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growing wild in the hedges. The largest of the palm tribe. The fruit Dutch have also introduced the Ame- is in great abundance, and grows from rican potatoe, the common potatoe, shoots on strings about three feet in artichokes, cabbages, peas, and other length. The liquor or toddy flows European garden stuffs. Cucumbers from the shoots of fructification on the are cultivated, and consumed in large first appearance of the fruit, after they quantities. The cocoa-nut, the ground have been beaten for three successive pestachio, the Palma Christi, and se days with a sinall stick. This is fer. samum, are raised for the oil which mented into a liquor possessing an inthey afford. The cocoa.nut grows best toxicating quality, is manufactured near the sea, and is seldom met with into sugar or into wine, and from the in the interior. The best edible oil wine the Batavian arrack is prepareil. is obtained from a large han:lsome The gomuti palm thrives best in hot tree named Kanari, which yields a dry plains. The betel vine, which nut of an oblong shape, nearly as large yields the pepper of that name, is as a walnut. The sago-palm is an raised for its aromatic and pungent important article of the husbandry of leaves. These, with the nut of the this region. It is one of the hum- Areca palm, and other occasional inblest of the palm tribe, and has, in gredients, are used as a masticatory. the early period of its growth, the ap- The plant is cultivated in separate pearance of a bush with many shoots. gardens, near villages, where water is The stem contains an enormous vo- abundant. It is propagated by slips, lume of a spongy medullary matter, affords leaves fit for use in the second like that of the alder. This is the year, and continues to yield them for edible part, and from it the bread of more than thirty years. The juice the islanders is formed. A good sago called Gambis, an article of extensive plantation or forest is a bog knee deep. consumption and traffic, is obtained 6 When the pith is ascertained to be
from the leaves of a sbrub. The ripe, the tree is cut down near the root, plant grows in dry situations, and is and the trunk subdivided into portions of propagated from the seed. When the six or seven feet long, each of which is split seedlings are about nine inches high, into two parts. From these the medullary they are transplanted, and never rise matter is extracted, which, with an instru. above the height of five feet. The ment of bamboo or hard wood, is forth, juice is boiled in iron pots to the conwith reduced to a powder like saw-dust. sistence of a syrup, and, when cool, The process of separating the farina from becomes solid, and is cut into square the accompanying bran and filaments is cakes. It is used as a masticatory, simple and obvious, and consists merely and much of it is exported into China. in mixing the powdered medulla with Tobacco is of universal consumption, water, and passing the water charged with the farina through a sieve at one end of
and is, consequently, raised in large the trough in which the mixture is made quantities, chiefly on the lands waterThe water so charged is made to pass into ed by artificial irrigation. The leaf a second vessel, where the farina falls to is always shred when green, after havthe bottom, and, after two or more edul- ing been freed from the fibrous midcorations, is fit for use. This is the raw rib. The Banana, the Bread fruit, sago meal, which keeps, without further the Mangustin-the most exquisite preparation, a month. For further use, of Indian fruits,--the Durian, which this meal is made into cakes, which keep never cloys or palls on the appetite,a long time." Vol. I. pp. 389, 390.
the Juck, which grows to an enormous Among the plants raised as articles size,—the Mango, a fruit of a delicate of native luxury is the Areca palm. flavour,-the orange and lemon tribe, It has a graceful sten about thirty or in great profusion,--the pine-apple, forty feet high, begins to bear fruit the Guava, the Papaya, the custardwhen six years old, and to leave off apple, the cashew tree, the pomegrabearing and to die about the age of nate, the tamarind, with a great vatwenty-five. The fruit in the green riety of other fruits, both indigenous state is eaten, and the ripe nut is a and exotic, are cultivated in many of great object of cominerce. The Sag- the islands, and are even found wild wire or Gomuti palm, which yields a in some of them. Flowering plants, saccharine liquor much used by the shrubs, and trees, are also abundant natives as a beverage, is also exten- and various, and the prevailing cosively cultivated. It is one of the lours are yellow and red.
The common cotton of Java is cul- grows on a hardy vine-like plant, with tivated as a green crop after rice, the dark-green, heart-shaped, and pointsubmersion the plant undergoes dur- ed leaves. It climbs to the height of ing the rains causing it then to pe- twenty-five feet, and the fruit aprish; in upland soils it becomes a pears in clusters on the short brittle perennial plant, continuing to bear branches like bunches of currants. for several years. “ The Indian is- The fruit is first green, then red, and lands produce a great number of plants finally black; and two crops are geyielding a filacious bark which affords nerally obtained in the course of the materials for cordage.” The rattan, year. This plant is supposed to have a prickly bush sending forth long been introduced into the Archipelago shoots, is of very extensive utility. from Malabar, where it grows wild. The bamboo and many of the palms It is, however, congenial to the soil furnish materials for many of the na- of the islands. It is sometimes train. ' tive arts and manufactures. The fo- ed to dead poles, as in the culture of rests abound in excellent timber trees, hops; and sometimes it is supported among which is the teak tree, and by the Areca and even the Cocoanut many others well fitted for economical palm. The vine is occasionally proand ornamental uses. Indigo and pagated by laying the young shoots. other colouring drugs are abundant, It usually yields fruit" in the third among which are the Brazil wood. year, is in full bearing in the fifth, The Anchar, a large tree, and the and continues stationary for eight or Chetik, a creeping shrub, afford a sub- nine years. In reaping the pepper, tle and deleterious poison.
the reaper nips off the clusters when Our author next proceeds to the the first berries of each appear red, consideration of the culture of those though the rest be still green. White plants which are raisce chiefly for the pepper, as is now well known, is black value set upon their produce by fo- pepper blanched. The culture of cofreigners. Among these the sugar- tee in Java is somewhat peculiar. It cane holds a conspicuous place. Of thrives best in vallies near high moun. this there are several varieties; but tains, under the shade of trees. For they are all cultivated in the same this end the Dădap is planted by cutmanner. Sugar-cane is never plant- tings at the same time with the cofed in the finest soils, and for the ma- fee plants. Coffee is now planted in nufacture of sugar, slips of the cane hedges, where it is found to produce are planted in the months of July and large crops of berries, in no measure August, and cut in those of May and interior to the more elaborate produce June.
of the regular gardens. Weeding and
hoeing are the principal cares of the “ The process of manufacture is as fol. cultivator; no pruning is practised, lows: The rice is first boiled, and after the plants being permitted to shoot in cooling a quantity of yest is added to it, wild luxuriance. The plants afford a and it is pressed into baskets, in which small crop in the third year, and a condition it is placed over a tub, or tubs, full one in the fourth ; and according for eight days, during which time a liquor flows abundantly from the mixture.
as they occupy a low or an elevated the end of that time, the liquor so distilled situation, they continue to bear froin is taken out, and mixed with the molasses ten to twenty years. The culture and palm-wine, which had been previously of Cocoa has been introduced of late combined. The mixture remains in a years into Java and the Philippines, small vessel for one day only, when it is but has not hitherto been carried to removed into large fermenting vats, in
any great extent. which it remains for seven. When, at the
The Clove (Caryophulus aromatitermination of this period, the process of cus) claims the first place among the fermentation is over, the liquor is finally finer spiceries. The tree on which removed into the stills, and, according to
it the number of distillations it undergoes,
grows resembles the laurel, and becomes arrack of the first second, or third sometimes the beech, and is in height quality in commerce.
about the same as that of the cherry Vol. I. pp. 478, 479. tree. In the beginning of the wet
season it throws out a profusion of A valuable and almost an exclu- branches, at the extremities of which sive product of the Indian islands is the young cloves make their appearBlack Pepper, ( Piper nigrum,) which ance, and in four months the fruit ia
cotnpletely formed. It changes from fire for three months, then freed from green to yellow, and from yellow to their shells, and finally they are dipred. The clove harvest then com- ped in lime-water. Among the mimences, but in this state the fruit is nor spicy products are the Massoy not completely matured for the pur- bark iree, seldom used for culinary poses of propagation. It swells af- purposes, but as an ingredient in coster this in the course of three weeks metics; the Culitławan, a species of to an extraordinary size, loses much laurel cultivated for its bark; the of its spicy quality, and contains a Cassia tree, found in several of the hard nucleus like the seed of the bay, islands; and the Curdamom. GinThere appear to be five varieties of ger is extensively diffused, but is inthe clove; but its géographical dis- ferior in quality to that of Malabar tribution is very limited, being ori- and Bengal. Malayan Camphor is ginally confined to the five Molucca not the product of a laurel as in Jaislands, and chiefly to Machian. The pan, but of a large forest tree, rernarkcloves, when taken from the tree, are able for yielding a variety of resinous placed on hurdles and smoked to a substances. Benzoin is obtained from brown colour by means of a slow a small tree which grows in rich moist wood fire. The period of harvest is lands, such as are suitable for the culfrom October to December. The next ture of marsh rice. Sandal wood is in order of this class is the Nutmeg found in three varieties, wliite, yeltree, (Nux myristica,) which grows low, and red, the two first being most to the height of fifty feet, with a well esteemed. It is a native of the mounbranched stem. The leaves resem. tains; and from Java and Madura ble those of the pear; when rubbed eastward it is scattered in small quanthey emit a fine aromatic odour; and tities throughout the different islands. when the tree is cut a blood red co
(To be continued.) loured liquid, which gives an indelible stain to cloth, issues from the wound.
" The tree bears throughout the year, the same plant having flowers and fruit in
Bandyborough, June 19, 1820. every stage. The fruit is about the sixe, and has much the appearance, of a necta
MR EDITOR, rine. It is marked all round by a furrow,
The very obliging manner in which such as the peach has on one side only. you have accepted the offer of my corThe outer coat of this fruit is smooth, and respondence, ought to have animated when young of a lively green. As it ri. me to fresh exertions; but human napens it acquires a red blush like a ripe ture is human nature, and procrastipeach, and bursting at the furrow, exhibits nation forms a very principal part in the nutmeg with its reticulated coat the its composition, at least it does in the mace of a pne crimson colour. The exter- composition of the De Coverleys. I nal pulpy covering is about half an inch have been intending every day for the thick, of a firm consistence, succulent, and last month to have followed up the to the taste austere and astringent. Ap- detailed account I before sent you of pearing through the interstices of the mace is the nutmeg, which is loosely inclosed in nyself, by giving you some account a thin shell of black glossy appearance, not of my family, which, as I have al difficultly broken.” Yol. I. p. 501.
ready said, consists of two sons and a
daughter ; but one thing that has de This tree is found in New Holland, layed my writing to you has been the in the southern peninsula of India, consideration of how I might be able in Cochinchina, in New Guinea, and to say all I think of my children's other places reinotely, situated from good qualities, without making myeach other, so that it has a far wider self liable to be laughed at as a blind geographical distribution than the doating father, and how I should, with clove. The fruit is gathered in April, just impartiality, point out their de July, and November ; its maturity is fects and failings, without wounding discovered by the blush on the pulpy their feelings, or my own. I think, covering. The mace is first separat- therefore, the best way of giving you ed from the nutmeg, and then dried an insight into their characters will in the sun ; the nutmegs are also dried be to let them speak for themselves, in the sun; then smoked over a wood and I will begin with my eldest son
CORRESPONDENCE OF THE DE COVER
And am, my
Richard, and transcribe a letter had win five guineas, and if she stays from him soon after I arrived at this abroad, I shall be better pleased than place.
if I had won ten.
I rejoice to hear that my good mo.
ther is becoming reconciled to her new To John De Caverley, Esq. abode. I hope she and her antagonist MY DEAR FATHER,
the butcher have accommodated their I am happy to find that the air of differences, and that either she has Bandyborough is more favourable to taught him to cut his meat in the letter-writing than the air of London, London fashion, or that he has taught for, indeed, my dear Sir, when you her to eat it as the good folks at Banlived there, you were a wretched dyborough do, for things cannot long correspondent, but now I have more remain at such extremities between reason to admire than to complain. persons 9o necessary to each other. I Thank you most sincerely for your am glad she (my mother) has been two last'letters. You do me but jus- admitted into the whist coterie, as I tice in supposing you cannot enter too doubt not she will find it a great reminutely into family details; what source in long winter evenings, and concerns you, and my dear mother and longer summer ones. But what will sister, are more to me than all the she do without her saucy son to stand politics of Europe. Apropos of poli. at her elbow to remind her from time ties, I am amused with all you tell to time what are trumps ? But tell me about the party politics of your her, though still saucy, I am always late election ; and I am heartily glad her affectionate son. that all the little feuds and animosi- dear father, yours, ties resulting therefrom are beginning
RICHARD DE COVERLBY. to subside. For my own part, I think Tell George, if still with you, I there should be an act of oblivion at wish the next epic poem he sends every fresh election, as there is an act of grace at every fresh reign, and franked, or pay the postage.
me by the post, he would either get it should be unlawful to remember, and high treason against good fellowship to repeat, any of the little squibs, You will perceive, Mr Editor, from affronts, insults, and ill-natured wité his own account, that he is intended ticisms that occur during the satur- for the bar, and you will guess that nalia of an election. The talking over he is a cheerful light-hearted fellow, an election, when it is concluded, is somewhat of a rattle; indeed I fear almost as bad as talking over a game he would be what is called a quizzer, at cards after it has been played, or if his excessive good nature and dread discussing the merits of a dinner after of giving pain did not keep the vivait has been eaten ; such chewings of city of his temper within the bounds the cud may show a good memory, of discretion. To say the truth, in but exhibit mighty little imagina- looking into the bottom of my heart, tion. Tell Fanny I shall write her a while at this moment I am writing along letter very soon, with a full ac- bout him, it seems to me, that he is count of all my proceedings, but for my favourite child ; his graceful perthe present let it suffice to know, that son, his fine De Coverley face the I have been very quiet and very stu- image of his great uncle, his cheerful pid. Little else has been talked of animated countenance, make him, in for the last week, but the Queen's my eyes, singularly prepossessing, and threatened return to England. The I certainly should love him the best general opinion seems to be that she of the three, if I did not discover that will not come, but I, for the sake of the other two were equally engaging contradiction, being the thing we in their different ways, and equally lawyers live by, have laid a wager entitled to their due share of my af with Ned Trevor that she will come. fections. At any rate, though I may Let not my cautious mother shake her be able to keep even the balance of head, and say, "Dear me, how silly!" favour, Richard is decidedly his mo for, with true professional skill
, I have ther's favourite; whether it is, that laid my bet with all the odds in my an eldest son has usually that prerofavour, for if her Majesty should vi- gative, or because the jokes of her sit “ her beloved England,” I shall saucy son act as a sort of stiinulant on
the soporific nature of her own mind, nap after dinner, I should always inand so relieve it from a kind of con- dulge in it; “ for nature," as he juststitutional weight, I cannot tell ; but ly says, points out what she recertain it is, every thing he says and quires :"-he also advises me in fine does is right in her eyes, and she sel- weather to take a little airing in the dom praises or rebukes her other chil- carriage, and he says his wife, a good dren but through him. She says, kind of woman, though very lame, “Fanny writes a beautiful hand, al- wili be always so kind as to accommost as neat a one as Richard's ;" but pany me. Your aunt Eleanor and he finds terrible faults with George's are great friends, as he agrees perfectbow, “ which will never be so grace- ly with her in all her opinions, and ful as Dick's.” But, as I said before, they talk incessantly about the conwhy should I not make every body stitution ; but whether they are talk, speak for themselves when I can? ing about politics or medicine, I can't My wife shall show how great her af- always make out;-poor thing, I am fection is for her son, by sending you sorry she troubles herself so much the copy of a letter she wrote him a about politics, for I can't see any good few days ago, and if you knew Mrs it can do. Your father and sister alDe Coverley as well as I do, you would ways leave the room as soon as she not think slightly of that feeling begins, which is very tiresome to me. which could urge her to such an un- However, I an exceedingly glad Mr wonted proceeding.
Scamony has ordered me to sleep after dinner, so now I need not keep
awake to listen to her. I am quite Mrs De Coverley to Richard De Co- tired with writing this long letter, verley, Esq.
so must conclude, your affectionate Dear Dick,-Mr Smith has just mother, called to see if we have any thing to
JOAN DE CoverLEY. send you, and I take the opportunity of sending a dozen shirts I have been This letter reminds me that I must making for you, and as nobody is in not forget, or overlook, a very conspithe way to write, I must, as I want cuous person in our family group to know if the collars are made the my sister Eleanor—a tall bony elderly proper height. You will be glad to lady, who having, once upon a time, hear 1 am beginning to like Bandy- passed three days in the same house borough very well, I suppose, because with the celebrated Junius, who paid I am getting used to it,--the reason, her, as she tells us, many compliI dare say, why I liked Great Russel ments, has taken upon herself, Street so much, which you and Fanny from that circumstance, to be a fua thought so dull. We are very lucky rious politician, and decides and anihere in having an exceeding clever a madverts upon the conduct of every pothecary, who seems to know all our public character in Europe, as well as eonstitutions already as well as if he in England, as if she was the only had attended us these ten years, --he person in the world who had coinmon advises your father, for the sake of sense. Besides this, being several his nerves, to get as much cheerful years older than myself, she exerted society as he can; and has kindly of- the prerogative that I observe most fered to come and dine with us when- elder sisters exercise over their broever he is not otherwise engaged; he thers, and used to tutor me so unmeralso recommends your father to drink cifully when a boy, that she cannot a few glasses of Madeira every day, always be brought to remember that which he says we can get particular- I am now 59, and, as I hope, of inaly good of his father-in-law, a wine ture judgment. However, as I selmerchant in this place. Fanny, he dom listen to her politics, or reply to thinks, requires constant exercise,– her sarcasms, we go on admirably, recommends dancing and riding as and my wife's good temper, and Fanbest suited to her state of health, ny's good sense, keep all things in which, he says, if any thing, is too ro- their equilibrium, and, to do her jusbust. As for me, he has ordered me tice, she has many excellent qualities, to keep perfectly quiet, as exertion of and has, above all, that chief virtue in every kind is very bad for me, and an aunt, of being blindly partial to her that whenever I feel inclined for a nephews and nieces. She declares