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Juliana de Wittinghoff was born in the year 1766 at Riga, in Courland. She was daughter of the Baron de Wittinghoff, one of the wealthiest nobles of that country. At nine years old her father brought her to Paris, where his house was a rendezvous for all the celebrated men of that capital, so that the young Baroness found herself thus early thrown into the society of Diderot, Helvetius, D'Alembert, Grim, &c. At nine years of age, with a very lively imagination left to its own guidance, without a single given principle whereby to direct its impulses, delivered up, in short, entirely to itself, it could only take its bias from what it saw and heard, destitute of all means of discriminating between good and evil. The philosophers of the eighteenth century were not precisely the most unexceptionable guides and instructers of youth of either sex, and ill indeed were they adapted to fulfil that office for a female. The cynicism of some, the immorality of most, were so much the more to be feared, as these men expressed their opinions with much eloquence, and directed their ridicule with so much address against all that opposed their opinions in society, that to combat them with success required very deeply rooted religious principles and much strength of mind. At the period of which we speak, such was the universal corruption of morals, and disorder had risen to such a height, that a strong crisis was become necessary, it was then already foreseen that an explosion was inevitable, and the Revolution of 1793 was the appointed catastrophe, and, as it were, the detonation of the accumulated vices of many preceding years. Assuredly Mademoiselle de Wittinghoff had never heard marriage spoken of otherwise than as a convenient ceremony, by means of which a female procures full liberty, with the privilege of entertaining her lovers, becoming thereby no longer amenable to any tie or duty. At fourteen she married the Baron de Krudner, of Liefland, then thirty-six years of age, a man of good fortune, and well informed. Madame de Krudner from her infancy had discovered a disposition to melancholy and meditation, which temperament, had she been early well directed, would undoubtedly have been gradually developed and regulated, and that ardent and restless imagination might have applied itself to the working of some essential good; but, plunged into the vortex of the world, surrounded by seductions, she had no refuge from her passions, but became their unresisting slave. Nothing, perhaps, can be more dangerous than the irregularities of people of genius; for the intellectual faculties double the strength and energy of man; and when they are not employed to restrain and moderate, they never fail to stimulate and impel; the physical passions are reinforced by the passions of the imagination, if we may be permitted the expression, and from thenceforth excess alone can satisfy; and a corruption often takes possession, no less of the intellectual than of the moral being.

Mons. de Krudner, having in vain endeavoured to restore his wife to virtue, demanded and obtained a divorce in 1791. After this event Madame de Krudner, resided at Riga, where her style of living was brilliant, and where she enjoyed the homage of no inconsiderable number of adorers: nevertheless, becoming weary of a society so limited, she sought in Paris, whither she returned in 1798, a wider scope of gratification. Being captivated by a young Frenchman, she afterwards

retired with him to Leipsic, whence she departed for Riga, and in the same year returned again to Paris. At this period it was that she wrote Valeria, the plan of which had been some years previously conceived. An idea has gone forth that this romance is a fragment of the history of Madame de Krudner's life. We are not inclined to give credence to this opinion. The hero of this romance, tormented by an unhappy passion for a married woman, falls the victim of remorse for his guilty attachment, his sufferings being still farther augmented by regret that it was not returned. Now, from our acquaintance with the character of Madame de Krudner, it seems to us hardly probable she would permit the death of a lover, whom the grant of a few favours might have preserved. Valeria is one of the best written of the French romances. If the story does not seem to us applicable to the life of Madame de Krudner, the sentiments undoubtedly depict her character; it contains such a mixture of vice and virtue, such force of conscience, together with such disorder of imagination, all too truly and powerfully expressed, to be the result of mere fiction; in short, this romance explains Madame de Krudner better than we could hope to do by the most laboured and ingenious description. Her hero, Gustave, has the same defects as are conspicuous in those of Madame de Staël, Leonce and Oswald: he is utterly deficient in manly dignity; he is nerveless and effeminate; weeps like a woman; and, so far from combating his weakness, delivers himself up to its intoxication without a struggle. May we not be warranted in tracing this literary relation between these two celebrated women to a very similar feeling? They beheld men always as lovers; in which character, therefore, they always painted them, confining their thoughts, words, and actions within the focus of a single subject-illegitimate love. But guilty love forms no heroes; its best productions are nothing but gilded vices, and inconsistent, contradictory characters; since man cannot with impunity quit the path of virtue, or prevent his conscience from acting as an incessant and irksome opponent to his actions. Nevertheless, Delphine, Corinne, and Valérie, have had great success; but, unhappily, we of the present generation can only be satisfied in the developement of the most extraordinary sentiments. Adultery, for instance, employed as a means of effect in our romances, is become so common and familiar, that it now awakens but feeble interest; in short, it is nearly out of fashion; something more exciting yet is requisite: thus we have had brothers enamoured of their sisters; next we shall probably be presented with sons languishing for their mothers; and who knows but even grandmothers may take their turn, in compliment to the corrupt and exaggerated taste of the age?

It is impossible, however we may blame the plan of the romance, to read Valérie untouched: its descriptions are very fine, and its sentiments are expressed with irresistible effect; yet, in spite of the premature end of Gustave, the work is no less immoral. Certain authors compound with their consciences, believing, it should seem, that by putting their heroes and heroines to death, they redeem all the sallies of their irregular imaginations. Now, would it not be better to let these people live out their days honestly and rationally, than thus to dispose of them? These terrible expiatory catastrophes are of no use whatever

to society. All the deaths of these passionate personages are so affectingly described, and attended by circumstances of so interesting a nature, that they go nigh to awaken envy; so that the evil produced by the recital of their seducing vices, is not thereby in the least degree mitigated. Who can tell, if there are not amongst us some enthusiasts in this line, who would willingly commit a romantic suicide in order to emulate the heroes of these dangerous works? It is a well-known fact that Werther has been the cause of more than one tragical adventure. It should be the aim of the moral writer to excite the virtues rather than the passions.

After having written Valérie, Madame de Krudner retired to Berlin, where she was presented to the late Queen of Prussia, into whose intimacy she was very soon admitted. The misfortunes and reverses of the House of Brandenburgh, and the death of the Queen, made a lively impression on the mind of Madame de Krudner, and diverted her thoughts into a serious channel. At this juncture, a perusal of the works of Jung Stilling, a celebrated German visionary, awakened in her a disposition to mysticism. She connected herself with Stilling, and became his most zealous disciple. In 1813 she began her religious career at Heidelberg, where she visited the prisons and preached to the condemned; and the following year she proceeded to Paris, actuated by the design of reforming the moral and religious ideas of the chiefs of the allied armies. She held mystic assemblies at her hotel, to which she gave numerous invitations, preaching and praying for the edification of her company. It is asserted that a great personage assisted sometimes in the prayers of this penitent Magdalene. At this crisis she published a pamphlet, entitled "Religious and Military Feast of the Allies." Paris is not the properest of all places for the exercise of mysticism; and Madame de Krudner, seeing that her efforts were fruitless, and the number of her adepts inconsiderable, departed for Switzerland in 1815. Here she associated in her religious labours a Genevese named Empeytas, and Keller, a German; her daughter, who afterwards married the Comte de Berkheim, was likewise with her. She preached in the open air, and was followed by a multitude of beggars, whom she provided with food and lodging. Her audience sometimes amounted to from three to four thousand individuals; and, as the disciple of Jung, she announced to them the approaching end of the world, and the new Jerusalem. Her moral doctrine was that of the Methodists and Moravians, the efficacy of grace without works, and the necessity of regeneration. She was endowed with eloquence, and the power of persuasion; but her discourses, or inspirations, as she termed them, were destitute of reason, and consequently of truth, involving her in endless contradictions, from which it was impossible she could disentangle herself. She painted corruption like one well accustomed to her subject; but, as virtue was still rather a new acquaintance, and as her imagination rather than her heart was converted, she had no means of instructing her proselytes how to extinguish or eradicate their vices: she terrified her congregation by a description of the torments of Hell; but never spoke to them of the benevolence and mercy of God, nor of the consoling promises of Jesus Christ. Methodists, it should seem, employ the doctrine of punishment for the same

end as Catholics use discipline: in scourging the imagination, they conceive they make compensation for their sins; and, thereby satisfied, continue to commit them in security. This latter method is doubtless ingenious, and far more easy of practice than a true regeneration. He must be virtuous who dares deliver himself up to the hopes held out by Christianity;—a trusting confidence and the faithful surrender of a pure heart bespeak a tranquil conscience.

Madame de Krudner, in her paroxysms of enthusiasm, sometimes so far forgot herself as to attack the conjugal union as inimical to religion; wives and daughters abandoned their families, and bestowed all they possessed upon her poor disciples. Government at length, justly alarmed at the influence which this singular enthusiast was rapidly obtaining, obliged her to quit Switzerland; she therefore left Basle, where she received the mandate, and repaired to Greuzacher Horn, on the other bank of the Rhine, constantly followed by the populace. Very soon, however, she received orders to depart hence also; and when the officers of police came to signify to her the will of the Government of Baden, she preached to them, and endeavoured to enlist them among the number of her converts. She wrote in the moment of her departure to M. de Berkheim, minister of Baden, in order to justify herself from the accusations of which she was the object, her letter being dated from Greuzacher Horn, February 4th, 1817: as it is very characteristic, we will avail ourselves of some passages from it-it begins thus :

"Sir.-Finding myself publicly attacked as having resisted the authorities, a measure which would be contrary to the spirit of peace and meekness which I recommend to every one, and which ought to form the basis of my conduct, I am compelled, for the first time, to break the silence which I have steadfastly observed in the midst of all the injustice, all the outrages, and all the persecutions of which I have been the object, and which the Lord has given me grace to support with patience, and often even with joy. I declare, then, that I have never desired to oppose myself to the authorities, so long as those authorities have not, by their measures, stood in contradiction to commandments which I ought primarily to respect, as coming from God, and for which I ought to be ready to lay down my life.

"If, Sir, you were acquainted with the calamities which ravage these countries, you would easily conceive my situation.-Judge of it for yourself, and see, if in this moment of desolation, when thousands of destitute beings wander without work and without subsistence, when mothers, exhausted by hunger and grief, cast their poor children at my feet, telling me of the cruel temptations which have assailed them, and even shewing me the Rhine in their sombre despair, I ought to refuse them a refuge! At other times, the sufferers were old men, dying of want and decrepitude, and who crawled with difficulty to that asylum where God, rather than man, is held in fear. Sometimes (for I appeal only to facts) the sick have come to me, labouring under the most acute sufferings, but knowing that through prayer in the name of Jesus Christ they would be healed. How then could I drive away those who came to seek me, or who arrived too late to journey farther? Besides, Sir, you know that no one is received into your country without paying a large sum for admission, unless expressly exempted from the tax; whenever I had time or power to do so, I have sent to request this exemption, but generally the distance has rendered this impossible. I repeat it, had I been crossing an uncivilized land, I should not, in order to defend myself, have been compelled to combat laws reprobated by the only code which I recognize,-that of the Living God.

You must be convinced, Sir, that I could not have avoided the faults which have drawn upon me the ceasure of your Government, without renouncing the religion in which I was born, and which is the rule of my practice; and so far, Sir, do I hold you in esteem, that I take it for granted, you would have acted as I have done in a similar situation."

In another place, Madame de Krudner, after having deplored the iniquities which seem to her portentous of the end of the world, thus expresses herself:

"The time is arrived when all that is of flesh shall perish; when there shall be no more boasting of human inventions, nor of the works of the creature; for the heart of man, says the prophet, is desperately wicked. What can be expected then from this proscribed being, on whom the Fall bas set the seal of reprobation? It is only regenerated man who recovers his title at the foot of the Cross; and those states alone which are founded on the eternal basis of the will of the Most High, and of the commandments given by Him, can hope for his protection.

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"The time is arrived when the kingdoms of the earth shall cry aloud, and storms alone shall answer them!"

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To terminate these extracts, we will here present the reader with some fragments of the brilliant confession of Madame de Krudner.

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"Let those who will, be scandalized that the Lord has done great things through the means of a woman. Whether she be hated intensely, or be accused of being too much beloved, it is all indifferent. That woman prays for those of whom it is said, 'It were better that a millstone were hung around their neck, and they were cast into the depths of the sea, than that they should offend one of these little ones who believe in the Almighty.' She says, that in the act of loving, consists that powerful secret which ultimately nothing can resist, and that the greatest of all power is that which is conferred by belief in this word, 'Whatever you shall ask in my name you shall obtain.'

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"Yes, I have every thing, for I have the love of my God! Restrain, if you can, by human force, those who know that every one of the prayers of this so persecuted woman, is granted. When, about six months ago, I would fain have obeyed the orders of the Government of Baden, which forbade the assemblies held at my house by different disciples of the Lord, I made all possible efforts to conceal myself on the appointed days in several houses in the country, yet, nevertheless, multitudes of people found means to discover me, in spite of the extreme desire I felt for a little repose.

"It is then for the Lord to ordain, and for the creature to obey.—It is for Him to manifest, why the feeble voice of a woman has echoed so powerfully in the ears of the people, as to cause the knees of so many wretches to bend at the name of Jesus Christ, to stay the hands of rude assassins, and draw tears from the eyes of stern despair. Why, through her prayers to Him, she has demanded and obtained sufficient food to sustain thousands and thousands of famished, like those in the desert of old, and has been permitted to announce, in this country alone, to more than 25,000 souls, this immense charity of a God of mercy, who has opened in her heart an asylum for those indigent, whom governments and men have cast forth and abandoned. It was only for a a mother to assume the care of orphans, it was only for a mother to mingle her tears with mothers; it was requisite that a woman, educated in the dwellings of luxury, should tell the poor she was much happier, ministering to their necessities, seated on a wooden bench; it was necessary that a woman, humbled by her sins and her errors, should confess that she had

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