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cultivated).* This progressively less appropriate name may be supposed to have merged into the official Jannatabad, which follows in Mint sequence.

5. Sandrgaon, as a rale, retains its ancient discriminative designation of JiL». gj-A-t, a title which it eventually had to cede to its rival Muazamabad.

6. Muazamabad. There is no definite authority for the determination of the site of this city, which, however, seems to have been fonnded by Sikandar about 758-759 A. H., when his own coins record that he himself assumed the title of f&*+)\, without trenching upon the superlative ^Ja-cif) usually reserved for the reigning monarch. I conclude that there was a gradual migration from the ancient Sonargaon to the new city, which grew in importance from the governmental centre implied in the i>b\ Jhu»pdi\ (No. 19) of 760 A. H., to the jbU=mxi((li«t)| Sjjj, "the great city of Muazamabad" (No. 18) of about 780 A. n., till, on the disappearance of the name of Sonargaon

century is recorded to have said that "he entered the month of the river Ganges, and, sailing up it, at the end of fifteen dtiys he came to a large and wealthy

city called Cernove On both banks of the 9tream there aro most charming

villas and plantations and gardens Having departed henco, he sailed up

the river Ganges for the space of threo months, leaving behind him four very famous cilies, and landed at an extremely powerful city called Maarazia. ... . having spent thirteen days 'on an expedition to some mountains to the eastward, in search of carbuncles' . . he . returned to the city of Cernovo, ind thence proceeded to Buffotania."—The travels of NicoW Conti, Hakluyt Society, London, pp. 10, 11.

See also Purchas, vol. v. p. 508 j and Murray's Travels in Asia, ii. 11.

There are also many interesting details regarding the geography of Bengal, and a very full and lucid summary of the history of the period, to be found in "Da Asia doJoaode Barros" (Lisbon, 1777, vol. iv. [viii.], p. 4U5 et seq.). At the period of the treaty of Alfonso do Mello with, " El Rey Mamiid do Bongala" (the king whom Shir Shdh eventually overcame) the name of Shahr Nau had merged into the old provincial designation of G'uur, which is described as " a principal Cidade deste Reino ho chamada Oouro, situada nas correntes do Gangs, c dizem tor do comprido tres leguas, das nossns, e dazontos mil vizinlios," (p 458). Satigam makes a prominent fignro on tho map, and Somagnra is located on a large island within tho Delta, the maiu stream dividing it from Daca, which is placed on the opposite or left bank of tho estuary.

More modern accounts of the old city may be found iu Purchas, i. 579; Churchill, viii. 54; also Ronnell, Memoir of a Map of Hmdoostan, London, 1788, p. 55 ; Stewart, p. 41, and in a special work entitled " Tho Ruins of Gonr," illustrated with maps, plans, and engravings of tho numerous Muhammadan edifices extant in 1817, by II. Croighton, Ito., London, Black, Parbury and Allen. See also Elliot's Glossary of Indian Terms, sub voce, Gonr Brahmin.

* The adjective (derived from^^c, Coluit) will admit of other meanings, and >f understood as applying to a town, might signify " well built," locally Paiia. from the marginal records of the general enrrency, the new metropolis appropriates to itself the immemorial of Eastern Bengal

(No. 32 A.)

With a view to keep these brief geographical notices under one heading, I advert for the moment to No. 7, Ghiaspur, of which locality I have been able to discover no trace ; and likewise anticipate the doe order of the examination of Aazem Shah's mint cities in referring to the sole remaining name of Jannatdbdd, an epithet which is erroneously stated to have been given by Humayun to the re-edified Lakhnauti,* but which is here seen to have been in use a century and a hall before the Moglmls made their way into Bengal.

Tbe single item remaining to be mentioned in regard to Aazam's mints is the substitution of the word in lieu of SA^t M the prefix to Firiiz&bad (No. 35), in parallel progress towards centralization with the Mint phraseology adopted in the case of Satgaon.

Sikandar Shah bin Ilias Shah.
No. 17.

Finizabad, A. H. 750, 751, 752, 753, 754, 758, 759, 760. Type No. 1. Ordinary simple obverse, with reverse circular are a and margin.

Obv. Rev.

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* Ay!n-i-Akbari, ii. p. 11; Stewart's Bengal, 124. Bengal itself was called

^kjj| iva., "The Paradise of Regions." Ibn Batutah, iv. p. 210, says the Persians called Bengal jjj £jjit "co qui signific," en arabo, "nn enfer rompli do biens." Hursdon, Num. Orient, p. 578, gives a coin of 'Ala-uJ-dln Hnsain Shah, of A. H. 917, purporting to have been struck at " Jaunatibad." + ijjb "regio;" also "oppidnm." The plurals are said to vary, in correspond

enco with the independent moanings, as and Jj|jjlj

No. 18.

Sonargaon, A. n. 756, 757, 759, 760, 763. Type No. 2. The usual lettered obverse with circular area and margin reverse.

Obv. Rev.

,ylEJLJ| jLi


No. 19.

Muazamabad, A. H. 760, 761, 763, 764. Plate II. fig. 12.
Variety A.

No. 20.
Finizabad, A. n. 764.

Variety B.

No. 21.

Sonargaon, A. n. 758, 759. Type No. 3. As usual.

Obv. Rev. Margin, as usual.

No. 22.

Finizabad, A.n. 765, 766, 770, 771, 772, 773, 776, 779, 780. Type No. 4. Coarse coins, badly formed letters. Obverse, simple lettered surface. Reverse, circular area.

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No. 24.

Satgaon, A.h. 780, 781, 782, 783, 784, 788. Plate II. fig. 13.

Type No. 6. Obverse, a quadrated scalloped shield, with open bosses on the margin containing the names of the "four friends," the intermediate spaces being filled in partially with the king's titles.

Reverse, hexagonal star-shaped lozenge, with exterior marginal legend.*

* The pattern legend of this mint-die seems to have been taken from oral data, as it is engraved as &U| j&lsJl instead of the more critical *1J| |&f|

*JL/i^»lflJ|The increased facilities of intercourse by sea probably aided ^thecolloquial knowledge of Arabic in the estuaries of Bengal; while the learned of Dehli had to rely more upon books and occasional teachers. Ibn Batutah tells ns, that Muhammad bin Tughlak, though pretending to speak Arabic, did not distinguish himsolf in the act, whilo Hajl Iliaa must himself havo performed the pilgrimage to Mecca.

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Obverse Margin,

^ jyUl* ./^il AAlsr^l JoUJi Jjwi J.UJII

Reverse Margin,

No. 25.

Shahr Nan, A. H. 781, 782, 783, 784, 785, 786 Plato II. fig. 14. Type No. 7. Obverse, a simple octagon, with four circlets in the margin containing the names of the four friends of the Prophet, the rest of the exergue being filled in with the king's own titles.

Reverse, a diamond-shaped area with the crossed lines prolonged to the edge of the piece; the lines are slightly scalloped outwards to form an ornamental field.

Obv. Rev.

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Obverse Margin,
Reverse Margin,

The name of the mint is imperfectly expressed on even the best specimens, and great latitude has been permitted in the omission or insertion of entire words in the reverse marginal legend.

Variety A. differs merely in the pattern of the reverse area, which is ornamented with double instead of single scallops.

No. 26.

FirfzftM, A. n. 780, 781, 782, 783, 784, 785, 786, 787, 788, 789, 790, 791, 792.

Type No. 8. Obverse, circular area, with a board margin divided

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