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LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Society of Civil Engineers. On the 20 case they produced green, in place of red January 1818, a number of persons practi- globules. The original fungi were killed cally connected with the profession of a civil by exposure to excessive cold; but their engineer, met and agreed upon the plan of seeds retained vitality, and when immersed an institution, and have since that time in snow, regenerated new fungi generally been employed in forming laws and regula- of a red colour.-Edin. Phil. Jour. tions for its government. Having accom Violin and Violincello.-Mr James Wat. plished this part of the object, it was resolve son, a blind musician from Dundee, has ed, at a meeting held on the 3d February invented a method by which he can play 1820, to invite Thomas Telford, Esq. civil upon these two instruments at once, with engineer, to become President of the Socie. the greatest facility and correctness. He ty. Mt Telford having accepted this office, plays on the violin in the usual manner, the institution may be considered as estabó and on the violincello by means of his feet. lished, and an opportunity is now afforded His right foot goes into a sort of shoe at to qualified persons to become Ordinary, the end of the bow, and in consequence of Corresponding, or Honorary Members. his right thigh being supported by a spring The leading objects of the institution are, attached to the chair on which he sits, he Ist, To form a depository of useful facts, of has the full command of his foot, without descriptions of various works, of new inven- suffering any fatigue. By means of his tions, of discoveries, &c. on subjects connect- left foot he acts upon a set of levers, by ed with the profession of a civil engineer. which he shortens the strings with great fa2d, To collect a library of books, maps, cility. Mr Watson has frequently played drawings, &c. which are useful in the pro- thirteen and fourteen hours in one day, fession. The number of members is limit. without any extraordinary fatigue.-Edin. ed, and is divided into three classes : Ist, Phil. Jour. Ordinary Members are those who, by pro New Musical Instrument.-M. Schott. fession, are practical engineers, and whose man of Buttstead has invented a new musiplaces of residence admit of their general cal keyed instrument, the tones of which attendance at the meetings. 2d, Correspond. are produced by short rods of burned wood, ing Members (by profession practical engi- of various lengths and breadths, thrown into neers) are those whose places of residence do a state of vibration by a current of air. not allow of their frequent attendance at Its pianissimo resembles the Eolian harp, the meetings. 3d, Honorary Members are and is described as imitating the harmonica, persons who have written on topics connect- clarionet, horn, hautboy, and violin._Edin. ed with the profession of an engineer, and Phil. Jour. from whom no pecuniary contribution is Physical Strength of Men.-M. Cou. expected. From the ability and zeal of lomb, in his fine Memoir on the Physical many of the gentlemen who take the lead Strength of Men, after remarking that he in this Society, we entertain very sanguine had always found the grenadiers to perform hopes that it will be an institution equally a third more work than the other companies, honourable and useful to our country. observes, that the mean quantity of action Edin. Phil. Jour.

varies with the nature of the food, and pare Bristol Institution. A new Literary and ticularly with the climate." I have exPhilosophical Institution has been founded ecuted,” he says, great works at Marat Bristol. The foundation-stone of a mag- tinique by the troops, when the thermometer nificent building for this purpose was laid rarely stood below 68° Fabrenheit: and I on the 29th February 1820. Edin. Phil. have executed in France the same kind of Jour.

work by troops ; and I am assured, that Felled Timber.--Mr T. A. Knight has under the 14th degree of latitude, where the ascertained, by direct experiment, that men are almost always inundated with there is a striking difference between the perspiration, they are not capable of half properties of spring and winter felled tim- the quantity of duily work which they can ber; the former absorbing much more furnish in our climate." The fuHowing moisture than the other. He is of opinion experiments by Peron, with 'Regnier's dythat oak timber would be much improved namometer, shew that the individual strength if the tree, after being barked in the spring, depends also on the climate. was permitted to stand till the following vinter.-Edin. Phil. Jour.

English,

71.4 Uredo Nivalis.-Mrk. Bauer has found

French,

64.2 that the red globules of this fungus vegetat

Timor,

58.7 ed and produced new fungi when they were Van Dieman's Land, 51.8 placed in fresh snow. He ascertained that New Holland,

50.6 they vegetated in water alone, but in this

Edin. Phil. Jour.

VOL. VII.

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1st Argyll,

Sizes in 100,

Height and Thickness of Men in Scot. noise is three times greater in the night land. The following Comparative State. than in the day. Some writers have ascribment of the Height and Thickness of Mened this to the cessation of the humming of round the Chest, in different Counties of insects, the singing of birds, and the action Scotland, as taken from the Local Militia, of the wind upon the leaves of trees; but was printed in the Edinburgh Medical and this cannot be the cause of it at the Orinoco, Surgical Journal, Vol. XIII.

where the humming of insects is much greater in the night than in the day, and

where the breeze is never felt till after sun. Average Average set. Humboldt therefore ascribes it to the Regiments. Inches round Inches in the Chest. Height. presence of the sun, which acts on the pro

pagation and intensity of sound, by oppos.

38.71 Highland Lanark,

67.39

ing them with currents of air of different 2d Edinburgh,

38.79 68.04

density, and partial undulations of the Kinross,

39.07 67.20 atmosphere, caused by the unequal heat. Peebles,

39.55 68.38

ing of different parts of the ground. In 2d Fife,

39.82 67.29

these cases, the waves of sound are divided 6th Lanark,

39.91 68.60

into two waves, where the density of the 2d Argyll,

40.07 67.74

medium suddenly changes, and a sort of 40.09 67.76

acoustic mirage is produced, arising from East Stirling,

40.09 68.06

the want of homogeneity of the air, in the Annan and Eskdale, 40.64 68.15

same manner as the luminous mirage is Kirkcudbright,

41.01 68.59

produced from an analogous cause.-Ann. de Chim.

Golden Image of the Idol Vishnu. This Average Heights of Men.

valuable image was found at Nassick in

May 1818, with jewels and other property Number of

belonging to the Peishwa. It is composed Heights. the different

of the purest gold from Mount Ophir, and

weighs 370 tolas. Since 1707, when it Ft. Inch. Ft. Inch.

was made, it has been preserved with the 5 4 & 5 5 15.2 highest veneration as one of the principal 6

7 37.2 household deities in the family of Leewajee 5 31.2

and his descendants. A numerous and ex. 10 5 11 13.5

pensive establishment of bramins, and other 6 0 6

2.0

attendants, were maintained for it. It accompanied the late Peishwa in all his pil

grimages, in a state palanquin, escorted by Comparative Sizes of Men's Heads, as

some of his choicest troops. During the ascertained by actual Measurement, upon late Mahratta war, the deity was sent in an extensive scale, in Retail Hat-shops in this manner to Nassick, where it was disLondon and Edinburgh.

covered by the British authorities, and sent

to Poonah. As it is intended to be sold, Inches cir Edinburgh London cumference. Number in 100. Number in 100.

it is hoped that the East India Company

will purchase it for their museum. It is 19.6 0.000

.450 now deposited in the Company's baggage 19.875 0.285

.164 warehouse Asiatic Journal. 20.25 2.285

4.942 Description of Rare Plants in the Botanic 20.625 6.285

11.696

Garden at Berlin. The first number of a 21. 16.428

25.864 description of the rare plants growing in 21.375 27.428 28.830 the Botanic Garden at Berlin has just ap21.75 21.571 13.344 peared, under the auspices of the minister 21.125 13.000 10.049 who presides over the scien:ific department. 22.5

8.428 3.789 The plates are coloured, and the arrange22.875 3.142

0.328 ment of the whole is like that of Andrews' 23.25 0.857

0.328 Repository.--Edin. Phil. Jour. 23.625 0.285

0.164 Germany. A quarry of marble of ex24. 0.000

0.000 traordinary beauty has been lately disco

vered, near Meran, in the country of the On the Increase of Sound during the Tyrol. In the whiteness and fineness of Night.-It has been remarked, even by its grain, it will bear comparison with the the ancients, that the intensity of sound is

best marble of Carara, which now growing greatly increased during the night. Hum scarce, this discovery acquires additional boldt was particularly struck with this fact importance. It is found in great abundwhen he heard the noise of the great catar ance, and the proximity of the Adige renacts of the Orinoco in the plain which sur ders its transportation easy to the Adriatic, rounds the Mission of the Apures. This while, in another direction, the river Gun

5

9

5

is only two days' journey distant from it excellent discourse of M. the Professor by land.

Bambas, read the year before last, at the The Assassins. A history of the As. opening of the course of the Great College sussins, drawn from oriental sources, has of Chios. This discourse is so elegant in appeared lately at Stuttgard. From this its typography that it might seem to come work we learn that the Assassins, a con- from the presses of Paris or London. This federate people or society, which, in the office will gradually spread, throughout time of the Crusades, for two centuries, act- Greece, a number of valuable works, that ed an important part in Asiatic history, may contribute to the regeneration of this were originally a branch of the Ismaelites. once classical land. The author, M. de Hammer, illustrates A college on a large scale is about to be many of the events of the middle ages, and founded at Zigori, in the province of Epishews, at the same time, the advantageous rus. The voluntary donations for this es. use that might be made of oriental litera. tablishment amount already to 60,000 ture, if its cultivation were more generally francs. M. Neophytos Doucas, a learned attended to.

Greek ecclesiastic, has contributed himself A number of convents having been sup- the sum of 10,000 francs. pressed in Poland, all their libraries have Egypt.- On the subject of subterranean been removed to the University of Warsaw. researches for antiquities in Egypt, we learn In the same city, in the library of the Pia. from recent advices, that the objects disrists, an Arabian astrolabe, made of copper, interred hitherto are very inconsiderable, has been lately found. It is supposed to in comparison with what remain to be dishave been brought to Warsaw by some re- covered. A rivalship exists between the ligious Piarists, who arrived thither from Arab inhabitants and the Europeans, as to Spain in the year 1642. It pretty nearly the art of successfully excavating the moun. resembles those which are in the cabinet oftains of sand, wherein have been buried, Kircher, at Rome, and in the observatory at for ages, the porticoes, buildings, and subParis. M. Chiarmi, Professor of Oriental terraneous galleries of every description. Languages in the University, rightly con- The Arabs have pierced into the earth to ceiving its importance for the history of the depth of several fathoms, and are conletters, has made it the object of a disserta. tinually collecting vases, mummies, and tion presented to the Royal Institute of other remains of antiquity; and, though Sciences at Warsaw. Hipparchus, accorde ignorant enough in other matters, can now ing to Pliny, was the inventor of the Astro- distinguish objects that are rare and in labe; Ptolemy and others, in succeeding good preservation, from others of an ordiages, have laboured to bring it to perfec- nary sort

. The Arabs of Gournon are zeal.

ously attached to this occupation; so much Russis.- The University of Moscow is so, that, considering the address with which now rebuilt on a better plan, and in a style they execute these labours, it is thought of greater magnificence than before the the Europeans will have no occasion to unconflagration. The Emperor, besides his dertake them, but for money may procure other bounties, has consigned the sum of whatever the bowels of the earth shall dis.. 400,000 roubles for the erection of an hos. close. pital close to the University, for the pur. Chinese Literature.—Letters from Can. poses of a Clinical school, wherein at pre- ton report the successful prosecution of sent, at this charge,arç 200 medical students, Mr Morrison's labours in the printing of besides others intended for the Academy of his Chinese Dictionary. The second part Chirurgery. The new cabinet of natural was begun in April 18ll: this volume history is progressively augmenting, under consists

of a thousand printed pages, in 4to, the assiduous direction of Professor Fischer, and contains above 12,000 Chinese characDuring the two last years, the collection ters, the most in use, with numerous exhas acquired a number of minerals, con. amples. In Feb. 1819, 600 pages, comchites, and birds, with the rich herbary of prising near 8000 characters, were completDr Tripius.

ed. The printing of all the volumes of Greece.-M. Koumas, first professor in this important work will occupy a space of the Great College at Smyma, and distin. hardly less than ten years. guished by his lcarning among the Greeks, It appears that an official gazette is pub. has just published, at Vienna, the two last lished in China, which is considered as the volumes of his “ Course of Philosophy.” organ of government in every matter conThe whole work is a methodical abstract of nected with the religion, laws, manners, all the best compositions of the German and customs of the country. In its plan, philosophers. Its object is to instruct the it totally differs from the gazettes of Europe, Greeks in modern philosophy, and its cir- wherein articles of a miscellaneous descripculation is likely to be very considerable. tion are inserted for money. No article

The printing-office establislied at Chios appears in the gazette of China, which has has commenced its operations, and is now

not first been submitted to the inspection in fall activity. Its first production is an of the emperor, and having received his ap.

tion.

probation, not a syllable can be added to it. ed the water one hundredth part of its bulk A deviation from this rule would incur a The same apparatus was placed in a cannon severe punishment

filled with water, and secured very tight, Compressibility of Water.-Mr Perkins, when a pressure equal to 500 fathoms was the ingenious inventor of the siderographic forced in by means of the hydraulic press, process of engraving, appears to have as. and the same results as in the experiment certained that water is compressible in a in the ocean took place."-Journal of much greater degree than it appeared to be Arts. from the experiments of Canton and Zimmer New South Wales.-dt Sydney, in New man. “ Having filled a cylinder, three feet South Wales, there are, at present, three long and four inches diameter, with water, in public journals

, and five other periodical to which a rod or piston was passed through publications. A second printing office has a stuffing box, and having a sliding ring also been established lately at Port Jackupon the rod, the whole was lowered 500 son. They now export catile to the Isle of fathoms into the sea, when it appeared, by France, and the market at Sydney is conthe situation of the sliding ring, that the sidered as plentiful in the different comcolumn of water which pressed upon the modities of Europe, as well as of India and piston had sunk it so as to have compress. China.

WORKS PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION.

LONDON.

The Rev. William Snowden, perpetual MR CHARLES Mills, author of the His- Curate of Horbury, near Wakotield, has tory of the Crusades, is engaged in preparing in the press a volume of Sermons, Doctrinfor publication, Travels in Europe, during al, Practical, and Occasional. the Pontificate of Leo the Tenth,-a work Mr Francis Lathom, author of many essimilar in plan, but different in subject, to teemed novels and romances, will soon pubthe Abbé Barthelemi's Travels of Anachar. lish The One Pound Note, a Tale of Midsis.

Lothian ; and also new editions of some of Letters written for the Post and not for his works that have long been out of the Press, small 8vo, will speedily ap- print. pear.

The author of Redmond the Rebel, who Mrs Graham, author of an Account of is a Scotch gentleman of rank, announces a a Residence in India, is now publishing an new work, entitled St Kathleen, or the Account of a Residence during Three Rock of Dunnisnoyle. Months in the Mountainous Country East Miss Stanhope's (author of the Bandit's of Rome, with engravings of the Banditti Bride, &c.) historical romance of the Cruand Peasantry of the Country.

saders, on which she has been employed The author of the “ Widow of Nain” the last two years, will appear early in intends shortly to publish a new poem, unJuly. der the title of The Outlaw of Taurus to The Rev. H. K. Bonney will publish, in which will be appended a few specimens of course of the Summer, Historic Notices in a free translation of the “ Edipus Colo reference to Fotheringay, in an octavo vonos" of Sophocles.

lume, with engravings by Storer. A translation is printing of Travels in Memoirs of the Rev. Mark Wilks, late England, Wales, and Scotland, in the year of Norwich, by his daughter, is printing in 1816, by Dr Spiker, Librarian to his Ma- a duodecimo volume. jesty the King of Prussia.

The Rev. Dr J. P. Smith will soon Capt. Prior is printing in one volume, publish the second volume of Scripture with one hundred Engravings, Narratives Testimony to the Messiah. of all the Voyages round the World, from Shortly will be published, Outlines of Magellan to Kotzebue. Such a volume Midwifery, developing its Principles and must at once be interesting and popular. Practice, by J. T. Conquest, M. D. F. L. S..

A Comic Poem is preparing for the press, &c. on the Royal Coronation Claims, by J. Bis. set, Esq. author of The Descriptive Guide

EDINBURGH. of Leamington Priors, &c. &c.

Lectures on the Philosophy of the HuA Biographical Class-Book is announced, man Mind; by the late Dr Thomas on the plan of Blair's well known General Brown, Professor of Moral Philosophy in Class-Book. It will consist of 365 lives of the University of Edinburgh. 4 vols. eminent men, from Homer to Grattan. bvo.

Speedily will be published, Popular Ob. Illustrations of Phrenology; by Sir Geo. servations on Rcgimen and Diet.

S. Mackenzie, Bart. F. R. S. L. & E. I vol.

8vo, with sixteen engravings. This work is metry of Curve Lines; by Professor Leslie. undertaken for the purpose of giving a suc- 1 large vol. 8vo. cinct, and, as far as possible, a popular view Elements of Natural Philosophy ; by of the new System of Philosophy, and of Professor Leslie. 3 vols. 8vo. furnishing the Student with the means Transactions of the Royal Society of of satisfying himself of its truth by instruct- Edinburgh. Vol. IX. Part I. 4to. ing him in the art of observing.

The Poems of Alexander Montgomerie, Elements of Geometry and Plane Trigo. Author of the Cherrie and the Slae. With nometry ; by John Leslie, Esq. formerly a Prefatory Memoir and a Glossary. Professor of Mathematics, and now of Na The Elements of Algebra in Theory and tutal Philosophy, in the University of Edin. Practice, containing all the most useful burgh. Fourth edition enlarged and im- Modern Improvements in the Science ; by proved,

Robert Sharp, Teacher of Mathematics in Geometrical Analysis, and the Geo- Edinburgh. * 1 vol. 8vo.

MONTHLY LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.

LONDON.

Catalogue of Plants cultivated in the neigh. ASTRONOMY.

bourhood of London ; by R. Sweet, F.L.S. Eight Familiar Lectures on Astronomy, 185. boards. intenged as an Introduction to the Science;

CHRONOLOGY. by William Phillips, F. L. S. Second Chronological Tables of Universal His. Edition corrected. 12mo. 7s.

tory, brought down to the end of the reign BIBLIOGRAPHY.

of George III. ; by Major James Beil. Part IV. of a General Catalogue of Old royal folio. L. 1, 10s. half bound. Books for the year 1820; by Longman,

CLASSICS. Hurst, and Co. 2s. 6d.

R. Porsoni Notæ in Aristophanem, quiBoosey and Son's Catalogue of Books, bus Plutum Comediam, partim ex ejusdem in various Languages, ancient and modern, Recensione, partim e Manuscriptis emenfor 1820. 2s. 6d.

datam et variis Lectionibus instructam Ballwyn and Co.'s Catalogue of Miscel- præmisit et Collationum Appendicem Ad. laneous New ard Second-hand Books. Is. jecit P. P. Dobree. L. 2, 2s. Imp. 8vo. 6d.

L. 1, Is. med. 8vo. A Catalogue of a Miscellaneous Collec

DRAMA. tion of Books, New and Second-hand, sell. New Sacred Dramas, for young Persons. ing by J. Biggs. 2s.

8vo. 7s. 6. bds. A Descriptive Catalogue of Portraits re Ricciarda, Tragedia, di Ugo Foscolo. 8vo. presenting distinguished Persons in the 7s. 6d. History and Literature of the United King. Virginius ; a Tragedy, by James Sheridom. 4to. 2s.

dan Knowles, Esq. 3s. 6d. BIOGRAPHY."

An Analysis of the Tragedy of Faust, in No. I. Portraits of Eminent Foreign illustration of the outlines, and printed Composers, accompanied with Biographie uniform with them. 6s. large paper 8s. cal Notices. 75.

Too late for Dinner. 8vo. 2s.6d. Biographia Curiosa ; or, Memoirs of

EDUCATION. Remarkable Characters of the Reign of The Ladies' Arithmetic; ty — Morrison. George the Third. No. I. and II. 25. 6d. 18mo. 3s. 6d. half bound. cach.

The Practice of Drawing and Painting Life of President West ; by John Galt. Landscape, from Nature, in water colours ; 8vo. 14s. boards Part 2 separate. 78. by F. Nicholson. 4to. L. 1, 1s. bds. boards.

Dialogues, chiefly intended to assist in Memoirs of Grenville Sharpe; by Prince forming the Morals and Taste of Young Hoare.

Persons in the Middle Ranks of Life ; by The Authentic Life of Augustus Von the Rev. J. Bowden. 12mo. 5s. bds. Kotzebue, from the German. 7s.

A New Method of Studying the French Memoirs of Henry Hunt, Esq. No. I. Language, by the aid of which it written by himself. 1s.

learned at Home, without a master, in the

course of three or four months. 2 vols. Rosarum Monographia ; or, a Botanical 12mo. 10s. sewed. History of Roses ; by John Lindley, Esq. F.L.S. 165. plain--21s. coloured.

Retch's Series of Outlines to Goethe's Hortus Suburbanus Londinensis ; or, a Tragedy of Faust, engraved from the Ori

miay be

BOTANY.

FINE ARTS.

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