페이지 이미지

Zowoor and Zeawan in Kashmir.

Macrocheiliis Avellanoides, DeKon.

Journal, Geological Society, "Vol. XIX. No. 73, p. 10. PI. Ill fig. 4. Rotta ftoh.

Denialinm Herculeum, DeKon.

Op. Cit. p. 8. PI. IV. figs. 10, 11 & 12. Several specimens were found in the Rotta Roh, but none in Kashmir. Trochus up.

Some large specimens of Trochus, four inches across, were found at the Rotta Roh, Punjab. Lamellibbanchiata. Anomia Lawrenciana, DeKon.

Journal, Geological Society, Vol. XIX. p. 6. PI. IV. figs. 7, 8 & 9. Found in the Rotta Roh, but not in Kashmir. Braciiiopoda.

Terebratula sacculus, Martin.

Journal, Geological Society, Vol. XXII. p. 40. PI. IX fig. 1. Found at Zeawan Zowoor and Barus, Kashmir.

Remark. A few other species of true Terebratulse were found in the Zeawan group of Carboniferous limestone, but I am unable to identify them at present.

Spirifer Vercheri, de Verneuil, new sp. PI. I. figs. 1, la.

See M. de Vernueil's note.

Barus in Kashmir. It has been found in Spiti.

Spirifcr striatus, Martin.

Journal, Geological Society, Vol. XVIII, No. 69, p. 28. PI. I. figs. 9 and 10.

Several fragments were found at Zeawan aud Zowoor, and complete specimens in the Rotta Roh. Spirifer Moosakhelensis, David. Op. Cit. p. 28. PI. II. fig. 2.

This shell is extremely abundant at Zeawan, but was always found in fragments. It is also common at the Rotta Roh.

After comparing numerous specimens of the last two species, in various states of weathering, I must express my impression that the S. Moosakhelensis is only a variety of the S. striatus, in which the concentric laminae (which do exist in the striatus) have become exaggerated. All stages of transition are to be observed[ in a moderately large series.

Spirifer Majah, Strachey [Syn. S. Keilhavii Buck ?]

Paleont. of Niti, page 59.

Fragments found at Zeawan and Bar us.

Spirifer, spec. nor. f PI. Ill figs. 1 & la.

Hinge-line straight and much longer than the greatest width of the shell. Umbones prominent above the hinge-line; hinge-area not Been. Six or seven irregular ribs radiate from the umbo to the margin in a wavy manner. Fine ornamental raised lines (coarser on the larger than on the smaller valve) radiate likewise in a wavy manner. Shell flat. It varies a great deal in shape and size, but is always very flat, so much so that it has somewhat the appearance of such shell as the Strophomena grandis of the Silurian. It may possibly be, like the precedent, a variety of the S. Kcilhavii.

Found at Zeawan in Kashmir and at the Rotta Roh.

Spiriferina octoplicata (Sow.), var. Transversa (Verch.)

PI. I. figs. 2, 2a, 26, 2c, and 2d.

Specimens like a, are not common at all; but fragments of the shell such as are represented at b, are innumerable in the brown shale of Zeawan. Found also in the limestone of Kafir Kote in the Rotta Roh, but it is there rare. This shell seems to vary wonderfully, from the narrow forms figured by Davidson, (Journal Geological Society, Vol. XVIII. PI. I. figs. 11 and 14,) to the very transveise variety represented here.

Athyris sp. (Ath. subtilita. Hall), PI. II. figs. 1 and la.

This species varies considerably, especially as to size, but is easily recognized by the overlapping of the upper edge of the lines of growth, so that the shell looks as if made up of several layers laid one over the other, like the many capes of a coachman's cloak.

Found at Zowoor in Kashmir, in lenticular beds where it appears to be gregarious. Also in the Rotta Roh and Salt Range.

Athyris Buddhista, Verc/t., n. sp. PI. II. figs. 2, 2a, and 2b.

It has flat, expanded sides on each side of a well marked sinus of the larger valve and sharp fold of the lesser. The beak terminates in a point, occasionally pierced by a small foramen but generally imperforate. The spiral oral arms appear to fill nearly the whole of the shell, leaving only a small hour-glass-shaped space in the centre.

This shell varies a good deal, some specimens being much more transverse than others, some being very flat and others less so. It was a gregarious animal found now accumulated in lenticular beds.

Zeawan and Zowoor. The name proposed is derived from the first few specimens which were found having been discovered in blocks of stone of a Buddhist ruin.

Athyris sp. probably A. Rvyssii, (L'EveiUe) PI. II. fig. 3-3.

Loss transverse than the preceding and ornamented with fine and closely set concentric lines of growth strongly marked. Foramen generally obliterated. Imprints showing the fringe-like expansion round the margin are very common in the brown shale of Zeawan. The shell is abundant in all the localities where the Zeawan bed has been observed in Kashmir and the Punjab.

Remark. Several other species of Athyris were discovered at Zeawan, Zowoor and Barus, some having the general facies of our tigs2 and 3 and being probably varieties of the A. Royssii. Others with the umbo-marginal diameter longer than the transverse and being probably narrow varieties of the A. subtilita. Others again have the general facies of the T. Digona, and others the carinated appearance of the Ath. Navicula (Sow).

Retzia radialis (Phill), var. grandicosta (Davids.)

Journal, Geological Society, Vol. XVIII. p. 28. PI. I. fig. 5.

Very frequently met with at Zeawan and Zowoor, and also in the Rotta Roh.

Streptorynchus crenistria, Phill. var. robustus.
Op. cit. p. 30. PI. r. fig. 16.

This shell attains a very large size in Kashmir and in the Punjab, specimens five inches in tranvserse diameter not being rare. Fragments of this shell, and young shells, swarm at Zeawan and in some beds in the Rotta Roh.

Orthis resujnnata, Martin.

Op. cit. page 31. PI. I. fig. 15.

Abundant in the brown shale of Zeawan, Kashmir.

Orthis sp. PI. III. fig. 3.

A cast of au Orthis belonging to the type of the Orthis plicaltdla (Hall) of the Silurian. It has six ribs, not very conspicuous, and two well-marked lines of growth; and is ornamented with fine radiating striae. Only one specimen was found at Zeawan.

Remark. An immense number of small, or perhaps yonng, Orthisidae occur in the ferruginous dark shale of Zeawan, in some places so abundantly that they cause the shale to exfoliate like a disintegrating mica-schist. The shells are, however, so thin and brittle that imprints alone can be procured.

Strophomena analoga (PhiU.) ? PI. II. fig. 4.

There is, I think, little doubt of this shell being Phillip's species. The shell is raised in irregular concentric furrows and ridges, and is ornamented by fine radiating striae. Both valves are nearly flat; the umbones are hardly marked; the hinge is linear and nearly as long as the greatest diameter of the shell. These Indian specimens are very large, above four inches across.

Seldom found entire in Kashmir; but even pieces of it are conspicuous and easily recognized. Good specimens were obtained from the Rotta Rob in the Punjab.

Struphomena f sp. PI. III. fig. 2.

An internal cast only. Found at Zeawan in Kashmir.

Productus costatus (6'oiu.)

Journal, Geological Society, Vol. XVIII. p. 31. PI. I. figs. 20, 21.

Numerous specimens of this well known species were found at Zeawan and Zowoor in Kashmir, and in the Rotta Roh and Salt Range.

Productus semireticulatus {Martin.)
Op. Cit. p. 21.

It varies considerably, some specimens being very transverse. The Kashmir and Punjab specimens are usually very large and often deformed by pressure.

Zeawan, Zowoor, Barus. Rotta Roh, Salt Range.

Productus cora (d'Orbigng.)

Found abundantly every where in the Zeawan group.

Productus Humboldt ii (D'Orb.)

Journal, Geological Society, Vol. XVIII. p. 32. PI. II. fig. 6. Large specimens found at Zeawan and smaller ones at Barns. Also in the Salt Range and Rotta Roh, Punjab.

Productus Purdoni (Davids).
Op. Cit. p. 31. PI. II. fig. 5.

Zeawan in Kashmir and Rotta Roh in the Punjab. In a series of specimens of P. Humholdtii and P. Purdoni, it is quite impossible to decide where one species ends and the other begins.

Productus Flemingii (d'Orl.)

Syn. P. longispinus (de Fern) and P, lobatus (de Vern.)

Journal, Geological Society, Vol. XVIII. p. 31. PI. I. fig. 19.

Davidson's figure does not show the enrolled and horn-like ears so well defined in our specimens.

M. de Vernueil regards the Rotta Roh specimens as a well defined variety; see his note.

Found at Zeawan and Zowoor and in the Rotta Roh.

Productus Boliviensis (d'Orb.) and P. aculeatus f (Martin).

See M. de Vernueil's Note.

Found at Zowoor and Zeawan in Kashmir.

Strophalosia f Arachnoidea,) Verch.) n. sp. PI. IV. figs. 1, la, 1J.

The specimen of the larger valve is from the Rotta Roh and the other two from Zeawan in Kashmir; they may be different shells. The larger valve resembles the Productus Purdoni, but the spines are fewer, better defined and less slanting towards the margin. The other two specimens are remarkable for the excessive length of the threadlike spines and for some complications in the hinge.


Eurypterus f Limulus f sp. PI. V. fig. 4.

Claw of a Crustacean, belonging apparently to one or the other of the two genera above. It was found on a slab which had been worn by running water, so that a horizontal section of the claw is produced. The same slab was full of Athyris Buddhista (Verch.), Productus Flemingii (D'Orb.). P. Aculeatus, Fenestella Sykesii (deKiin.) and Vincularia Midtangidaris (Patlock).

The tegument is smooth and pierced by pores, which are seen vertically sected on the margins of the claw, and appear like dots where the tegument is not worn off. The tegument forms septa in the upper mandibule, but none in the lower. The ends of the mandibules are hooked. There are no traces of teeth on the internal margin of the claw. No other part of the animal could be found.

« 이전계속 »