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William Hugall, deceased, and his heirs, had wholy ceased and become determined. And it was thereby declared that the said premises were thereby surrendered by the said John Hugall, to the said John Walton Elliot, in trust for the said John Thornhill, his heirs, sequels in right, and assigns.

John Thornhill, Esq., resided in the house at the south entrance of Sunderland market, Coronation Street, now known as the Market Hotel. He built the quay, formerly called Thornhill's Wharf or Quay, now known as the Railway Wharf. He afterwards built the mansion house of Thornhill, (now the seat of Mrs. Shakspeare Reed) near Bishop wearmouth, which takes its name from him. Mr. Thornhill was elected a stallingcr May 2,1761, and a freeman May 27, 1765. He was one of the nine freemen who at a Bylaw held at the house of James Martin, innkeeper, Sunderland, conceded to a claim made by Messrs. John Nesham and Mark Burleigh, to a right of way to their lands, &c., in Nesham Square and Burleigh Street, by the south side of the church yard, on the ground that they, the claimants, had anciently enjoyed a right of road that way; and the grassmen were instructed to set out a road for the applicants' use, care to be taken to do as little damage as possible to the herbage of the Town Moor belonging to the freemen and stallingers.

Mr. John Thornhill built a commodious covered fish market, with a large stone basin in the centre, for the purpose of washing the fish, upon part of his copyhold; but the dealers in fish refused to leave their market on Ettrick's Quay to occupy it; this rendered Mr. Thornhill's market valueless, and it was pulled down.

In the year 1790, Mr. Thornhill built a wall at the west end of his copyhold quay, adjoining Hardcastle's slipway, and prevented the inhabitants from passing and repassing there; this wall was several times rebuilt by Mr. Thornhill, but always more quickly pulled down by Mr. Thomas Hartlcastle, senior, and his workmen; from which the common saying arose, "The wail that Jack built, and Tom pulled down again." The assailants, however, ultimately proved victorious, and the obstruction was entirely removed. The public are now indebted to Mr. Thomas Hardcastle for the free passage at Hardcastle's slipway.*

Mr. Thornhill, in the latter part of his life, was appointed a magistrate for the county of Durham, but his appointment was virtually cancelled by William Ettrick, Esq., of High Barns, then chairman of the Sunderland bench, who considered him an improper person to hold that important office, and refused to act with him in that capacity. Mr. Thornhill died at his seat, Thornhill, Bishopwearmouth, on the 27th June, 1802, in the 83rd year of his age, and was buried on the 2nd July, in a vault made expressly for the purpose, under the altar of St. John's Chapel, which splendid edifice of the national church he was the principal in building and partly endowing.

On the 20th March, 1783, John Thornhill, of Thorn

• Before wharfs or eranes were much in use, Mr. Caleb Wilson, grandfather of Messrs. Joshua Wilson and Brothers, merchants, Sunderland, regularly rolled his casks of tallow down Hardcastle's slipway for exportation to other ports, for at that time more tallow was produced at Sunderland than could be consumed. At this date (1857), notwithstanding the general use of gas, tallow is imported for the supply of the town.

hill, Esq., surrendered (by three surrenders) to the abovenamed John Walton Elliot, all the premises in the three surrenders of 19th February, 1763, and by the same descriptions. To have to the said John Walton Elliot, and his sequels in right, according to the custom of the court, rendering, &c. And he was thereupon admitted tenant. Defeazance subscribed to each of the said three surrenders declaring that the premises therein comprised were thereby surrendered to the use of the said John Walton Elliot, and his sequels in right, upon such trusts as the said John Thornhill by his last will and testament in writing should direct or appoint, and in default thereof, in trust for the said John Thornhill, his heirs, sequels in right, and assigns.

February 18, 1790, two surrenders were executed by the said John Thornhill and John Walton Elliot, to William Russell, of Newbottle, in the county of Durham, Esq. 1st. One parcel of ground with the appurtenances, lying in the parish of Sunderland-near-the-Sea, at the east end of the town of Sunderland, between the hi"h and low water-marks of the river

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Demise, 6d. Wear, on the south side of the said river, abutting upon a certain parcel of copyhold or customary land and a key or wharf thereunto belonging, called by the name of the New Key or Partnership Key, then belonging to John Thornhill, Esq., and Mr. Thomas Hardcastle, on or towards the west, and upon the west end of a certain other piece or parcel of copyhold or customary land and a rock formerly called the Nab End, upon which a key or wharf was theretofore erected and made and called the Commissioners' Key, on or towards the east, which said piece or parcel of land contains in length from east to west 15H yards or thereabouts, little more or less, then called by the name of the New Key or Thornhill's Wharf; and also all and singular messuages, dwelling houses, warehouses, shops, and other houses, edifices, and buildings, wharfs, keys, slips, landing places, and other hereditaments, erected, built, or made upon the said parcel of ground or any part thereof. 2. One undivided moiety, (the whole in two parts to be divided) of a certain parcel of land lying in the parish of Sunderland-near-the-Sca, at the east end of the town of Sunderland, between the high and low Demise, 6d. water-marks of the river Wear, on the south side of the said river, abutting upon a tenement and a key or wharf to the same belonging, formerly called Bowes's Key or Ridley's Key, and then called the Low Key, formerly in the tenure of Mary Ridley, widow, and then in the tenure of John Stafford, Esq., on or towards the west, and upon the west end of a certain copyhold or customary tenement and a key or wharf to the same belonging, called the New Key or Thornhill's Wharf on or towards the east, which said premises whereof one moiety contains in length from west to east 50 yards or thereabouts, little more or less, and were then called by the name of the New Key or Partnership Key; and also one undivided moiety (the whole in two parts to be divided) of all and singular houses, shops, edifices, and buildings, wharfs and keys, erected, built, and made upon the s^tid parcel of land or any part thereof. To have to the said William Russell, and his sequels in right, according to the custom of the court, rendering &c. And he was thereupon admitted tenant. Defeazanced upon condition that if the said John Thornhill, his heirs, sequels in right, executors, administrators or assigns, should pay or cause to be paid to the said William Russell, his executors, administrators, or assigns, the full sum £2,500 with interest for the same on the 18th August then next, the said W. Russell would resurrender the said premises to the said John Thornhill, his heirs, sequels in right, and assigns, or as he or they should direct.

On the 14th May, 1804, two surrenders were executed by Christopher Thornhill Thornhill (lately called Christopher Thornhill Camm), then of the Island of Antigua, the cousin and devisee named in the last will and testament of the said John Thornhill, deceased, the said William Russell, late of Newbottle and then of Brancepeth Castle, Esq., and the said John Walton Elliot, and Charles Simpson, of Bishopwearmouth, Esq., the devisees, trustees, and executors of the said John Thornhill, deceased, to William Ettrick, of High Barns, in the county of Durham, Esq., of all the premises comprised in the two surrenders to W. Russell, 18th Feb., 1790, and by the same descriptions. To have to the said William Etlrick, and his sequels in right, according to the custom of the court, rendering, &c. And he was thereupon admitted tenant. Defeazanced upon condition that if the said C. T. Thornhill, his heirs, executors, administrators, or assigns, should pay to the said William Ettrick, his executors, administrators, or assigns, the principal sum of £2,000, then the said William Ettrick would re-surrender the said premies to the said C. T. Thornhill, his heirs or assigns.

August 24, 1812, the Rev. William Ettrick, of High Barns, aforesaid, clerk, only son and heir of William Ettrick, Esq., deceased, was admitted (by two admittances)

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