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It possesses considerable advantages; measuring exactly the quantity of blood to be taken, causing the fluid to move with greater or less rapidity on a determinate scale, and producing an effect called by the physicans resolving, much superior to the leech. It has nothing to disgust, like those animals, excites little or no pain, and it may be used in all countries and at all

seasons.

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France. From a late publication of the Academy of Sciences in Paris, it appears that Paris contains 714,000 inhabitants, of which 25,000 are not domiciled. The average number of births annually is 21,000, and of these the proportion of male to female is 25 to 24. The consumption of bread annually is 113,880,000 kilogrammes; of oxen, 70,000; of heifers, 9000; of calves, 78,000; of sheep, 34,000; of swine, 72,000; of eggs, 74,000,000; of pigeons, 900,000; of fowls, 1,200,000; of wine, 870,000 hectolitres.

French Theatres.-The theatres in France have long been under the immediate control of the government, and various regulations have at different periods been In November made respecting them. 1796, a decree was passed, and which still continues in force, enacting, that a decime on every franc of the price of admission at all places of public amusement should be collected for the use of the poor -that is, one tenth part of the receipts. The following is the produce of the duty in francs for 3 years, 24 francs to a pound sterling. 1815. 1816. 1814. Theatres. 446,551 449,038 452,635 Fetes Publiques 13,383 13,614 10,887 5443 5675 Balls

Concerts

6013
5922
4362

4763 8021
2713

Soirees Amusantes 2341
3551
Panoramas

2613

3636

Petits Spectacles 2635
Curiosities

·

2511 8608 6470 6516 6420 Total 485,137 491,826 497,358 Italy. The excavators have just discovered, near the forum of Pompeii, a pub. lic edifice which is supposed to be the Chalcidicum, and an inscription importing that the edifice was built at the exA few pence of the priestess Eumachia. days after the above discovery, a statue of the same priestess was found in perfect preservation; which far surpasses in grace, elegance, and grandeur, all the works of art that had previously been dug from the ruins of Pompeii.

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Mr Giardin, the French Ambassador at Constantinople, has sent to Paris fifteen valuable works in Arabic from the Impe rial Library at Constantinople, among which are the complete works of Plutarch and Herodotus!

"

The works of Aristotle, Hippocrates, Livy, Tacitus, Sallust, &c. are known to have been translated into Arabic, and might be discovered and purchased by well-directed search after them, at Fas, Morocco, or some other ports of West or South Barbary.-Mr Jackson, in his recent travels in those countries, annexed to Shabeeny's Account of Timbuctoo and Housa, page It is more than probable, that 325, says, the works of many Greek and Roman authors, translated during the æra of Arabian learning, are to be found in the hands of literary individuals, in several parts of West and South Barbary !"-Lit. Gaz.

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Germany. The Germans, we are happy to see, are beginning to fill up a most important vacancy in their Literature. Hitherto they have been almost destitute of Biography, and comparatively few of their great men have been transmitted to posterity in a manner worthy of them. We, in fact, know no one good Biography composed in German, and even the lives of Schiller, Fichte, Mendelsohn, are yet very The long notices reimperfectly written. lative to authors and professors, which are given in all the German Reviews, seem to have contented curiosity in this most important point. There has lately, however, appeared the Biographies of three celebrated men, and they will no doubt stimulate the Germans to more attempts in this agreeable species of writing. The life of Kraus, a celebrated political economist and philosopher, dis tinguished as the opponent of Kant, was published at Königsberg (where he was professor) in 1819. The life of the amiable Jacobi, formerly President of the Royal Society of Sciences at Munich, was published there in 1819; and the life of the celebrated bookseller of Berlin, and voAll luminous author Nicolai, was published there in the early part of this these are men who had much influence on the taste and genius of their country; and we hail these productions as the dawn of an elegant literature, (not fable,) which amuses as much as the best invention, and leaves none of those vain wishes which the ideal perfections of the poets never fail to Nicolai has been accused of Illuminatism. He was at least conspicuous in the controversy about secret societies in the latter part of the last century; and the present biography ought to contain some good materials for forming a correct opinion on this doubtful point of History.

year.

cause.

The Classics in Arabic.-The learned world may reasonably expect, in a few years, complete and perfect translations of Plutarch, Sallust, Livy, Tacitus, Aristotle, Hippocrates, &c. from the Arabic; the French have been lately assiduous in their researches after such Arabian trea

sures.

A Biography has been published at Copenhagen, of Peter Hörberg, a celebrated Swedish painter. He also wrote his own

life, which has been translated into German; and from a review of the two works in a German periodical publication, we extract the following account of him:

He was born, in 1746, at Vierstadt, in Smaalland, of very poor parents, and was so weak that he did not learn to walk before he was four years old. His father taught him to write. His infancy was passed tending cattle and asking alms, and even in this situation he amused himself carving, on the bark of trees, a representation of every thing he saw or could imagine. At the age of eighteen, he was bound apprentice to a common painter, and after the usual time of apprenticeship, and being some short time a journeyman, he became a master, and was appointed district painter at Almisäkra, where he soon afterwards married a servant who was neither handsome nor sensible. He followed his profession here till 1783, when the wish to gain more knowledge of his art drove him to Stockholm, and here he excited much notice, received some attention, and at length obtained a small pension from the government. He passed the remainder of his days at Finspång, in Ost Gothland, under the particular protection of a Baron de Geer. He died here in 1816, at the age of 70. Though a complete peasant in his manners, he left behind him a great number of paintings, particularly altar-pieces, which are much esteemed. He necessarily wanted all the accomplishments which a regular education supplies, but all his pic tures display a vigorous imagination, richness of thought, and clearness of conception. His manner was formed before he visited Stockholm, and it was observed that there was little difference in his works before and after receiving instruction. He painted, to use his own expression, "as his humour directed him, and as God had taught him."

Milk. Professor Schubler has published "Researches on Milk and its constituent Principles." The results of his analysis differ greatly from those ely published by Berzelius; and hence, in the author's opinion, prove the great influence of food and climate on the lacteal secretion. 1000 parts of new milk contain 110 of fresh cheese, 50 of fresh serai, 24 of butter, 77 of coarse sugar of milk, and 739 of water; or, in a dry state, 42.6 cheese, 7.87 serai, 24-0 butter, 77.0 sugar of milk, and 848. 53 water. 1000 parts of skimmed milk contain 43-64 dry cheese, 8-06 dry serai, 78-94 sugar of milk, and 869.34 water. 1000 parts of cream contain 240 butter, 33 cheese, 6 serai, and 721 whey. Lastly, 721 parts of whey contain 60 coarse sugar of milk. These observations were made at Hofwyl, which is some distance from the mountains, and where the cows are kept constantly in the stable, so that the milk

must be nearly the same as in other flat countries.

Vinegar. Mr Stotze, apothecary at Halle, has discovered a method of purifying vinegar from wood by treating it with sulphuric acid, manganese, and common salt, and afterwards distilling it over. For this method he has obtained a prize from the Royal Society of Gottingen. This gentleman has likewise verified the method proposed by Professor Meineke in 1814 of preserving meat by means of vinegar from wood, and by continued treatment with the same acid has converted bodies into mummies.

Prussia. The official Gazette of Berlin contains some statistical data of the Prussian monarchy, according to authentic reports made in the course of the year 1819. From these it appears that all the states of this monarchy, not including the principality of Neufchatel, comprehend a space of 5014 geographical square leagues, (15 to a degree of the equator, equivalent to 25 French leagues,) or 107,765,760 acres, Rhenish measure, with 10,800,112 inhabitants, including the military. All the great bodies of water do not occupy a space above 2,202,541 acres, which constitutes about the 49th part of the whole surface. It results from a late census by the police, that, at the end of 1818, the population had augmented to the number of 75,000 persons; this is ascribed to foreigners that have settled in them. At Berlin alone were enumerated 1042 males, and 1728 females, that in the year 1819 arrived there, to offer their services as domestics.

Sweden. According to the last census, taken in 1819, the population of the kingdom of Sweden amounted to 2,543,412 inhabitants. The amount of the registers of what is called the civil state of Stockholm, for the year 1819, has produced a result unfavourable for the population, The births were 2329, and the deaths 3238; a diminution therefore has taken place of 909 individuals. Almost one half of the children are born out of marriage. Out of three children, one has invariably died. The marriages have been 504, and the divorces 24.

Africa. The settlement at Algoa Bay has been accomplished. The John trans port, which took out 600 settlers to Algoa Bay, from Lancashire, has returned. "We have," says a correspondent, "arrived at Algoa Bay, after a tedious passage. I have been up the country as far as Graham's Town, and a more delightful one cannot be conceived. The proper officer has a surveyed government plan before him of the intended settlement, marked out in lots, of from 100 to 10,000 acres. Every lot has a good spring of water, and very well wooded. Every follower is allowed 100 acres; the quantity of land is sought

for without partiality. The settlement is about 190 miles from the sea, where we found many respectable families already housed. One who had brought out an iron roof was housed, with all his family, in three days and nights, by lodging his roof on the stumps of trees, plastering up

WORKS PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION.

LONDON.

IN the present autumn will be published, Travels in Georgia, Persia, Armenia, ancient Babylonia, &c. &c. during the years 1817, 1818, 1819, and 1820, by Sir Robert Ker Porter, &c. &c. These Travels embrace a vast extent of country; namely, almost all that comprised the ancient Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires, from the banks of the Black Sea to the Euphrates, and from the Euphrates

to the mouth of the Persian Gulf.

The favourable reception of the first part of Mr Lingard's History of England has encouraged the author to prepare a fourth volume, which will be published in October next, and will comprise the reigns of Henry VIII. and Edward VI.

the sides, and giving it a good white washing. The climate here is so good that you have four crops a year. The road to the settlement is good, with excellent pasturage everywhere for your cattle; plenty of water and timber."

Dr Leach has nearly completed his Synopsis of British Mollusca, being an ar rangement of Bivalve and Univalve Shells, according to the animals inhabiting them.

Mr Bridgens is about to publish, in a series of 12 numbers, Sketches illustrative of the Manners and Customs of Italy, Switzerland, and France; the plates are to be coloured, and each will be accompanied by an appropriate description.

Dr Andrew Halliday, domestic physician to his Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence, announces a General History of the House of Guelph, or Royal Family of England, from the first record of that name, to the accession of George the First to the throne of Great Britain. The principal sources from which the author has drawn his materials are the extensive and most valuable collections of Leibnitz, in print as well as in manu anuscript, preserved in the King's Library at Hanover; the works of Eccard, Gruber, and Muratori; the "Origines Guelfica" of Schneideus; Jornandes' "History of the Goths;" the "Mars Gothicus" of Pretorius; Rethmeyer's and other Chronicles; and Schiller's "History of the Thirty Years' War." The work will be printed in the best manner, in one volume 4to, with a portrait of his Majesty, engraved (by permission) from the Coronation Medal. It will also contain an engraving of the original arms of the House of Guelph.

A Treatise on the Plague is preparing for publication, designed to prove it con tagious, from facts, founded on the author's experience, during the visitation of Malta in 1813. By Sir A. B. Faulkner, M. D. With observations on its prevention, character, and treatment; followed by an appendix, containing minutes of the author's evidence given before the Contagion Committee of the House of Commons, accompanied by their Report.

Mr J. A. Heraud, author of "Tottenham," a poem, has in the press, the Le gend of St Loy, in four cantos.

Dr Thomson is printing a new edition of his System of Chemistry; he also announces his intention to prepare a work on the Practice of Chemistry.

Outlines of Midwifery will be published in October, developing its principles and practice, with illustrative lithographic engravings, by J. T. Conquest, M. D. F. L. S. &c.

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and Sprees through the Metropolis." It will be completed in about twelve numbers, each number illustrated with three characteristic coloured plates. The scenery will be drawn from real life, by Robert and George Cruikshank.

One of the posthumous works of the late Rev. William Cowherd, Minister of Christ Church, Salford, Manchester, entit led, "Facts Authentic in Sciences and Religion," is nearly ready for publication. It will consist of two parts in one volume, quarto; containing upwards of 6000 extracts illustrative of scripture, from nearly 1000 different authors, besides Mr Cowherd's own remarks, L. 1, 5s. in boards.

In a few days will be published, AntiScepticism; or, an Inquiry into the nature and philosophy of language as connected with the Sacred Scriptures, by the author of the Philosophy of Elocution.

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Eminency. The Contemplative and Prac tical Angler, by way of Diversion. With a Narrative of that Dextrous and Mysterious Art Experimented in England, and Perfected in more Remote and Solitary Parts of Scotland. By way of Dialogue. Writ in the year 1658, but not till now made Publick. By Richard Franck, Philanthropus. New edition.

The Works of John Dryden, Illustrated with Notes, Historical, Critical, and Explanatory, and a Life of the Author. By Sir Walter Scott, Bart. Second edition, revised and corrected, 18 vols. 8vo.

Historical Sketches of the Highlands of Scotland; with Military Annals of the Highland Regiments. By David Stewart, Colonel in the Army. Two volumes octa

vo.

Northern Memoirs, calculated for the Meridian of Scotland. Wherein most or all of the cities, Citadels, Sea-ports, Castles, Forts, Fortresses, Rivers and Rivulets, are Compendiously described. Together with Choice Collections of Various Discoveries, Remarkable Observations, Theological Notions, Political Axioms, National Intrigues, Polemic Inferences, Contemplations, Speculations, and several Curious and Industrious Inspections; lineally drawn from Antiquaries, and other Noted and Intelligible Persons of Honour and

The leading object of this work is to trace the effects of climate and situation, of ancient manners and superstitions, and of peculiar habits and institutions, in forming the military character of the Highlanders. But the principal attraction of this work will be found to consist in the History of their Martial Achievements, in which a great mass of original information has been accumulated, and many interesting facts and details been recorded from the author's personal observation and experience. Interspersed through the work, will also be found many curious anecdotes illustrative of the Highland character; particularly of their heroic and chivalrous devotion to the Jacobite cause.

Rome in the Nineteenth Century, containing a Complete Account of the Ruins of the Ancient City.-the Remains of the Middle Ages,-and the Monuments of Modern Times; with Remarks on the Fine Arts, on the State of Society, and on the Religious Ceremonies, Manners, and Customs of the Modern Romans,-in a Series of Letters, written during a resi dence at Rome in the Years 1817 and 1818. Three volumes octavo.

Mr Dymock, Glasgow, is engaged in a Work on Grecian and Roman Literature.

The Rev. Dr Chalmers has in the press, and will publish about the beginning of November, a Volume of Discourses on "The Application of Christianity to the Commercial and Ordinary Affairs of Life." 8vo. 8s. bds.

A Series of Lithographic Designs in quarto, for private dwellings, comprising Perspective Elevations, adapted to Geometrical Measurement, and Plans of the seve ral Stories, with Explanatory References; by Mr J. Hedgeland.

The Christian and Civic Economy of Large Towns, No. 5. on Patronage; by Thomas Chalmers, D. D. Minister of St John's Church, Glasgow; will be published on the 1st of October.

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A Catalogue of Books in Anatomy, Medicine, Surgery, Midwifery, Chemistry, Botany, &c. &c. &c. which, with Books in every other department of Literature, are on sale at John Anderson's Medical Library, 40, West Smithfield. Is. 6d.

Simco's Catalogue for 1820; consisting of Illuminated Books, Prints, and Portraits, Manuscripts, Guillims' Heraldry, Arms, Colours, Rademapers Views, Portraits of Kings of Scotland and Denmark, &c. 2s. 6d.

Exercises for Greek Verse; consisting of extremely literal Translations from the Anthologia, &c.; by the Rev. Edmund Squire, 7s. bds.

Aristarchus Anti Bloomfieldianus; or, a Reply to the Notice of the New Greek Thesaurus, inserted in the 44th Number of the Quarterly Review; by E. H. Barker; to which are added, the Jena Reviews of Mr Bloomfield's Edition of Callimachus and Eschyli Persæ, translated from the German. 8vo. 4s. 6d.

DRAMA.

Edda; or, the Hermit of Warkworth; a Melo-drama; by Edw. Ball. 2s. A Dramatic Synopsis; containing an

Essay on the Political and Moral Use of
Theatres. 5s.

EDUCATION.

The Young Lady's Guide to Practical Arithmetic and Book-keeping, arranged on a new and improved Plan; by C. Morri son. 3s. 6d. half bound.

The New System of Musical Education, as announced and explained in his public Lectures, in reference to Teaching in Clas ses, &c.; by Joseph Kemp.

The Theory of Elocution, exhibited in connection with a new and Philosophical Account of the Nature of instituted Lan. guage; by B. H. Smart. 8vo. 7s. bds.

A Selection of Greek Sentences, with an Index and Lexicon, in Greek and English; by the Rev. G. N. Wright. 12mo. 4s. bds.

The third volume of a Summary of the History of the English Church, and of the Sects which have departed from its Communion; with answers to each dissenting Body, relative to its pretended grounds of Separation; by Johnson Grant. 12s. bds

A Political History of the City of Car lisle, from the year 1700 to the present time; to which is added, full and correct Botanical Dictionary; or, Universal Her- Lists of the Poll in 1816, and in May bal. 2 vols. 4to, plates. 2s. bds.

BOTANY.

1820.

CLASSICS.

The Greek Primer; or, a Praxis on the various terminations and formations of Nouns and Verbs, with copious lists of examples, Greek and English; by D. B. Hickie. 12mo. 4s. 6d. bds.

The Establishments of Immanuel de Fillenberg, at Hoffwyl, considered with refer ence to their claims upon the attention of men in public stations; by the Count Louis de Villevieille. 2s.

HISTORY.

The History of the Jews, from the Destruction of Jerusalem to the present time; by Hannah Adams. 12s. bds.

A Dissertation on the Passage of Hannibal over the Alps, with 4 maps. 8vo. 12s.

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