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Bodeen range. A small valley, the Paniala valley, separates the Rotta Roh range from the Sheikh Bodeen range, and the direction of both small chains is from thj3 N. E. to the S. W. as far as the highest Summit of Sheikh Bodeen, whence westwardly the Rotta Roh altogether disappears, and the Sheikh Bodeen range is continued by a small and low ridge of hillocks directed towards the W. N. W. and supporting the plateau of Bunnoo. (See map.)
The Rotta Roh is mostly composed of carboniferous limestone. The Zeawan bed is well developed, but extraordinarily disturbed j it is a yellowish rock, often very sandy. It forms the base of the hills on the E. and S. E.
Dr. A. Fleming sent home some fossils from Kafir Kote, which were ascertained by M. de Verneuil to belong to the following species :— Produclus cora (D'Orb.) ; Produclus costalus (Sow.). Productus Humboldtii, (D'Orb.) Spiriferf Dentalinm ingens, (DeKonig). All the species of which I have given drawings in PI. I, III, and V, were found in the Rotta Roh limestone, with the exception of the Spirifer like S. trigonalw.* Several species of corals, either not found at all or very rare in Kashmir, were found abundantly in the lower beds of the Rotta Roh; but altogether the fauna of the Zeawan bed in Kashmir and in the Rotta Roh is so very similar, that it can be called identical.
The limestone restsf on a quartzite rather peculiar in some localities. It is composed of opaque white quartz in which are imbedded plates of pearly white mica half an inch wide; these plates of mica are arranged in tufts; there are also some irregular nodules or granules of black augite (?) quite lustreless (see fig. 74, pi. IX). There can be
* A distinct species of Sp., according to Mr. de Vorneuil. 11 failed to find the bed of quartzito in situ; my examination was much more superficial than I could wish. But it is hardly to be wondered at that the quartzite bod9 are not found in situ, if we consider the wonderful state of confusion the beds are in. The limestone is in an extremoly shivered condition, having been thrown into stray arch-like anticlinals separated by numerous faults. The- shivering of the beds often goes so far that it is difficult to ascertain the dip and strike of the beds. In such convulsions as these which must have taken place in these hills, the brittle and fragile beds of quartzite must have been entirely broken, and are therefore not to be seen in situ at their outrrops but are only indicated by the fragments into which they wore reduced, fn several localities the ground is covered with angular pieces of quartzite, either with mica. as described in the text, or plain and opaque.
no doubt that this micaceous quartzite represents the bed of qnartzite which we have seen invariably underlying the Zeeawan bed in Kashmir. The beds of volcanic ash which it probably covers are not exposed in the Kafir Kote Range.
The Zeeawan bed of limestone is capped by very extensive and thick beds of Weean limestone rich in goniatites, in mussel-like anthracosiae, in Aviculo-pectens and other characteristic fossils. I found some blocks of the sandy limestone in which the anthracosue, solenopsis and A. pectens are generally found, containing one specimen of Productus semireticulatus, several Athyris subtilita (Hall) and A. Royssii (L. W.), and also the P. Bolhicutis (D'Orb.) mixed up with the anthraeosice and A. pectens, a mixture of Zeeawan and Weean fossils which I never saw in Kashmir. Some very large bivalves of which debris had been found in Kashmir and resembling an aviculoid inequilateral pecten were also found; the transverse diameter is inches. Fine nautilides and spines of cidaris six inches long were also found. In the Rottah Roh the difference between the Zeeawan and Weean beds is not everywhere so well marked as it is in Kashmir, as I have just exemplified; generally, however, the assemblage of fossils given in the plates as characteristic of the beds is the same as it is in Kashmir.
In the northernmost end of the Rottah Roh, the Zeeawan bed does not appear, and is only represented near Kumdul by a few small mounds of debris rising through the sandy plain close to the foot of the hill. As we travel south and approach the Kafir Kote river, the Zeeawan bed appears under the Weean, and can be traced without interruption as far as the southern end of the hill a few miles from Paniala. It is impossible to give the dip and strike of the Zeeawan bed, as not a hundred yards of it keeps the same direction; the broken fragments of the bed are more like packed ice in the polar seas than like courses of rock in a hill. The Weean bed above is much less disturbed, except the deepest beds which rest immediately on the Zeeawan; it dips generally N. W. with a very trifling angle varying from 20° to 8° or 9° with the horizon; occasionally the dip becomes W. and even S. W.
I have not seen any beds in the Rottah Roh similar to the Kothair bed of Kashmir.
At the northern end of the Rottah Roh, the carboniferous limestone is immediately covered in by a Miocene sandstone and conglomerate. A little further south, some beds of reddish limestone tod some sandstones, grey and bituminous, are either the top of the carboniferous or possibly Permian or Triassic beds. The fossils are very scarce and mere debris. The sandstone contains thin layers of a shale which is full of carbonized remains of plants, and from the sandstone, near the shale, a black bitumen oozes out. It is a mineral pitch or impure petroleum; the quantity is insignificant.
As we continue to travel south and west, we find the Weean bed forming the top of the hill the whole way; with here and there patches of gypseous marls, red marl, grey sandstone and variegated thin-bedded non-fossiliferous limestone, or rather dolomite, which are in all probability Triassic, but which will require much more careful study than I have been able to give them, before they can be satisfactorily classed. I believe them identical to the red marl and gypsum of the Saliferian formation of the Salt Range. Close to the village of Paniala these supposed Triassic beds are well developed, and from them issue some saline hot springs. Near Ounga, at the other (northern) extremity of the little Range, a patch of these same gypseous sandstones and marl appear at the end of a fault in the carboniferous limestone, and from these supposed Triassic beds two or threo small hot and saline springs issue. It is a remarkable fact that everywhere in the Himalaya and in the hills of the Punjab, where these gypseous marls, red marls, sandstones and dolomites appear well developed, they are generally accompanied by saline springs, usually hot.
At the northern extremity of the Rottah Roh, over the village of Kundul, we have seen that the Weean limestone forms the bulk of the hill. Under it, at one place, is found a feldspathose sandstone invaded by tortuous veins of quartzite; it has acted powerfully on the limestone near it, this being much metamorphosed, cellular, traversed in all directions by thick bands of crystalline carbonate of lime, and all fossils being obliterated or changed into a lump of spar. The feldspathose sand has the appearance of having been forced between the broken ends of the bods of limestone which is thrown into an anticlinal; it is generally white, occasionally coloured red in patches; it is not stratified, but mamtnilated, globular, irregular, and branching like a dyke. This intrusion of a feldspathose solution or paste took place before the final upheaval of the Himalayas, as there is evidence that some of the beds have been redisturbed by this uplieaval, and as the Miocene conglomerate which partially fills the fault is unconformable to the limestone. A full description of this locality would be complicated, and I have no intention of giving here such a description. I merely want to point out that we have here Weean beds disturbed and baked by a geyserian action, similar to that which we have seen at Ishlamabad and at the Manus Bal.
61. The Sheikh Bodeen Range is mostly composed of miocene sandstone, clay and conglomerate. These beds are thrown into an anticlinal, the south-eastern and southern slopes dipping to the S. E., and the S. and the north-western and northern slopes dipping N. W. and N. One can see, from the top of the highest summit, that deeper rocks have endeavoured to push their way through the miocene, the beds of sandstone and conglomerate being arranged in semi-theatres on both sides of the points where an underground mass has endeavoured to break through. But everywhere these underground masses have failed to find a way to the surface except at one point, viz., the Sheikh Bodeen summit, in the centre of the Range. This summit is 4604 feet above the level of the sea, whilst the Miocene range does not reach higher than 2800 feet and is generally very much lower. There is evidence that the Miocene was at one
Horizontal appearance of the Miocene beds, Sheikh Bodeen range.
time much higher and reached to within 8 or 900 feet of the summit of Sheikh Bodeen. But the friable sandstone and loose conglomerate disintegrate very quickly, whilst the limestones of Sheikh Bodeen summits decay but slowly; hence the Miocene portions of the Range
have become low hills, whilst Sheikh Bodeen summit has nearly retained its original height, and appears therefore to stand now as an isolated summit in the middle of insignificant, low, barren and crumpling sandstone and conglomerate hillocks.
Sheikh Bodeen hill (not range) is mostly composed of Jurassic limestone, excessively shattered from having been thrown into a succession of very sharp anticlinals. The anticlinals are separated by faults which run from W. S. W. to E. N. E. The following diagram sections are from the N. N. W. to the S. S. E.
Sections V and VI General Map.
The section in the distance is about a mile north of the section through Sheikh Bodeen Hill. Jurassic limestone is at least 800 feet thick; it is rich in fossils which are, however, seldom well preserved. The lower beds contain Belemnites, Ostrese, Rhynchonellre and Terebratulas in great abundance, especially in and near some ferruginous sandy beds. Shaly beds are full of petrified branches of trees. The limestone is sandy and impure; along the great cliff facing the S. S. E. and formed by the removal of half the arch of an anticlinal (see section, marked cliff) some very fine specimens of ripple-marking are exhibited on a large scale. Ammonites are also found, but very much broken. Cariophyllides and an Aslrwa are the commonest corals. Two or three species of Pholadomya are tolerably abundant. In the uppermost beds I have found a Nerinwa, very likely the N. Bruntrulaita (Thuma') of the coralline. In both the lower and upper bods the mineral characters appear to be identical, and many species of fossils are common to both, especially Rhynchonellae, of which no less than ten species are abundant. In the lower beds I have found eight species of Terebratidas with short loops, or true Terehratuloz. The Bekmnites are three or four species, of which a thick one like the B. mlcatus, a grooved species like the B. canaliculatus, and a hastate Bpecies like the B. hastatus are the most abundant. Gasteropods are extremely abundant insome beds, most especially a species of Acteonina; a few encrinite stems were found, but no heads.