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before a citation means that the cited authority constitutes additional source material that supports the proposition. Authorities that state or directly support the proposition will precede this signal
before a citation means that the cited authority supports a proposition different from the cited proposition, but sufficiently analogous to lend support.
See generally before a citation means that the cited authority
presents background material related to the proposition.
In addition to these signals, this volume also includes symbols to highlight two subjects to which participants in the process frequently refer: points of order and controlled time.
The author of this volume has collected many of the precedents that appear here from the Rules database of the LEGIS computerized legislative information system available to Senate offices. Often the author has merely paraphrased the headnote of the Parliamentarian's notation of a precedent in that database. Consequently, this book owes much -- if not all -- to the Senate Parliamentarian, Alan Frumin (who wrote the lion's share of the entries in the Rules database), and his excellent and helpful staff, Assistant Parliamentarian Kevin Kayes, Second Assistant Parliamentarian Jim Weber, Third Assistant Parliamentarian Jennifer Smith, and Executive Assistant Sally Goffinet. The author owes particular thanks to former Assistant Parliamentarian and former Counsel to the Senate Budget Committee Gail Del Balzo, now of the Congressional Budget Office. Thanks are due, too, to former Parliamentarian Bob Dove, now of the Republican Leader's Office.
The Budget Committee, under the leadership of Chairman Jim Sasser of Tennessee, its Staff Director Larry Stein, and its Deputy Staff Director John Callahan (who, among his many other responsibilities, oversees preparation of the Committee's prints) has provided the impetus, direction, and guidance necessary to the production of this volume. The Senate Budget Committee's Legal Group, Counsel Agnes Bundy and Staff Assistant Jackie King, as well as Assistant to the Deputy Director Louise Echols, former Senate Budget Committee Legal Aide Rita Graf, and Buck White and Alex Green of the Senate Budget Committee Publications Department provided invaluable technical support in the production of this volume. The author owes thanks, as well, to former Senate Budget Committee Staff Directors Rick Brandon, Steve Bell, and John Hilley, former Chief Counsel Nell Payne (now of the White House Office of Legislative Affairs), former Republican Assistant Staff Director Carol Hartwell, and Austin Smythe of the Republican staff of the Senate Budget Committee, for their input.
Bob Keith and Sandy Davis of the Congressional Research Service and Tom Armstrong of the General Accounting Office also provided valuable component parts of this volume.
Although the author has imposed on each of these people named above for material for this volume and for help in its writing, none bears responsibility for its content. The annotations included here do not necessarily reflect the views of the Senate Budget Committee or of anyone other than the author, although, as do most authors, the author does hope that others will share the views expressed here.
The author owes a debt of thanks to those with whom he worked in drafting the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990, a partial list of whom includes Richard Kogan of the House Budget Committee, Jim Horney, formerly of the House Budget Committee and now of the General Accounting Office, David Pomerantz of the House Rules Committee, Bob Weinhagen of the House Legislative Counsel's Office, Bill Jensen of the Senate Legislative Counsel's Office, and Alan Cohen and Sue Nelson of the Senate Budget Committee.
The author would be remiss not to thank Ellen Weintraub for her patience in putting up with endless discussions of this volume. Finally, the author owes a debt to Martin Gardner, whose work has undoubtedly inspired many an annotation, and perhaps a few laws.
8 M. GARDNER, THE ANNOTATED ALICE: ALICE'S ADVENTURES IN WONDERLAND