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cept with those who wished to attain pro- the reign of James I. shews the imhiciency in law or in medicine.. !f students provement which had taken place in in languages, the arts, or divinity; now the department of jurisprudence. Sir left Scotland, it was generally to teach, and Thomas Craig's book, De Feudis, was not to be taught, in foreign seminaries.” the first regular treatise on law comVol. 11. pp. 289, 290.
posed in Scotland. Wellwood, ProMany Scotsmen distinguished them- fessor of Law at St Andrews, also selves as teachers in the foreign Uni- published several valuable legal treaversities. Among these, Jaines Ful- tises, particularly his Ecclesiastical lerton, and James Hamilton, who ob- Forms of Process. Wellwood's name tained professorships in Trinity Col- is also associated with the improvelege, Dublin, deserve to be particu- ment of physics and the arts. The larly mentioned. In this situation, chronology of Pont confirms the tesArchbishop Usher was among their timony borne to his skill in mathefirst pupils. Fullerton was afterwards matics and astronomy. Napier, the knighted, was admitted of the inventor of logarithmic calculation, is Bed-chamber, and usually resided at a name sufficient to give celebrity to Court after the accession of James. the age in which he lived, and to the Hamilton was created Viscount Clane- country which has the honour to own boy, and afterwards Earl of Clan- him as a son. Medical knowledge at brissel. Fullerton was one of Mel- this time, and down to a much later ville's scholars, and was distinguished period, was acquired chiefly at foreign by his friendship. Hamilton is also schools ; but Dr Peter Lowe, and Dr supposed to have been his pupil ; but Duncan Liddel, were then authors on the fact has not been distinctly ascer- that subject. tained.
Among the miscellaneous writers of It is a mistake to suppose that the this age, Hume of Godscroft, one of parochial schools of Scotlard owed Melville's intimate friends, deserves their origin to Parliamentary enact- to be particularly mentioned. He ments. The persuasions of tiie mini- possessed an extensive knowledge of sters, and the authority of the church ancient and modern languages, theo. courts, were, in a multitude of instan- logy, politics, and history; wrote his ces, sufficient to determine heritors or Apologia Basilica in refutation of the parishioners to endow schools. As Princeps of Machiavel; and his Hisevery minister examined his people, tory of the Houses of Douglas and he was careful to have a schoolmaster Angus in illustration of public events, for the instruction of youth. Sta- and of the manners of the times. tutes were subsequently of great ad- Poetry was then, as it is still, assiduvantage, but would have for ever re- ously cultivated. Montgomery, Hume, mained a dead letter, had it not been Lady Culross, Cockburne, Drumfor the exertions of the church. Clas- monil of Hawthornden, Sir Robert sical schools were also increased in Ayton, the Earl of Stirling, and Sir number, and many of them were ably David Murray, are among the poets conducted. “Before the year 1616, of the period, and the names and a fifth class was taught in the High works of some of them are still, we School of Edinburgh, and during their presume, familiar to many of our attendance on it, the boys were ini- readers. Latin poetry was then espetiated into Greek grammar."
cially cultivated by our countrymen, In logic, the writings of Ramus as the collection entitled Delitiæ Poeta supplanted those of Aristotle, or at arum Scotorum bears ample testileast prevented them from being re- mony; so that, “ if this was not the garded as infallible oracles, as hither- classic age of Scotland, it was at least to had been the case. Bacon's merit the age of classical literature in it." as a philosopher also began to be ap. In this department Melville himself preciated. No collections of sermons holds a conspicuous place; and behad appeared in Scotland till those of sides Ayton and Hume, names alRollock and Bruce were published. ready mentioned, Sir Thomas Craig, As a composition Archbishop Spots- Hercules Rollock, John and Arthur wood's History of the Church of Scot- Jonston, deserve also to be mentioned. land is a work' highly creditable to the Buchanan may be regarded as betalents of its author. Sir John Skene's longing to an earlier age; yet he died edition of the acts of Parliament from after Melville had taken up his resi
dence at St Andrews. The greater want of spirit in her inhabitants, or to the part of Melville's writings consist of genius of her ecclesiastical constitution. Latin poems, many of which are short “ In asserting that Melville had the chief and occasional, others are of greater influence in bringing the literature of Scotlength, and of more permanent inte- land to that pitch of improvement which it rest. Though he was the avowed and reached at this time, I am supported by the formidable enemy of the form of site parties, as well as by facts which have
testimony of contemporary writers of oppo. church government established in been stated in a former part of this work. England, yet Isaac Walton, though His example and instructions continued and displeased with the freedoms which increased the literary impulse which his he took with his favourite church, arrival from the Continent first gave to the does justice to his talents.
minds of his countrymen. In languages, "He was," says he,“ master of a great composition which was then most practised
in theology, and in that species of poetical wit, full of knots and clenches ; a wit sharp and satirical ; exceeded, I think, by rect and acknowledged. And though he did
among the learned, his influence was dinone of that nation, but their Buchanan."
not himself cultivate several of the branches And a modern English divine (Dr ing sketch, yet he stimulated others to cul
of study which are included in the precedZouch) speaks of him thus :
tivate them by the ardour with which he “ The learning and abilities of Mr Mcl- inspired their minds, and by the praises, ville were equalled only by the purity of which he was always ready to bestow on his manners, and the sanctity of his life. their exertions and performances.” Vol. His temper was warm and 'violent; his II. p. 335, 336. carriage and zeal perfectly suited to the times in which he lived. Archbishop Spotswood is uniformly unfriendly to his
REMARKS ON MATURIN'S SERMONS. memory. He seems to have been treated by his adversaries with great asperity." The author of these Sermons has
And having quoted Duport's poem already acquired an extensive celebriagainst him, he continues
ty from the publication of various
works of fiction, especially from his " Let it not, however, be inferred from powerful, but ill-imagined, drama of these verses, that Andrew Melville always * Bertram," and his very singular nosought to dip bis pen in gall; that he was vel of “ Women, or Pour et Contre." principally delighted with the severity of In addition to these, and several other satire and invective. He occasionally di. verted his muse to the subject of just pane- observe that a new set of Tales are
pieces, both in poetry and prose, we gyric. In many of his epigrains he has celebrated the literary attainments of his announced as just about to make their contemporaries. He has endeared his name appearance from his prolific pen. This to posterity by his encomium on the pro- association of the theatre with the found learning of the two Scaligers, and church, and of fictitious tales with the classic elegance of Buchanan his pre. pulpit discourses, is, we believe, someceptor, and the parent of the inuses. His thing new in the history of literature. Latin paraphrase of the song of Moses is The tragedy of Douglas, it is true, was truly excellent, exquisitely beautiful.” Vol. the production of a clergyman, but II. pp. 468, 469.
we are not aware that he ever pub
lished sermons. We shall conclude with one quota- the author of a drama, but his ser
Mr Logan, too, was
mons were not printed till after his “ The facts which have been pointed out death. Swift was a deservedly popu. in the course of this brief review, will, it lar writer of fiction and of political is hoped, assist the reader in forming an satire, but if we take his own word, his idea of the state of our national literature sermons became nothing but pamphat this period. They may perhaps con- lets. Sterne, as every one knows, is rince him, that Scotland was not so late in the author of a most amusing novel, literary improvement as is commonly ima. gined; that she had advanced at the time and also of very impressive sermons, of which we write
, nearly to the same stage but he never aspired to the drama ; in in this honourable career with the other this respect, therefore, the author of nations of Europe ; and that, if she did not afterwards make the progress which was to * Sermons, by the Reverend Charles be expected, or if she retrograded, this is Robert Maturin, Curate of St Peter's, Dub. to be imputed to other causes than to lin, 1 Vol. 8vo. London, 1819.
Women, or Pour et Contre," has a man of imagination and feeling rataken a higher flight than that of ther than of profound thought and in“ The Life and Opinions of Tristram tellectual perspicacity. The author is Shandy:” Even as novelists, there is evidently, though we had no other more of contrast between these writers evidence but the volume on our table, than of siunilarity. The arch humour, a man of originality and of extensive and endless, though seldom wearisome, and various literary acquirements, digressions of Sterne, as well as his while, at the same time, it is equally simple and melting pathos, are entire- evident that the tendency of his mind ly peculiar to himself, and constitute is not to deep investigation or close the great charm of his unique compo- discussion ; for, in the topics which sitions. Maturin, again, is distinguish- he takes up in his sermons, he does ed by an onward course of narrative, not reason, but expatiate-often, inand a stormy wildness of passion. The deed, with much beauty and elevation former, at his pleasure, moves us to of language, with much rich and laughter or to tears, by means of the graceful imagery, and with many apperfectly ludicrous or the exquisitely propriate Scriptural quotations and altender scenes which his matchless tact lusions; but he very rarely announces enables him, in all the living lineaments an order of arrangement, or illustrates of truth, and in all the circumstantial a proposition by a logical induction. detail of natural combination, to re- Hence, we think, that, though these present: the latter fixes us in asto- Sermons, if well delivered, must have nishment, or appals us with terror, by had great effect from the pulpit, the means of the strange or the terrible impression, at the same time, could exhibitions created by his irregular scarcely be anything else than transient, but powerful imagination. Perhaps as the hearers of them were not furthe satiric vein of these two authors nished with well-defined land-marks has a closer affinity than any of their to assist their recollection or to guite other endowments'; and this relation- their reflections. The mode of preachship is the more apparent, from the ing without any formal stateinent of circumstance of this dangerous talent's the topics to be explained, illustrated, having been employed by both to ex- or enforced, is, we are aware, not pose the abuses of religion. If Sterne without its advocatez, who pretend had the superstition and the intoler- that the omnission is conducive to the ance of the Church of Rome to whet elegance of the composition ; but we the edge of his satire, that of Maturin are decidedly of opinion that a lucidus was sharpened to equal keenness by ordo is a great excellence in any spethe pharisaical conduct of the reli- cies of composition whatsoever, and gionists of Dublin, who professed to that, as arrangement is managed by hold the “scarlet ladly” in utter abo- Blair, Alison, and many other elo mination. But, while we admire the quent authors of sermons whom we facility and the effect with which, in could name, it is a positive beauty in the developement of several of the point of taste, as well as of immense characters introduced into “ Women, advantage to the memory of the hearor Pour et Contre,” he has exposed ers. We readily admit that we have hypocrisy and dogmatism in all their an utter aversion to that refinement revolting deformity, we trust that, for of division, the object of which is to his honour as an author, and his com- multiply distinctions—which gives a fort as a man, he has not been assist- sermon the hard and ghastly appeared in his descriptions by personal al- ance of a skeleton, and which, in lusion or party malignity.
many instances, in former times at But we recur to his Serinons, which least, reduced preaching to mere verwe regard as a novelty, not merely in bal quibbling; but neither do we aprelation to their author as a dramatic prove of tłuť modle of preaching which poet and a writer of fictitious tales, reduces a sernion to an immethodical but also in respect of that class of and rhapsodical harangue--and it is compositions to which they belong, in this respect chiefly that we have for they are very unlike any other any fault to find with the Sermons of sermons with which we are acquaint- Maturin. We have nothing to obed. These discourses, indeed, bear ject on the score of orthodoxy, and throughout “ the image and super- the discourses abound with beautiful scription" of a man of genius; but of and pious passages though we must,
at the same time, take the liberty to fection which the prophet cherished state, that, in the perusal of them, for his wife, and hence the severity of we have met with figures, phrases, the trial, which called him to leave and allusions, too strong and even her sudden death unmourned, and to gross for the pulpit, at least on this go in the exercise of his function to side of the Channel. We might ad- call the people to repentance. After duce instances, but we rather refer an impressive appeal, or rather referthe realer to page 30 and to page 55, ence, to the disregard which man, in as containing glaring examples of what his prosperity, pays to the calls of we condemn. There is, we think, al- God's words, or the procedure of his so too frequent a recurrence of the Providence, he introduces the death term “ the Bible,” than is consistent of the Princess in this affecting manwith good taste in a sermon. Scrip- ner :tures, the word of God, or any of the other designations contained in the “ We have, within these last few awful sacred volume itself, ought, in our days, been taught what death is in all its opinion, by all means to be preferred terrors, in all its anguish, in all its bitterin all addresses from the pulpit. ness of present evil, in all its overwhelm.
Having made these remarks, we ing and incalculable consequences of fushall now introduce the reader to the
ture danger and calamity. The destroying volume by which they have been sug- angel bore a two-edged weapon, as subtle
as it was potent-fine enough to divide the gested. It contains twenty-two dis
most exquisite ligaments-strong enough courses, about the half of which were
to sunder the mightiest ties_one edge cut delivered on particular occasions. The off domestic happiness--the other smote to tirst is of this description, having been the dust the hopes of' a mighty nation.” preached on the lamented death of the Princess Charlotte of Wales. The “ If imagination were tasked to devise text is taken from the 24th chapter an event that united the widest extremes and the 16th verse of Ezekiel,"Son of domestic misery and national calamity, of man, behold I take away from thee that combined all the sufferings oi' mortali. the desire of thine eyes with a stroke.” ty with the more tremendous impressions After this alarming intimation, the of cternity, imagination itselt' would faint prophet spoke to the people in the of that evil wliich bows us down before
under the burthen of conceiving a portion morning, and his wife died in the God in anguish—in terror-and I trust in evening; and by this domestic afflic. repentance, as at this day. tion he was taught to announce to his
“ The image of a young female about countrymen, that their sins were a to be bound to existence by a new and debout to be visited with punishnient, lightful tie, about to become a mother, reunless they repented and turned unto quires scarce an additional feature to inGod. The prophets lived in a state terest every heart for its object ;-add to of sacred abstraction from the world this that she is beautiful, beloved, intellecand its passions; but of all the pro- tual, exalted, and virtuous ;-add that it phets, says the preacher, “ if indivi- is not only the heart of a husband and fadual and doinestic feeling were to
ther that trembles for her safety-that the judge, Ezekiel seems to have been one hopes of a mighty nation depend on her
hearts of millions are throbbing-that the of the greatest personal sufferers ;" and surely our knees would be instantly, and then he describes that species of eagerly, bent in supplication for the preaffliction in the following piece of ge- servation of her inestimable life. Such nuine pathos:
prayers, doubtless, have been put up by * Public exigencies, great disasters, many, without the parade of affected feel rouse and brace the mind of man; he ing or exaggerated loyalty they have been wakes all the energies of his nature to meet
answered-but not as the supplicants had them at his utmost need, and perhaps his hoped she is no more! pride assists him to bear or to hide the aw
She has been smitten in the abundant ful impressions of their visitation-but do- and accumulated enjoyment of those blesmestic suffering breaks the heart—then sings, any of which, singly, is enough to eren man weeps--and no one can chide enrich life, any of which would have conhis tears and no one can dry them."
ferred happiness on us : youth, health, emi. pp. 6, 7. nence, felicity, domestic felicity—the best,
the only that deserves the name, the sole " The desire of thine eyes" may be flower that has been borne unwithered from an Eastern idiom, but still it marks paradise. • Whatsoever things are purem with peculiar emphasis the tender af- whatsoever things are lovely—whuisoever
things are of good report_if there was any must be the power and blessedness of the virtue, and if there was any praise,' they religion of Christ, that can make us frail all waited on her--they all have perished and feeble beings as we are, bound down with her. No event of greater horror and with the chains of infirmity-forget them, anguish ever desolated the “ short and or feel them not, when we are once brought simple' annals of domestic life : no event, under its gracious and superior influences ! perhaps, of similar importance, has left its What must be its power, that when it is awful track on the page of history. But thus put into one scale can counterpoise all from history, at this moment, we turn with the evils of humanity in the other, and disgust; such events make general truths make thein in comparison as the dust of and remote examples loathsome to the the balance !” pp. 33–35. mind of man : at such a moment as this “ The ancients consoled themselves with we seek, like Joseph, a place where we the thoughts of meeting poets and philomay weep, and go to our chambers and sophers in their Elysium ; but the Christ. weep there." pp. 14-17.
ian's heaven has a brighter company,
prophets and patriarchs, saints and mar. The text of the second discourse is tyrs, and she whose crown and palm were from 1st Thess. iv. 13,-" Sorrow not so lately given : and those whom we loved, as them that have no hope ;” and is and those whom we lost, shall we not hope intended as a sequel of the one by they are there ? • The spirits of just men which it was preceded-the improve- made perfect' are there, all holy, happy, ment of the stupendous calamity which and harmonious ; the Son of God is there, had plunged three mighty nations in 'who loved us and gave himself for us ;! mourning; and, with this view, the anıl God himself, whose name is love, preacher directs the attention of his shall not we seek to be there? Oh yes : - let
whose presence is eternal blessedness! And hearers to that life and immortality
us seek, and we shall find ; let us knock, which has been brought to light by and it shall be opened."" pp. 39, 40. the Gospel. We give the following
The next discourse was preached paesages, as worthy of attention in
on the death of Lord Nelson. The this point of view.
text is from St John, ix. 33,-" If “ Select any individual in your imagi- this man were not of God, he could nation-surround him with every thing do nothing." As these words were that men are accustomed to call fortunate, spoken with a direct reference to our eminent, or enviable ; health, fortune; Saviour, we feel it something like profriends, fame, cultivated intellect ;-add richer colouring to the picture, add till fanation to apply them to any other imagination and desire are exhausted, and person or event whatever. An accomwhen you have finished the portrait, it is modated text, we grant, may occathe portrait of a finished wretch ; if it be sionally be extremely beautiful and that of a being who knows not God, who impressive, especially when there exis conscious of an immortal spirit within ists an obvious analogy or similarity him, but knows neither its destination nor of circumstances between the primary its dignity,—who feels within him those signification and the adapted sense. cravings of unsatisfied desire, that render This liberty with the language of all his present enjoyments hollow, worth- Scripture ought, however, to be emless, and unsatisfactory,—that poison them ployed but very sparingly, and all by an indefinite longing after immortality those passages relative to the Gospel of which his terror increases with his cer
or its Author ought to form an exceptainty. But shew me a being crushed to the earth under all the accumulated evils tion, otherwise there is no saying of nature and fortune, one whom the rising where the perversion will end, or what sun wakens to light up to suffer, and on evil consequences may ensue. whom it sets without bringing him the In this discourse, the preacher, afhope of rest, one whom the world has never ter a long, and apparently not a very regarded but with the averted eye of scorn applicable, exordiuin, asserts, in reor of hatred ; and that being is blessed, - ference to the events both prior and blessed above the lot of mankind, -—if God subsequent to the French Revolution, is the stay of his heart, and the consoler of that, everywhere throughout Europe, his sorrows, if religion has shed its wine national guilt preceded national calathrough the wilderness of sin and suffer. mity; and, in proof of his position, ing, he beholds the promised land bright
he particularly mentions Italy, Gerbefore him., and knows that his light af many, Holland, Spain, Switzerland, fliction, which is but for a moment, work. and other“ victims of French hora eth for him a far more exceeding and eter. rors." Then he traces the source of nal weight of glory.' Oh, brethren! what such overflowings of ungodliness as he