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Sec. 13203. DEBT INCREASE AS MEASURE OF DEFI

CIT; DISPLAY OF FEDERAL RETIREMENT TRUST
FUND BALANCES.

633 Sec. 13204. PAY-AS-YOU-GO PROCEDURES.

636 Sec. 13205. AMENDMENTS TO SECTION 303.

636 (a) IN GENERAL.

636 (b) EXCEPTIONS.

636 Sec. 13206. AMENDMENTS TO SECTION 308.

638 (a) REPORTS AND SUMMARIES OF CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET ACTIONS.

638 (b) CONFORMING AMENDMENT.

638 (c) ADDITIONAL CONFORMING AMENDMENT.

638 Sec. 13207. STANDARDIZATION OF LANGUAGE REGARDING POINTS OF ORDER.

639 (a) IN GENERAL.

639 (b) POINTS OF ORDER IN THE SENATE.

640 (c) ADJUSTMENT IN THE SENATE OF ALLOCATIONS AND AGGRE

GATES TO REFLECT CHANGES PURSUANT TO SECTION
310(c).

641 (d) RECONCILIATION INSTRUCTIONS.

642 Sec. 13208. STANDARDIZATION OF ADDITIONAL DEFICIT CONTROL PROVISIONS.

643 Sec. 13209. CODIFICATION OF PRECEDENT WITH

REGARD TO CONFERENCE REPORTS AND
AMENDMENTS BETWEEN HOUSES.

645 SEC. 13210. SUPERSEDED DEADLINES AND CONFORMING CHANGES.

646 Sec. 13211. DEFINITIONS.

647 (a) BUDGET AUTHORITY..

647 (b) EFFECTIVE DATE..

647 SEC. 13212. SAVINGS TRANSFERS BETWEEN FISCAL YEARS. ....

649 Sec. 13213. CONFORMING CHANGE TO TITLE 31. 653 (a) LIMITATIONS ON EXPENDING AND OBLIGATING.

653 (b) LIMITATION ON VOLUNTARY SERVICES.

654 Sec. 13214. THE BYRD RULE ON EXTRANEOUS MATTER IN RECONCILIATION.

655 (a) THE BYRD RULE ON EXTRANEOUS MATTER IN RECONCILIATION.

655 (b) TRANSFER OF BYRD RULE.

656

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Sec. 13301. OFF-BUDGET STATUS OF OASDI TRUST
FUNDS..

659 (a) EXCLUSION OF SOCIAL SECURITY FROM ALL BUDGETS. 659 (b) EXCLUSION OF SOCIAL SECURITY FROM CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET.

659 Sec. 13302. PROTECTION OF OASDI TRUST FUNDS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

665 (a) IN GENERAL.

665 (b) APPLICATION.

667 (c) DEFINITIONS.

667 SEC, 13303. SOCIAL SECURITY FIREWALL AND POINT OF ORDER IN THE SENATE.

669 (a) CONCURRENT RESOLUTION ON THE BUDGET.

669 (b) POINT OF ORDER.

669 (c) COMMITTEE ALLOCATIONS.

669 (d) POINT OF ORDER UNDER SECTION 311. .

671 SEC. 13304. REPORT TO THE CONGRESS BY THE

BOARD OF TRUSTEES OF THE OASDI TRUST
FUNDS REGARDING THE ACTUARIAL BALANCE
OF THE TRUST FUNDS.

672 Sec. 13305. EXERCISE OF RULEMAKING POWER. 673 SEC. 13306. EFFECTIVE DATE.

674

675

Subtitle D -- Treatment of Fiscal Year 1991 Sequestration
SEC. 13401. RESTORATION OF FUNDS SEQUES-

TERED.
(a) ORDER RESCINDED.
(b) AMOUNTS RESTORED.
(C) FURLOUGHED EMPLOYEES.

675 675 675 675

Subtitle E Government-sponsored Enterprises

681 Sec. 13501. FINANCIAL SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS OF

GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED ENTERPRISES. 681 (a) DEFINITION.

681 Government-sponsored enterprise

681 GSE .

681 (b) TREASURY DEPARTMENT STUDY AND PROPOSED LEGISLATION.

682 (c) CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE STUDY.

683 (d) ACCESS TO RELEVANT INFORMATION.

684 (e) CONFIDENTIALITY OF RELEVANT INFORMATION.

685 (f) REQUIREMENT TO REPORT LEGISLATION.

688 (f) PRESIDENT'S BUDGET.

688

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THE PRESIDENT’S BUDGET Title 31, United States
Code, Chapter 11 ...

689 Sec. 1101. DEFINITIONS

691 agency ...

691 appropriations

691 Sec. 1102. FISCAL YEAR.

692 SEC. 1103. BUDGET CEILING

693 Sec. 1104. BUDGET AND APPROPRIATIONS AUTHORITY OF THE PRESIDENT ....

694 Sec. 1105. BUDGET CONTENTS AND SUBMISSION TO CONGRESS

696 Sec. 1106. SUPPLEMENTAL BUDGET ESTIMATES AND CHANGES.

707 Sec. 1107. DEFICIENCY AND SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS

709 Sec. 1108. PREPARATION AND SUBMISSION OF APPRO

PRIATIONS REQUESTS TO THE PRESIDENT .. 710 Sec. 1109. CURRENT PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES ESTIMATES

713 SEC. 1110. YEAR-AHEAD REQUESTS FOR AUTHORIZING LEGISLATION.

714 Sec. 1111. IMPROVING ECONOMY AND EFFICIENCY 715 Sec. 1112. FISCAL, BUDGET, PROGRAM INFORMATION

716 Sec. 1113. CONGRESSIONAL INFORMATION

718 Sec. 1114. BUDGET INFORMATION ON CONSULTING SERVICES ..

721

INDEX ....

723

The law governing the budget process resembles nothing so much as sediment. It has accumulated in several statutes, each layered upon the prior one: the Congressional Budget Act of 1974,' Gramm-RudmanHollings in 1985 and again in 1987, the Byrd Rule in 1985, and most recently, the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990. In addition, precedents have put a gloss on the law as applied in the Senate. This incremental growth has created something of a legal nettle.

This volume collects the major legislation affecting the Congressional budget process, explains references found there, points out some of the major precedents in the Senate interpreting the law, and incorporates some legislative history material. It magnifies the details with the hope that seeing more will also allow the reader to understand the process better.

The text includes first the Congressional Budget Act, then GrammRudman-Hollings, then the Budget Enforcement Act, and finally chapter 11 of title 31 of the United States Code (which sets forth the requirements for the President's budget) each as amended over the years. Footnotes set forth sections that subsequent laws have repealed.

With regard to Congressional interpretation of these statutes, this

1

The Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974, Pub. L. No. 93344, 88 Stat. 297 (July 12, 1974) (codified as amended at 2 U.S.C. § § 601-688).

2

The Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, Pub. L. No. 99177, tit. II, 99 Stat. 1037, 1038 (Dec. 12, 1985), amended by the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Reaffirmation Act of 1987, Pub. L. No. 100-119, tit. I-II, 101 Stat. 754 (Sept. 29, 1987), and further amended (codified as amended at 2 U.S.C. $ $ 901922).

* Section 20001 of the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985, Pub. L. No. 99-272, § 20001, 100 Stat. 82, 390-91 (Apr. 7, 1986), amended by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1986, Pub. L. No. 99-509, § 7006, 100 Stat. 1874, 1949-1950 (Oct. 21, 1986), and amended by the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Reaffirmation Act of 1987, Pub. L. No. 100-119, § 205, 101 Stat. 754, 784-85 (Sept. 29, 1987), and amended by the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101-508, § 13214, 104 Stat.

(Nov. 5, 1990); H.R. CONF. REP. No. 101-964, 101st Cong., 2d Sess. 603, 653-55 (1990); 136 CONG. REC. H12,589, H12,603 (Oct. 26, 1990).

The Budget Enforcement Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101-508, tit. XIII, 104 Stat.

(Nov. 5, 1990); H.R. CONF. REP. No. 101-964, 101st Cong., 2d Sess. 603-63 (1990); 136 CONG, REC. H12,589-605 (Oct. 26, 1990).

xxvii

work focuses on the Senate's precedents. The author defers to his colleagues on the House side of the Capitol for interpretation of the Act in that Body. Several sources exist for research on precedents in the House."

This volume builds on an earlier one, called the Congressional Budget Act Annotated. As its contents have expanded to address more than just the Congressional Budget Act, so has its title changed. This volume, however, completely supersedes the earlier one.

The author expects that the reader will not so much read this volume as consult it. Consequently, footnotes often repeat information that relates to several different sections. The author hopes that what the volume thus loses to bulk it makes up in ease of access to information.

GUIDE TO SIGNALS

The citations in this volume follow the rules of A Uniform System of Citation:

No signal

before a citation means that the cited authority states the proposition, identifies the source of the quotation, or identifies an authority identified in the text.

E.g.,

before a citation means that the cited authority, among other authorities, states the proposition.

See

before a citation means that the cited authority directly supports the proposition.

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E.g., W. BROWN, CONSTITUTION, JEFFERSON'S MANUAL AND RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, 100th Cong., 2d Sess. (1988) (H. Doc. No. 100-248); DESCHLER-BROWN, PROCEDURE IN THE U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES ch. 13 (1987); 3 L. DESCHLER, DESCHLER'S PRECEDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES ch. 13, § 21 (1977).

6

W. DAUSTER, CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET ACT ANNOTATED, S. Prt. No. 101-86, 101st Cong., 2d Sess. (1990).

7

HARVARD LAW REVIEW ASS’N, A UNIFORM SYSTEM OF CITATION 8-9, 21 (14th ed. 1986)

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