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Collinwood, junior, Ra. Comp [Compton, a respectable family in North Durham], Will. Hochton [Hodgson], Jo. Wegden, Wil. Fregrin, Wil. Porte [William Porter, of Shield Row], Ro. Hardin, Gilb. Rennek, Tho. Ilea, Hump. Marchald, Ri. Emerson [of Weardale], Tho. Jopson, Hum. Terling, Jo. Wil. And. Jobler [Jopling], Ra. Wood [of Hett, a respectable yeoman], Hen. Calliday, Rob. Vickel, Ra. Eodon, Tho. Thomson, Hen. Meriam, Ri. Rakler, and many other gentlemen, as Lieu, and other officers, and three hundred souldiers, and six hundred horse, and many arms, &c. There was many captaines, which are not named in this note, which I have seen in another list; the reason is, many at first passed for common souldiers, which are now known to be officers. Col. Sir Rich. Tempest, as he was brought towards Newcastle, slipt away, and so hath made an escape. This list was given me, and I had not time to write it over. There are twenty-four Cap. taken, at the least, with reformade captains."*

The Scots, under the command of the Duke of Hamilton, invaded England by the western border, early in July. The duke entered in great state. "He marched himself," says Rushworth, "in the van of the Scottish army, with his trumpeters before him, all in scarlet cloaks full of silver lace. With the duke did march a life-guard of Scottish men all very proper, and well clothed with standards and equipage like a prince. In the van of the

• A letter from Major Sanderson, in " Packets of Letters from Scotland, Lincoln, and Lancashire, to members of the IIouso of Commons concerning the Transactions of the Kingdomo of Scotland, and the Commissioners of the Parliament of England. Brought by the Post, on Tuesday, July 11, 1648. Printed at London, by Robert Ibbitson, in Sinithfield, neore the Queens-head Tavern, 1648. Num. 17."

army marched four regiments of horse, seven colours to a regiment—the foot had ten colours in their regiment." The army, which in general was ill-equipped, illdisciplined, and dissatisfied, including about four thousand horse, amounted to nearly fifteen thousand men. It was followed, in a few days after, by two thousand foot, and one thousand horse, who had arrived from Ireland, under the command of Munroe, but they were wholly destitute of artillery. Nor did the talents of the officers compensate for the deficiencies of the troops. The duke not only wanted capacity for regulating the movements of an army himself, but, likewise, that promptitude of acting according to the suggestions of others, which tended to disqualify him equally for directing or being directed. Callendar, who had been bred in the Dutch service, had ingrafted their mulish obstinacy on his native pride, and constantly thwarted every proposal that did not originate with himself; Middleton had activity, but was only fitted for irregular warfare; and Baillie, lieutenant-general of foot, was one of the continental tacticians, whose military knowledge was ill adapted for meeting the bold and rapid manoeuvres, now, by the genius of the English generals, introduced into modern warfare.

A total want of decision characterised this expedition— a natural consequence of the duplicity and hypocrisy upon which it was founded, and of the temporizing politics and wavering disposition of their chief. No party was sincere, and no party trusted the other. The ultras, although those to whom the duke was certainly the most attached, were not admitted to join the army, because they refused the covenant, but they acted in concert with him, while the presbyterians—the natural


allies of the engagers in the contest, had the professions of their leaders been without dissimulation—were rather shunned than courted; for a month the troops lay inactive in the north. There they were joined by Langdale's force, consisting of four thousand foot, and about eight hundred mounted, who, to keep up appearances, remained always a day's march in front of the Scots; but they received their orders from the duke, and their conjunction was considered so complete, that all parties in England, presbyterians and sectaries, united in proclaiming the whole force traitors, covenant-breakers, and malignants—the House of Commons declaring (Die Veneris, July 14, 1648) "the Scots that are come in without the knowledge of the Parliament of England to be Enemies, and all those that aide or joyn with them to bee Tray tors."

After garrisoning Carlisle, the Duke of Hamilton remained in Westmorland, apparently without an object, till famine obliged him to proceed, and then, instead of advancing through Yorkshire, as Baillie advised, where he would have found a friendly population, he marched into Lancashire, on the representation of Callendar, that it would be better to exhaust a hostile than a friendly country, leaving Munroe, who would not act under Callendar or Baillie, at Kendal with his troops, the best in the whole army, to wait the arrival of the cannon from Scotland; but with instructions, in case of the main body's being attacked, to fall back upon Appleby castle, or Carlisle, and secure himself till further orders. Langdale, whose corps formed the advanced guard, was entirely trusted with procuring intelligence, while his own cavalry were spread over the country in search of forage. In this manner the expedition advanced, as three separate divisions, without proper communication with each other, and without a plan.

At Preston, they first learned that Cromwell, who they supposed was still in Wales, had effected a junction with Lambert; and such was the insubordination or indecision of the officers, that although Langdale, who was attacked by surprise, and maintained a contested action in the neighbourhood of that town upwards of four hours, repeatedly sent pressing messages for support, yet the Scottish army remained immovable at a very short distance, and allowed him to be forced into the town before any of them joined, and then, only a few horse, with the general, came to share in his defeat. Driven by the sectaries from the streets, still the bridge was tenable, and the number of the allies double; but dislodged from this also, they abandoned their ammunition in despair, and commenced a disorderly retreat in the night, pursued hotly by inferior numbers. At Wigan they only stopped till the English army advanced, and next morning continued their flight to a pass near Warwick, where they halted, and, turning on their pursuers, defended the place for several hours. A furious assault from the whole of the enemy drove them from their station in disorder to Warrington; there the foot took possession of the bridge, but being deserted by the horse, lieutenant-general Baillie, their commander, capitulated to Cromwell, and they delivered up their arms on condition of having their lives spared. The duke, with the remainder, about three thousand horse, retired upon Uttoxeter, where, jaded and worn out, they sought refuge from the revenge of the countrymen, who, exasperated at their licentious conduct on the march, destroyed their stragglers wherever they fell in with them; and the county militia, who were attached to the parliament, at the same time assembling, cut off about five hundred prisoners. According to Cromwell's despatch, the numbers engaged in this battle were—Scottish, about twelve thousand foot, and five thousand horse; English, under Langdale, two thousand five hundred foot, and fifteen hundred horse, in all twenty-one thousand. Of these, about two thousand were slain, and eight thousand six hundred prisoners. The army that defeated them were not estimated at more than the killed and prisoners.*

• The royalists in England, to whom Hamilton's overthrow was a severe disappointment, vented their chagrin in invectives against Oliver Cromwell's note, which seems at this date to have been a very obnoxious member of the commonwealth. "Nothing," Bays one of the Ultra journalists of that day, "is heard among the brethren but triumph and joy, singing and mirth, for their happy success—thanks to the devil first, and next to Noll Cromwell's nose .'—against the Scots, whom they vaunt they have beaten to dust, the truth is, even Duke Hamilton himself was corrupted with money. Why else did he deliver five thousand foot and two thousand horse unto the command of Major-general Baillic, a sworn servant to the kirkmen of Scotland, who surrendered them all up into the hands of Cromwell, without striking one stroke f The Scots army is totally routed, so great are our sins, and so fierce is the wrath of the Almighty against us. Duke Hamilton being besieged in the town of Dttoxeter, was forced to yield himself and the small handful with him; and as if the devil had got the sole sway of mundane affairs, the most valliant and heroic knight, Sir Marmaduke Langdale, was unluckily surprised, with some other worthy loyalists, as they were sitting in a blind ale-house, where they supposed themselves secure, and carried prisoners to Nottingham castle. Munro, one of the best soldiers in Christendom, is coming on with a powerful army to give Noll Cromwell another field fight; he hath sont orders to the estates of Scotland, imploring them for a recruital both of men and money, which they have ordered him; the renowned Earl of Callendar with some troops of horse is escaped to him, with whom he hath united his remnant. If Cromwell can shatter this army also, ho will prove himself one of the most fortunate villains that ever acted mischief; but he will find hard play here, for these will not be laugh't out of their loyalty, or frightened out of themselves with the blazing of his beacon nose."—Parlt. Porter, August 28th to September 4th, 1648. In the Merc. Pragmat. he is always designated Ituby Nose. In the Mere. Elcnct. tho army was made to march "by

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