoulder, she significant, and expresses a simple murmured out, “ Yes, you must go ; but idea. In the progress of improveknow that my sufferings and my love are ment, however, that idea, or, what as great as yours.'
comes to the same thing, the sign of *** Then why should we part?' cried I. that idea, is placed in juxtaposition “ The scene, the hour, the sight of the with another idea or its sign, and, by wedded happiness before us, and my im- the simultaneous presentation of both passioned tenderness, laid the voice of con
to the inind, we obtain a complex science to rest ; nor was it long before she idea. Complex ideas, Mr Locke has rebore to hear me talk of the means of our duced to three heads, viz. Modes, elopement." Vol. I. pp. 225-239.
Substances, and Relations. In the And so, of course, elope they did, reception of simple ideas, the mind and a pretty kettle of fish follows. is purely passive, but in the compoBut we have quoted the only part of sition of complex ideas, it exerts acts the story which is finely done, and of voluntary power, as it must be apwe give it as a fair specimen of the parent that nothing but an act of the best parts of these new Tales. will can account for the juxtaposition
of the ideas, man and horse, (assum
ing these as simple,) which create the ON IMPERSONAL VERBS. complex idea of a centaur. Now, in
the formation of complex ideas, under ME EDITOR,
the three heads of modles, substances, The fierce and foolish logomachies and relations, I apprehend we disof grammarians, on the subject of im- cover the existence of no new faculty, personal verbs, have been long pro- such as that denominated Abstraction, verbial. “ God confound you for (which indeed is a synonym with an your theory of impersonals,” exclaim, act of voluntary attention, but are to el one of these enraged controversial refer the whole process of generation verbalists against his meeker and more to the conjoint operations of the faphilosophical opponent. We manage culties of Memory and Association : these matters differently now-a-days. of Memory, which retains ideas of The world are too busily occupied in simple impressions, and presents them the mysteries of traffic, the pursuits to the mind's eye ; and of Association, of ambition, or the endless and ani- which, depending on some original
affections, or relations, subsisting a. plished in a very easy and satisfactory mong our ideas, or which the mind manner, by doing nothing more than imagines to subsist among them, removing the idea of restriction, limigroups them together according to tation, or individuality. For the conthese fundamental laws of our intel- venience of illustration, let us suplectual frame, in total independence pose the words an apple-tree to exof any act of volition on our part. To press a simple idea, and, of course, an put this doctrine in a clearer light, individual of a species. Remove the let us take an example. The substan- words an apple, and there remains the tive tree, when enunciated, in this word tree, totally unlimitel, within a unqualified and unrestricted form, certain range, and the application of conveys, to the mind, no tangible or which will consequently receive a cordistinct meaning; at least, as far as I responding latitude. But although it am able to perceive. In the same neither has, nor, indeed, can have manner, the word angle, or any other any archetype in nature; although word put in a general form, is, per se, we cannot tell what the word tree equally non-significant. Men become really means, except that we may use acquainted with every object in na- it in certain relations, and within certure by its properties or attributes. tain limits, we can nevertheless, with What are tire properties of the words perfect accuracy, describe what it is tree and angle, put in the abstract not, how far such a word can be apform, without any limitary adjunct? plied, without absurdity, -and when What idea can we possibly have, of its application ceases to be recognized tree, which is neither an apple-tree, a by the mind in an intelligible form: pear-tree, a fig-tree, nor in short any in other words, we can perceive, as altree, which is still tree, and yet has ready hinted at, that the word stands none of the possible properties of any in certain relutions to other terms and tree? The same thing may be said of ideas, the limits of which relations are the word angle. The archetypes of perfectly precise and definite. Thus, simple ideas exist in nature: general were we ranging an immense forest, terms have nothing to which they cor- replenished with the most diversifiel respond: they are, therefore, mere forms of trees, we could instinctively non-entities, about which men may recognize that the application of the busy themselves till the crack of doom, term tree was limited only by the ex. without knowing more of the subject tent of the class of objects before and than we do now, or making one step around us, and beyond them, would of advancement in real science. become inconceivable and absurd.
But here it may be asked, why in In short, I, the unknown quantity, troduce into language words that are on the left side of an algebraic equautterly non-significant, which, more- tion, is the only illustration of this over, is inconsistent with your funda- extremely nice and ticklish matter, mental position, that every part of which I am able, at present, to call language is significant, and that, in up. As soon as the equation is conpoint of philosophical precision, there stituted, we discover, at once, how : neither does nor can exist any thing is limited, and the relation which it but simple ideas, the combinations of bears to other ideas that are known : which constitute the dogmas and les. And having this point fixed, we can sons of science? To this objection, reason, with mathematical certainty, pertinent and german to the subject of x, narrowing, more and more, the certainly, the answer is easy. The limits of its relations, till, at last, it word tree, in the first stage of the for- turns out a relation of equality to one mation of language, was appropriated thing known from the commenceto one individual of a great multitude, ment of the operation, being part of and only received this extended and the data necessary to the solution. general form, when experience and re. But it must be obvious that, until we fection showed that there were vast arrive at the last step in the process, numbers of individuals, differing in we continue in total ignorance of 2, many points specifically, but, at the and can no more tell what it is, than same time, possessing many qualities we can define the word angle, within common, to which, of course, par- out employing the words right, obticular and descriptive epithets could tuse, acute, isosceles, or scalene. not be applicd. And this was accom Having made these preliminary ob
servations, I am pow in a condition to non decet te. I need not reinark, that state what appears to me the true the infinitive is often the nominative theory of impersonal verbs. When to a verb, the antecedent to a relative, we utter the phrase, "The morning and, in one instance, (scire tuum, &c.) rains," the meaning is distinct and is construed as a substantive, with precise ; but when we withdraw the an adjective in the neuter gender. two first words, " the morning,” and Again, omnibus bonis expedit salvam leave only the word " rains," or, as esse rempublicam, is a form of expreswe have it in English, “ it rains," sion in which the clause salvam esse (pluit,) the limitation is removed ; we rempublicam is obviously to be taken know not what rains, when it rains, or as the nominative to expedit ; for the where it rains. What, in the former salvation of the state is the thing proinstance was distinct, precise, and fitable to all good inen.
Tædet me particular, has now become general, vitæ might readily and easily enough and, within a certain range, unlimitbe converted into vita lædet me, were ed; in fact, we have the impersonal it not that vitæ being in the genitive, verb rains” used upon the same this form of resolution makes no acidentical principle with the substan- count of that accident of the word. tive “ tree," when employed as a ge- And here let me remark, that, in the neral term. By itself the word Latin language, words are very pre“ rains," like the general term cisely and philosophically applied. It
tree,"is wholly unintelligible, un- is not life, in general, or in the abless when, either directly, or by im- stract, (if you will,) of which I am plication, something co-related is weary; no man was ever weary of brought under the consideration of life, unless on account of some of its the mind, and unless it be uttered in concomitant circumstances; it is, relation to something else. I can per- therefore, something connected with fectly comprehend the simple phrase life, say the pains, miseries, and sor“ Titius delectat,” but I believe there rows of which unhappily it is so ferhas existed no logician, since the davs tile, something attendant upon life of the Angelic Doctor, who will, for that embitters, and renders me weary any bribe, undertake to define the of, my existence. Now, the genitive word " delectat," impersonaliter usure is, that case which expresses the depatum. The instant, however, you pendency of one thing on another, or enunciate the following proposition, the relation which it bears, in the delectat me studere, the mystery is re- most general terms possible. It was, solved; the film falls from the eye ; therefore, the proper case to be emthe mind promptly recognizes an in- ployed on this occasion. Assume, destructible relation between the sim- then, the most general term you can ple ideas, study and delight, and as find, negotium, for instance, which is promptly seizes upon the word stu- by far the best, as it will leave the dere, * (which, in all except time, sentence, when resolved, as general which, without any sensible error, we and extended, in its import, as it was may here praetermit, is perfectly sy- evidently the purpose of the author nonyinous with studium,) and con- that it should be. The resolution verts it into the nominative to delec- will then stand thus: negotium vitat; thus, studere delectat me, which tæ tædet me, something of life, or resolution of the phrase has this proceeding from it, wearies me." Anovast advantage over every other, ther example of this kind will suffice, that it completely supersedes the per- as the principle upon which they all plexing rules about impersonal verbs, proceed is the same. Miser et me tui. which appear so enigmatical and re- The meaning of this phrase is plainly volting to young people, and reduces not that I pity you in every respect, the whole matter to the concord of a and in all that belongs to you, but nominative with a verb, and the regi- that you share my pity only on acmen of an active verb, two of the count of something connected with most elementary of the rules of syn- yourself. Hence negotium tui misetax. In the same manner, (to take ret me; something connected with another simple and well known form you moves my pity. In all these exof impersonal expression,) non decet amples the verb called, or rather miste ritari, admits of the following re- called, Impersonal, is only a common solution, rixari (equivalent to riva) verb used after a general and inde
finite manner, like the general words reality, as an impersonal verb, stricta Tree, Angle, &c.; the nominative to ly so culled." which we must seek, not in what pre Before I proceed farther, I must cedes but in what follows. The sen- here beg leave to disclaim all the metence is merely reversed. A hysteron rit of a discovery in grammar, if such proteron takes place, and that is all; a bagatelle as that to which I have and when that slight change takes been calling your attention may be place, what was before as great a mys- dignified with so proud a title. The tery as the Universal Solvent, becomes same idea has frequently presented the plainest and simplest thing in the itself to other grammarians, as for exworld.
ample, to Ruddiman (Grummaticae To remove all objection, let us now Lutinæ Institutiones, Lib. II. cap. xi. take an example of those impersonals p. 176) and Dr Crombie, (Gymna(refert and interest) which are said (er- sium, Vol. I. p. 157;) but then these roneously) to require the genitive. distinguished scholars seem not to Says Quintilian, Plurimum refert have been aware of the importance of compositionis quæ quibus anteponas, the idea upon which they appear to which, when resolved, according to have stumbled, and never thought of the principles here laid down, will applying it to resolve the hitherto become quæ quibus anteponas pluri- perplexed construction of these famum refert (negotia) compositionis. mous verbs. As far as this Here quæ quibus anteponas is the no- merit or demerit is mine, and no far. minative to refert, and compositionis ther. is governed in the genitive by nego I shall conclude this long, and, ! tium, or negotia understood. Again, fear, not very interesting paper, with Interest omnium recte facere, becomes some remarks on a resolution of a few Est inter negotia omnium (sup. ho- of these verbs attempted by Dr Hunminum) recte facere, or, better still, ter of the United College, St Anrecte facere est inter, &c. where, as drews, so justly celebrated for the before, recte facere is the nominative depth, accuracy, and extent of his to the verb est. To show that these philological learning; and, as I have resolutions are not merely imaginary, the misfortune to differ from this very I beg leave to produce a passage from learned and excellent person, to whom Ovid, the only one of the sort which I am indebted for the small share of I can lay my hands on at present, al- classical learning which I possess, I though I am satisfied there are many profess I do so with extreme diffisimilar to be found in the classics: dence and humility, but, at the same Cui peccare licet, peccat minus, in which time, in prosecution of the spirit which sentence peccare is obviously placed by he delights to cherish in all who have the author himself as the nominative enjoyed the benefit of his instructions, to the impersonal verb licet.
Me, vel duce, vel comite utimini." The same general principle may, in If, at this distance of time, I recollect its application, be extended to the right, it is the opinion of this distinpassive impersonals. Pugnatur is en guished scholar that the impersonal qual to pugna pugnatur-(I need on- verbs involve their own nominatives ly refer to the Greek phrase uansoda in themselves. Now, for my part, I phagnu to show that the resolved ex must say that this would be a very pression is not absurd : a Latin ex. anomalous construction indeed, and ample, though there are very many, that it would be just as easy for me does not at present strike me ;) pug to conceive a nominative to involve in nabatur equal to pugna pugnabatur, itself its own verb, as a verb to in&c. it being somewhat difficult to re- volve its own nominative. Besides, present the passive form with the same if the opinions stated above be at all distinctness as the active, because the well founded, impersonal are just compronoun, which, in the active voice, mon verbs generally or abstractly apis the nominative to the verb, is, in plied; and, therefore, it follows, by the passive, thrown into the ablative, inevitable consequence, that, if these and governed by the preposition a or verbs involve their own nominative, ab.
all other verbs do so likewise, and, Now, from the whole of this induc- when, in the common course of readtion, I think it most incontestibly ap- ing, we supply a nominative different pears, that “ there is no such thing, in from that involved in the verb, we are
guilty of a gross solecism in language. in one of his walks, observed several But the most fatal objection to this fragments of Roman bricks and tiles, theory, as appears to me, is, that it which induced him to cause research does not apply. To be sure, we can es to be made on the spot where they for tædet me vitæ say tædium vitæ ca were found. The foundations of an pit, vel, afficit me, and for pugnatur, extensive building were soon traced, pugnu agitur ; but I should like to but the examination was deferred till know how Dr Hunter, on his princi- the year 1815, when a large room and ples, would resolve the
following sen- several passages were discovered, ortence from Terence: Te id nullo mo- namented with tessellated pavements, do puduit facere, which presents itself evidently of Roman construction. On under the simplest possible form when this being coinmunicated to the late resolved according to the method sug- Duke of Marlborough, to whom the gested above. The only advantage of land belonged, his Grace gave orders the theory in question appears to be, for continuing the work, and a house that it affords a plausible solution of to be built on the spot, for the resithe impersonal verb, when it does not dence of a person to prevent the destand in any immediate connection predations of the antiquary, who with what follows, thus; pluit, pluvia might probably prefer seeing a part agitur, which, by the way, is not over of these reliques of the Romans in his and above elegant.
own collection, to a view of them on If you honour this paper with a place their original site. The building apin your Magazine, I may hereafter di- pears to have been a Roman villa, orie rect the attention of your philological ginally forming a quadrangle of about readers to the English impersonal 200 feet square, and which had for verbs, which I hope to be able to re- ages past been entirely buried in the solve and explain to their satisfaction. earth. A plan of this villa is publish
I cannot conclude without stat- ed by Mr Hakewill, describing the ing, in justice to a very able and form, dimensions, &c. of the different meritorious philologist, Mr Dick, apartments discovered up to DeRector of the High School, Perth, that cember 1816. The principal room is these are nearly his sentiments on the covered over to prevent its receiving subject I have discussed, and that he injury by exposure to the weather, as is the only professional gentleman of is also a large warm bath in excellent my acquaintance (Dr Hunter except- preservation; the flues round it reed) who takes pains to direct the main, and also the pillars of the hyminds of his provectiores to the true pocaust, and even part of the pipe theory of impersonal verbs, instead of which conveyed away the water. perplexing them with the mystical Other baths have been found in difand often consensical jargon common ferent parts of the building. The on this subject both in grammars and room No. 1, in Mr Hakewill's plan, schools, where facts are frequently hud- richly merits the attention of the cudled together on the heads of the un- rious. It has a tessellated pavement, fortunate boys in a state of chaotic with a hypocaust under it, which confusion, dark enough to neutralize clearly points out the mode of warmthe penetration of an (Edipus. B. ing the apartments of the Romans. near Edinburgh,
Its dimensions are 33 feet by 20. In 26th July 1820.
another covered room near this a quan
tity of wheat, turned black by age, is DESCRIPTION A ROMAN VILLA the apartinents. Several broken arti
preserved, which was found in one of NEAR BLENHEIM.
cles of earthenware have been disa ABOUT three miles from Blenheim, covered, and one small urn very little near the village of Northleigh, at a damaged. The manner of laying the short distance from the river Even- tessellated pavement is clearly perceplode, and about half a mile to the tible: it differs totally from our meright of the turnpike road from Wood- thod of paving, and is well calculated stoek to Witney, a discovery was made to preserve the rooms from the dampin the year 1813, which is in the ness of the earth. A few silver, and highest degree interesting to every many other coins have been dug up, lover of antiquity. The Reverend Dr which are carefully preserved; the Brown, rector of an adjoining parish, latest is a coin of the Emperor Arca