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knowledge, and mere motive, do will, and by these presents for us and our successors, as far as in us lies, grant to the aforesaid mayor, aldermen, and commonalty of the borough aforesaid, and their successors for ever, that every mayor of the borough aforesaid, for the time being, may be, and shall be, for ever, clerk of the market within
In consideration of three hundred and seven pounds the bishop conveys to the commissioners the reversion in fee simple, to take effect in possession immediately upon the determination of a term of twenty-one years, granted by an iudenture of lease, dated the 2nd September, 1818, to Mr. Lambton, of and iu all and singular the rents, tolls, duties, and profits, arising from the sale, or exposure to sale, of goods, wares, and merchandises upon all market and fair days aud other days, within the market-place—the old butchers' market—aud streets of the borough and parish of Sunderland, and the stallage or annual or other rents due aud payable, or to become due or payable in respect of the butchers' and other stalls erected, or to be erected, within the market- place and streets of the said borough and parish; and in consideration of three hundred and ninety-three pounds, Mr. Lambton conveys to the said commissioners all his interest and term of such tolls and duties, making the total sum for the bishop and Mr. Lambton's interest in these toll'!, seven hundred pounds. By the above conveyances to the Sunderland commissioners, all the tolls in the market and fairs are now vested in the mayor, aldermen, and burgesses of Sunderland, who have full power to establish other markets and fairs and receive tolls therefrom within the ancient borough and parish of Sunderland, but in no other part of the municipal borough of Sunderland. The commissioners shortly after their purchase of the tolls, attempted to establish a market for the sale of cattle, on Tuesdays, in Barrack Street: the pens for sheep, &c, were placed against the wall of the barracks. This market proved a failure owing to its isolated situation from the cattle breeding districts. A half-yearly hiring for servants, in May and November, in front of tho Exchange, was tried by the commissioners, which also failed for want of support. Tho fishermen of Sunderland received the rents and tolls, from the booths and shows erected iu Barrack and North Moor Streets, at the fair, from the year 1817 to 1853; their claim arose out of their possession of the whole of the Town Moor, to the total exclusion of the freemen and stallingers (of this, more hereafter). The right of the fishermen to receive these tolls, was successfully resisted by the lessee of the mayor, aldermen and burgesses of Sunderland, in 1853.
Mr. Jowsey above-named (step-grandfather of Mr. Thomas Jowsey Beay, of the Lambton Coal Fitting Office, Sunderland) was the successor of Mr. James Martin, at the " Golden Lion," whose good cheer was immortalized by Thomas Clerke, Esq., (believed to be the author of the local song of " Spottee," and father of Thomas Clerke, Esq., of Silver Street, Sunderland, surgeon, (who died July 15th, 1816, aged 74 years, and lies buried in Sunderland Church Yard), in a bold-and en
the borough aforesaid, and the limits thereof, to be held so long as he shall hold and occupy the office of the mayoralty of the borough aforesaid, and that he shall have full power, jurisdiction, authority, and liberty to do and exercise all and every thing relating to the office of clerk of the market in that place, in as ample manner and form as other clerks of the markets within the county palatine of Durham have heretofore had; together with all rents, profits, perquisites, fines, penalties, recoveries,
livening local song entitled "Sons of the Wear," published in "The Modem Syren; or Enchanting Songstress," printed and sold by Mr. James Graham, Sunderland, 1781, of which the following is an extract:—
"Ye social few, with hearts ever true,
Unshaken by gold or by fear,
And regale over Martin's good cheer,
Success to the Sons of the Wear."
Mr. James Martin was the father of Sarah wife of Mr James Cawdell (the eminent comedian and manager of the Theatre Iioyal, Sunderland), who (as Miss Martin) was the subject of the following acrostic, entitled "The Friendly Wish," by her future husband, in his " Miscellaneous Poems," printed for the author, by Mr. James Graham, Bookseller, in the High Street, Sunderland, 1785.
M ay each observant eye, enraptur'd, trace,
M ay fond affection, and her duty, prove
The mortal remains of Mr. and Mrs. Cawdell repose in Sunderland churchyard, as appears by the following monumental inscription: —" In memory of James Cawdell, who died Jan. 12th, 1800, aged 50 years. Also Sarah his wife, who died Nov. 27th, 1842, aged 75 years. Also two sons and one daughter who died in their infancy."
forfeitures, and amercements, forfeited and to be forfeited, assessed and to be assessed; that all and every the aforesaid grants, and all and every the aforesaid customs, liberties, privileges, franchises, and all other and singular premises whatsoever, and every thing thereto appertaining, be had, held, and enjoyed by the aforesaid mayor, aldermen, and commonalty of the borough aforesaid, and their successors, for the use of the same mayor, aldermen, and commonalty of the borough aforesaid, and their successors for ever, to be held of us and our successors in fee-farm, by paying thereout to us and our successors, to our exchequer at Durham, the sum of thirteen shillings and fourpence, to be paid to us and our successors, or to our receiver general, for the time being, on the feast of St Martin, bishop, in winter only, in lieu of all other services, exactions, and demands whatsoever, henceforward to be paid or done to us or our successors. Jn ^Testfinong whereof, we have caused these letters to be made patent. Witness, Richard Hutton, knight, one of the justices of our Lord the King, now of the county palatine of Durham.
Given at our castle of Durham, the thirty-first day of March, in the tenth year of the reign of our Lord, King Charles, by the grace of God, of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c, in the second year of our translation to the bishoprick of Durham, and in the year of our Lord, one thousand six hundred and thirty-four.
And we, Richard Hunt, professor of divinity, Dean, and the Chapter of the Cathedral Church of Christ, of the blessed Virgin Mary, Durham, by our unanimous consent and assent, for us and our successors, do, as far as in us lies, and we rightfully can, accept, approve, and ratify, and by our chapter authority confirm, by these presents, the duration, grant, ordinance, erection, and constitution, named above, and annexed to these presents, with all and every privileges, advantages, rents, customs, commodities, emoluments, and profits whatsoever, and all other and singular grunts which have been made by the Reverend Father in Christ, Thomas, by the grace of God, Bishop of Durham, by his letters patent annexed to these presents, according to the meaning, form, and effect of the same letters patent; provided always that the rights, liberties, dignity, and honour of our Cathedral Church aforesaid, be in all and every thing untouched and unimpaired. In witness whereof, we have affixed our chapter seal to these presents.
Given at our chapter house at Durham, on the seventeenth day of April, one thousand six hundred and thirtyfour, and in the tenth year of the reign of our most sovereign Lord, Charles, by the grace of God, of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c.
Through the destruction and confusion incident to the turbulent reign of King Charles I., this charter was suffered to expire, no mayor, aldermen, or common councilmen having ever been chosen to replace Bishop Morton's nominees.
PERIOD OF THE CIVIL WARS. SUNDERLAND GARRISONED FOR KING CHARLES I. TAKEN BY THE SCOTS. MILITARY OPERATIONS IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD.
BETWEEN the years 1600 and 1635, a considerble influx of population appears to have taken place in Sunderland, including several families of Scotch settlers and some foreign merchants. Amongst the former, occur the names of Dunbar, Mackracknell, Mackinnon, Dalgleish, Boyd, Rampsay, Steward, Grayme, and Oliphant; Dericksen, Claes, and a few others, seem of foreign extraction. Amongst other singular names, those of Winspear, Fishpool, Silverbones, Buildrake, Brickadike, and Coupledyke, occur in the registers.*
In 1635, the officers of the see of Durham having been interrupted, as well in the port of Sunderland as elsewhere, by the crown servants, the bishop exhibited his petition to the king in council for redress of grievances, and the allowance of his palatine rights, particularly an exemption for the sheriff of Durham from attending or accounting in the royal exchequer. In the same year the odious tax of ship money was first levied. The ports of Sunderland, Hartlepool, and Stockton were charged with one ship of the burthen of two hundred tons for the ser