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Buddhist shrines, and these were all the buildings to he traced. These are both 50 feet by 30 feet, measured outside, and Plans Nos. 1 and 2 sufficiently explain them. Each has a raised platform 19 by 12 feet, built of well-cut kankar blocks without cement, and quite plain. These must originally have risen from 5 to 6 feet, from the terrace in which they stand; for even now in one place the finished upper work is of that height, whilst in others, rubbish has accumulated. On these raised platforms were probably originally built open chaityas as at Bakariya Kund. The remains of kalasas or dome caps, of 5 feet in diameter, such as could crown a " Vimana" of 30 or 40 feet in height, evidence large buildings; whilst the finding of several projecting face ornaments enabled me at once to state with certainty the original form of the building. See Figures 4, 5 and 9.
The present residents of the village call the ruins by the name of Jagat Devi's temple, and they tell me that at the Holi festival, a great " mela" or fair is held here, when offerings of ghi and rice are made to the Devi, who is neither more nor less than our old friend " S'akya Muni" or Buddha. The local name merely means "The deity of the locality."
Buddha is to be found sitting in every niche in the sculpture, and there is, besides, the two small figures, one of which does duty for Jagat Devi, (Figure 5,) and another very well carved, some 4 feet in height, of which I give a rough representation, Figure 8. Nearly all the Buddhist ruins about here, would seem to belong to the time of the decay of the purer faith, and these are no exceptions; for wo find the ornaments of the projecting faces to have been the same at Anjani, Karimganj, Karauli and Malaun. Vide Figures 4 and 5.
Here I saw for the first time on kankar, what I believe to be a kind of mason's mark: Figure 11. The carving of the large Buddha is very well executed; but the head has been knocked off and replaced minus part of the neck ; and the two upper groups of "Kinnaras," or cherubs, are altogether broken away. The two tigers under the lotus, are the same as these I saw at Malaun; the animals are something between a pig and a bear. The forms of these I naw in Behar, and also on a stone in Benares opposite to the Golden Temple.
To the right at base is the figure, supposed by Mr. Sherring and me to be " Surya," the sun, and figured amongst the remains from Bhitari in the Society's Journal, Vol. XXXIV. Part I. plate xvii. The lotus or glory around the head, is finely cut in relief, as is also the canopy. There were no traces of large bricks, but all seems to have been built of kankar blocks. In all this village, I saw no trace of the worship of S'iva. and truly, all fell down before, although many openly laughed at this their Unknown goddess, "Jagat Devi," the fear of whom was moreover shewn by their not daring to touch a stone of her former temple.
Additional note on Karauli.—Since recording the foregoing notes, I have had several opportunities of examining ancient carved stones at Karauli. Chaudhari Laehhman Sifih is constructing a tank in steps, the entire facing of which, consisting of squared kankar blocks, is composed of the remains of some very large and handsome Buddhist buildings, which, contrary to the opinion heretofore expressed by me, existed on the spot.
These blocks, in number several thousands, were found when levelling the mound or "khera" for the purpose of laying out a largo market. I subjoin a plate (x) of some of the more remarkable, which need little explanation. There were besides, large and handsome mouldings and specimens of nearly all the carved ornamental bands in use in this class of buildings. As usual, however, there had been a reconstruction; for I found two huge blocks of kankar with the tigers "couchant" placed one on either side of the doorway; whilst originally they had been joined and formed the basement for a large figure of Buddha.
The drawing No. 1, Plate X., represents what was probably at the back of the shrine, and resembles other portions found at Noner and elsewhere. It is very complete and curious. No one can say what may have been built into the tank-facing, but this is one of many instances in which valuable carvings have been lost. A few slabs were secured by me for a local museum, should such ever be established in Mainpuri.
At the village of Rasema, where is a large and ancient khera, I saw remains of a small building, similar to some of those described in these notes. This village is about two miles south of Karauli, and I here secured a curious vase-shaped pinnacle which well denoted the period of its construction.
A very useful handy-book on the Hindu law of adoption has just been published under the patronage of Honorable Prasanna Kumar Tagore,
C. S. I. It is entitled the Daltaka-Siromani, and contains the substance of all the leading treatises on the subject, including the Dattakamimdiisa, the Datlaka-chandrikd, the D. nirnaya, the D. Darpana, the
D. Didhiti, the D. Kaumvdi, the Dattaka Siddhdnta manjart, as also of an apocryphal treatise named the Dattaka Tilaka. The work has been compiled with great care and judgment by Professor Bharatachandra S'iromanj of the Sanskrit College of Calcutta, who has also supplied, at the end of each chapter, an excellent summary of its snbject.
Anglo-Pali literature has received an important accession in an English translation of the Attanagalluvansa of Ceylon, by James d'Alwis. Though professedly a history of the Temple or vihara of Attanagalla, it contains the chronicles of King Sangabodhi, who reigned in the middle of the 3rd century A. D. In an elaborate preface the translator has discussed a number of interesting questions regarding the Singhalese Chronicles of the Mahavansa and the Di'pawansa, and of translations of particular passages in them by Tumour and others.
The Librarian of the Sanskrit College of Calcutta, Pandita Jagnnmohan Tarkalankara, has brought out an edition of the play of Chanda Kausika of Khemisvara. The author flourished in the court of Mahipala Deva of Gour, and his work therefore is about 900 years old. By a curious mistake the editor, confounding an epithet with a proper name, says in his preface that the work was written for 'he entertainment of a king of the name of Kartika who flourished between four hundred and a thousand years ago. The subject of the bcok is the preeminence of truthfulness as illustrated by the story of Visvamitra and king Harischandra. The Tamil version of this work is well known nnder the name of Arichandra, of which an excellent English translation was, a short time ago, published in England by-Mr. Matukumara Svami of the Ceylon Legislative Council.
The same editor has also published a new and Very carefully revised edition of the Venisanhara of Bhatta Ndrayana, with a new commentary.
The learned professor Jayanarayana Tarkalailkara, to whom Sanskrit scholars are imlebted for several excellent commentaries on ancient Sanskrit authors, has lately presented to the public a very useful little digest, named Puddrtha-taUvasura, containing an epitome of the Philosophy of Kapila and Kanada. The book will prove a great help to the students of philosophy in the Sanskrit colleges of Calcutta and Benares.
An original treatise on the mode of performing the ceremony of weighing one-self against gold, silver and other articles intended for presentation to Brahmans, Tiddddna-paddhati, and a new grammar of the Sanskrit language (A'subodham Vyukaranani), have been brought out by the indefatigable Professor Taranatha Tarkavachaspatf of the Sanskrit College. The former will prove useful to those who have especial faith in, and the means to perform, the interesting ceremony of which it treats, but we doubt very much if the latter is likely to supersede the excellent compendinm of Varadaraja, the Laghu Kaumudi.
To the Persian scholar, we have to recommend a small volume containing two small treatises on Metre and Rhyme, the 'Aniz of Saifi, and the Kdfiahoi Jami, very carefully edited by the learned Shemitist, Professor II. Blochmnnn.
In three old letters found in the archives of the Asiatic Society, the late Colonel Wilford announced to Mr. Edward Colebrooke, the discovery of certain Sanskrit MSS. on geography, of which no notice has since been met with, and which seem not to be known to Sansknt scholars. The works named are, 1, Bhavishi/a Purana of 60,000 slokas. The Purana of that name, according to the Vishnu Purana, should contain only 14,000 slokas. In the commentary on the second work on our list Jayasinha, " who often speaks or is made to speak in the first person, says that he had in vain sent people all over India to procure it; ho ascertained that it was not to be found,and supposed it no longer existed; however near Allahabad he heard that it was in Trina gnru Desa or Tibet, in the possession of Jnani guru, and that he got a copy from him." 2nd Dharma Kosha, of 700,000 s'lokas, compiled by order of Jayasinha Râjâ of Jayapur, who is said to have " sent the author to perambulate the Gangetic provinces. He was furnished with a Machilesvura or compass, and a water clock which as he advanced shewed the Com and its parts." 3rd, Bhrigu Sanhitd, " between 40 and 50,000 s'lokas, all on geography." 4th, Garga Sanhitd, "certainly about 2} lakhs of s'lokas." 5th, Mâdhavi Kosha, "entirely on geography. It consists of 10,000 leaves or above nine lakhs of s'lokas. It requires three men, or at least two very strong ones, to carry it. It is divided into 56 books describing the Cbhapan Desa of India." 6th, Ish(a Puréfa, "compiled by order of Mâna Sing for the illustration of the geography of the Puranas—about lacks of s'lokas." 7th, Aliabala HanhUd. "of 56 Sections relating to the 56 grand divisions of India." Sth, Sdta sanhitd. 9th, Pardsara Sanhitd, "both on geography." Wilford possessed MSS. of most of these, and it would be of interest if they conld now be traced.
The following are extracts from three letters lately received from Professor Holmboe of Christiania, giving the results of his recent researches into Indo-Scandinavian antiquities. The first is an abstract of a memoir on some figures sculptured on a rock in Scandinavia, which will be found interesting to Indian Archœologists :—
"Depuis un temps immémorial on voit sur les rocs près de la mer aux côtes de Suède et de Norvège un grand nombre de figures sculptées, représentant des navires, des roues, des voitures, des hommes armés, des chevaux, des cavaliers, des souliers, &c. Elles se trouvent ordinairement groupées ensemble, ce qui a motivé quelques archéologues à les prendre pour des tableaux exécutés en mémoire de batailles, particulièrement par mer. Mais il est constaté, que les figures, qui forment une groupe, ne sont pas contemporaines, mais fabriquées à différentes époques. Le navire ou bateau sont des symboles ordinaires de la métempsychose en Orient, et les mêmes symboles se trouvent parfois sur des pierres sépulcrales dans le Nord. M. H. suppose donc que ces figures sculptées sur les rocs y sont placées en mémoire de personnes décédées, et que le choix des figures depend ou du gout des parents survivants, ou de la position, sociale du défunt, ou de quelque événement important de sa vie. Quant aux autres figures, les souliers, les Toitures, les chevaux &c. l'auteur renvoie le lecteur à la croyance des