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N. Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Public Law 845, 62 Stat. 1155, June 30,
1948 (33 USC 1251-1367), as amended by: Public Laws 579,66 Stat. 755, July 17, 1952; 660, 70 Stat. 498, July 9, 1956; 86-70, 73 Stat. 141, June 25, 1959; 86-624, 74 Stat. 411, July 12, 1960; 87-88, 75 Stat. 204, July 20, 1961; 89-234, 79 Stat. 903, October 2, 1965; 89-753, 80 Stat. 1246, November 3, 1966; 91-224, 84 Stat. 91, April 3, 1970; 91-611, 84 Stat. 1818, December 31, 1970; 92-50,85 Stat. 124, July 9, 1971; 92-137,85 Stat. 379, October 13, 1971; 92-240, 86 Stat. 47, March 1, 1972; 92-500, 86 Stat. 816, October 18, 1972; 93-207, 87 Stat. 906, December 28, 1973; 93-243, 87 Stat. 1069, January 2, 1974; 93-592, 88 Stat. 1924, January 2, 1975; 94-238, 90 Stat. 250, March 23, 1976; 94-273,90 Stat. 375, April 21, 1976; 94-558, 90 Stat. 2639, October 19, 1976; 95-217, 91 Stat. 1566, December 27, 1977; and 95-576, 92 Stat. 2467, November 2, 1978.
Title II, relating to grants for construction of onshore waste treatment works, is omitted.
to provide for water pollution control activities in the Public Health Service of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, and for other purposes.
(As amended by P.L. 660, 70 Stat. 498, July 9, 1956; no subsequent amendment has been found; however, water pollution control activities are administered by the Environmental Protection Agency rather than the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare)
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,
TITLE I-RESEARCH AND RELATED PROGRAMS
Declaration of Goals and Policy Sec. 101.
(a) The objective of this Act is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. In order to achieve this objective it is hereby declared that, consistent with the provisions of this Act
(1) it is the national goal that the discharge of pollutants into the navigable waters be eliminated by 1985;
(2) it is the national goal that wherever attainable, an interim goal of water quality which provides for the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and provides for recreation in and on the water be achieved by July 1, 1983;
(3) it is the national policy that the discharge of toxic pollutants in toxic amounts be prohibited;
(4) it is the national policy that Federal financial assistance be provided to construct publicly owned waste treatment works;
(5) it is the national policy that areawide waste treatment management planning processes be developed and implemented to assure adequate control of sources of pollutants in each State; and
(6) it is the national policy that a major research and demonstration effort be made to develop technology necessary to eliminate the discharge of pollutants into the navigable waters, waters of the contiguous zone, and the oceans.
(b) It is the policy of the Congress to recognize, preserve, and protect the primary responsibilities and rights of States to prevent, reduce, and eliminate pollution, to plan the development and use (including restoration, preservation, and enhancement) of land and water resources, and to consult with the Administrator in the exercise of his authority under this Act. It is the policy of Congress that the States manage the construction grant program under this Act and implement the permit programs under sections 402 and 404 of this Act. It is further the policy of the Congress to support and aid research relating to the prevention, reduction, and elimination of pollution, and to provide Federal technical services and financial aid to State and interstate agencies and municipalities in connection with the prevention, reduction, and elimination of pollution.
(c) It is further the policy of Congress that the President, acting through the Secretary of State and such national and international organizations as he determines appropriate, shall take such action as may be necessary to insure that to the fullest extent possible all foreign countries shall take meaningful action for the prevention, reduction, and elimination of pollution in their waters and in international waters and for the achievement of goals regarding
the elimination of discharge of pollutants and the improvement of water quality to at least the same extent as the United States does under its laws.
(d) Except as otherwise expressly provided in this Act, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (hereinafter in this Act called "Administrator") shall administer this Act.
(e) Public participation in the development, revision, and enforcement of any regulation, standard, effluent limitation, plan, or program established by the Administrator or any State under this Act shall be provided for, encouraged, and assisted by the Administrator and the States. The Administrator, in cooperation with the States, shall develop and publish regulations specifying minimum guidelines for public participation in such processes.
(f) It is the national policy that to the maximum extent possible the procedures utilized for implementing this Act shall encourage the drastic minimization of paperwork and interagency decision procedures, and the best use of available manpower and funds, so as to prevent needless duplication and unnecessary delays at all levels of government.
(g) It is the policy of Congress that the authority of each State to allocate quantities of water within its jurisdiction shall not be superseded, abrogated or otherwise impaired by this Act. It is the further policy of Congress that nothing in this Act shall be construed to supersede or abrogate rights to quantities of water which have been established by any State. Federal agencies shall co-operate with State and local agencies to develop comprehensive solutions to prevent, reduce, and eliminate pollution in concert with programs for managing water resources.
33 USC 1251.
(As amended by P.L. 92-500, 86 Stat. 816, October 18, 1972; and P.L. 95-217, 91 Stat. 1566,
Comprehensive Programs for Water Pollution Control
(a) The Administrator shall, after careful investigation, and in cooperation with other Federal agencies, State water pollution control agencies, interstate agencies, and the municipalities and industries involved, prepare or develop comprehensive programs for preventing, reducing, or eliminating the pollution of the navigable waters and ground waters and improving the sanitary condition of surface and underground waters. In the development of such comprehensive programs due regard shall be given to the improvements which are necessary to conserve such waters for the protection and propagation of fish and aquatic life and wildlife, recreational purposes, and the withdrawal of such waters for public water supply, agricultural, industrial, and other purposes. For the purpose of this section, the Administrator is authorized to make joint investigations with any such agencies of the condition of any waters in any State or States, and of the discharges of any sewage, industrial wastes, or substance which may adversely affect such waters.
(b) (1) In the survey or planning of any reservoir by the Corps of Engineers, Bureau of Reclamation, or other Federal agency, consideration shall be given to inclusion of storage for regulation of streamflow, except that any such storage and water releases shall not be provided as a substitute for adequate treatment or other methods of controlling waste at the source.
(2) The need for and the value of storage for regulation of streamflow (other than for water quality) including but not limited to navigation, salt water intrusion, recreation, esthetics, and fish and wildlife, shall be determined by the Corps of Engineers, Bureau of Reclamation, or other Federal agencies.
(3) The need for, the value of, and the impact of, storage for water quality control shall be determined by the Administrator, and his views on these matters shall be set forth in any report or presentation to Congress proposing authorization or construction of any reservoir including such storage.
(4) The value of such storage shall be taken into account in determining the economic value of the entire project of which it is a part, and costs shall be allocated to the purpose of regulation of streamflow in a manner which will insure that all project purposes, share equitably in the benefits of multiple-purpose construction.
(5) Costs of regulation of streamflow features incorporated in any Federal reservoir or other impoundment under the provisions of this Act shall be determined and the beneficiaries identified and if the benefits are widespread or national in scope, the costs of such features shall be nonreimbursable.
(6) No license granted by the Federal Power Commission for a hydroelectric power project shall include storage for regulation of streamflow for the purpose of water quality control unless the Administrator shall recommend its inclusion and such reservoir storage capacity shall not exceed such proportion of the total storage required for the water quality control plan as the drainage area of such reservoir bears to the drainage area of the river basin or basins involved in such water quality control plan.
(c) (1) The Administrator shall, at the requests of the Governor of a State, or a majority of the Governors when more than one State is involved, make a grant to pay not to exceed 50 per centum of the administrative expenses of a planning agency for a period not to exceed three years, which period shall begin after the date of enactment of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, if such agency provides for adequate representation of appropriate State, interstate, local, or (when appropriate) international interests in the basin or portion thereof involved and is capable of developing an effective, comprehensive water quality control plan for a basin or portion thereof.
(2) Each planning agency receiving a grant under this subsection shall develop a comprehensive pollution control plan for the basin or portion thereof which
(A) is consistent with any applicable water quality standards, effluent and other limitations, and thermal discharge regulations established pursuant to current law within the basin;
(B) recommends such treatment works as will provide the most effective and economical means of collection, storage, treatment, and elimination of pollutants and recommends means to encourage both municipal and industrial use of such works;
(C) recommends maintenance and improvement of water quality within the basin or portion thereof and recommends methods of adequately financing those facilities as may be necessary to implement the plan; and
(D) as appropriate, is developed in cooperation with, and is consistent with any comprehensive plan prepared by the Water Resources Council, any areawide waste management plans developed pursuant to section 208 of this Act, and any State plan developed pursuant to section 303(e) of this Act.
(3) For the purposes of this subsection the term "basin”includes, but is not limited to, rivers and their tributaries, streams, coastal waters, sounds, estuaries, bays, lakes, and portions thereof, as well as the lands drained thereby.
(d) The Administrator, after consultation with the States, and River Basin Commissions established under the Water Resources Planning Act, shall submit a report to Congress on or before July 1, 1978, which analyzes the relationship between programs under this Act, and the programs by which State and Federal agencies allocate quantities of water. Such report shall include recommendations concerning the policy in section 101(g) of the Act to improve coordination of efforts to reduce and eliminate pollution in concert with programs for managing water resources.
33 USC 1252.
42 USC 1962 note.
(As amended by P.L. 92-500, 86 Stat. 816, October 18, 1972; and P.L. 95-217, 91 Stat. 1566, December 27, 1977)
Interstate Cooperation and Uniform Laws Sec. 103.
(a) The Administrator shall encourage cooperative activities by the States for the prevention, reduction, and elimination of pollution, encourage the enactment of improved and, so far as practicable, uniform State laws relating to the prevention, reduction, and elimination of pollution; and encourage compacts between States for the prevention and control of pollution.
(b) The consent of the Congress is hereby given to two or more States to negotiate and enter into agreements or compacts, not in conflict with any law or treaty of the United States, for
(1) cooperative effort and mutual assistance for the prevention and control of pollution and the enforcement of their respective laws relating thereto, and
(2) the establishment of such agencies, joint or otherwise, as they may deem desirable for making effective such agreements and compacts. No such agreement or compact shall be binding or obligatory upon any State a party thereto unless and until it has been approved by the Congress.
(As amended by P.L. 92-500, 86 Stat. 816, October 18, 1972)
Research, Investigations, Training, and Information
(a) The Administrator shall establish national programs for the prevention, reduction, and elimination of pollution and as part of such programs shall
(1) in cooperation with other Federal, State, and local agencies, conduct and promote the coordination and acceleration of, research, investigations, experiments, training, demonstrations, surveys, and studies relating to the causes, effects, extent, prevention, reduction, and elimination of pollution;
Water quality surveillance system, report.
(2) encourage, cooperate with, and render technical services to pollution control agencies and other appropriate public or private agencies, institutions, and organizations, and individuals, including the general public, in the conduct of activities referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection;
(3) conduct, in cooperation with State water pollution control agencies and other interested agencies, organizations and persons, public investigations concerning the pollution of any navigable waters, and report on the results of such investigations;
(4) establish advisory committees composed of recognized experts in various aspects of pollution and representatives of the public to assist in the examination and evaluation of research progress and proposals and to avoid duplication of research;
(5) in cooperation with the States, and their political subdivisions, and other Federal agencies establish, equip, and maintain a water quality surveillance system for the purpose of monitoring the quality of the navigable waters and ground waters and the contiguous zone and the oceans and the Administrator shall, to the extent practicable, conduct such surveillance by utilizing the resources of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Geological Survey, and the Coast Guard, and shall report on such quality in the report required under subsection (a) of section 516; and
(6) initiate and promote the coordination and acceleration of research designed to develop the most effective practicable tools and techniques for measuring the social and economic costs and benefits of activities which are subject to regulation under this Act; and shall transmit a report on the results of such research to the Congress not later than January 1, 1974.
(b) In carrying out the provisions of subsection (a) of this section the Administrator is authorized to
(1) collect and make available, through publications and other appropriate means, the results of and other information, including appropriate recommendations by him in connection therewith, pertaining to such research and other activities referred to in paragraph (1) of subsection (a);
(2) cooperate with other Federal departments and agencies, State water pollution control agencies, interstate agencies, other public and private agencies, institutions, organizations, industries involved, and individuals, in the preparation and conduct of such research and other activities referred to in paragraph (1) of subsection (a);
(3) make grants to State water pollution control agencies, interstate agencies, other public or nonprofit private agencies, institutions, organizations, and individuals, for purposes stated in paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of this section;
(4) contract with public or private agencies, institutions, organizations, and individuals, without regard to sections 3648 and 3709 of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 529; 41 U.S.C. 5), referred to in paragraph (1) of subsection (a);
(5) establish and maintain research fellowships at public or nonprofit private educational institutions or research organizations;
(6) collect and disseminate, in cooperation with other Federal departments and agencies, and with other public or private agencies, institutions, and organizations having related responsibilities, basic data on chemical, physical, and biological effects of varying water quality and other information pertaining to pollution and the prevention, reduction, and elimination thereof; and
(7) develop effective and practical processes, methods, and prototype devices for the prevention, reduction, and elimination of pollution.
(c) In carrying out the provisions of subsection (a) of this section the Administrator shall conduct research on, and survey the results of other scientific studies on, the harmful effects on the health or welfare of persons caused by pollutants. In order to avoid duplication of effort, the Administrator shall, to the extent practicable, conduct such research in cooperation with and through the facilities of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.
(d) In carrying out the provisions of this section the Administrator shall develop and demonstrate under varied conditions (including conducting such basic and applied research, studies, and experiments as may be necessary):
(1) Practicable means of treating municipal sewage, and other waterborne wastes to implement the requirements of section 201 of this Act;
(2) Improved methods and procedures to identify and measure the effects of pollutants, including those pollutants created by new technological developments; and
(3) Methods and procedures for evaluating the effects on water quality of augmented streamflows to control pollution not susceptible to other means of prevention, reduction, or elimination.
(e) The Administrator shall establish, equip, and maintain field laboratory and research facilities, including, but not limited to, one to be located in the northeastern area of the United
Field research laboratories.
States, one in the Middle Atlantic area, one in the southeastern area, one in the mid-western area, one in the southwestern area, one in the Pacific Northwest, and one in the State of Alaska, for the conduct of research, investigations, experiments, field demonstrations and studies, and training relating to the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution. Insofar as practicable, each such facility shall be located near institutions of higher learning in which graduate training in such research might be carried out. In conjunction with the development of criteria under section 403 of this Act, the Administrator shall construct the facilities authorized for the National Marine Water Quality Laboratory established under this subsection.
(f) The Administrator shall conduct research and technical development work, and make Great Lakes, studies, with respect to the quality of the waters of the Great Lakes, including an analysis of the water present and projected future water quality of the Great Lakes under varying conditions of waste quality treatment and disposal, an evaluation of the water quality needs of those to be served by such research. waters, an evaluation of municipal, industrial, and vessel waste treatment and disposal practices with respect to such waters, and a study of alternate means of solving pollution problems (including additional waste treatment measures) with respect to such waters.
(g) (1) For the purpose of providing an adequate supply of trained personnel to operate and Treatment maintain existing and future treatment works and related activities, and for the purpose of works, enhancing substantially the proficiency of those engaged in such activities, the Administrator pilot training shall finance pilot programs, in cooperation with State and interstate agencies, municipalities, programs. educational institutions, and other organizations and individuals, of manpower development and training and retraining of persons in, on entering into the field of operation and maintenance of treatment works and related activities. Such program and any funds expended for such a program shall supplement, not supplant, other manpower and training programs and funds available for the purposes of this paragraph. The Administrator is authorized, under such terms and conditions as he deems appropriate, to enter into agreements with one or more States, acting jointly or severally, or with other public or private agencies or institutions for the development and implementation of such a program.
(2) The Administrator is authorized to enter into agreements with public and private Employment agencies and institutions, and individuals to develop and maintain an effective system for needs, forecasting the supply of, and demand for, various professional and other occupational forecasting. categories needed for the prevention, reduction, and elimination of pollution in each region, State, or area of the United States and, from time to time, to publish the results of such forecasts. (3) In furtherance of the purposes of this Act, the Administrator is authorized to
(A) make grants to public or private agencies and institutions and to individuals for training projects, and provide for the conduct of training by contract with public or private agencies and institutions and with individuals without regard to sections 3648 and 3709 of the Revised Statutes;
31 USC 529. (B) establish and maintain research fellowships in the Environmental Protection 41 USC 5. Agency with such stipends and allowances, including traveling and subsistence expenses, as he may deem necessary to procure the assistance of the most promising research fellows; and
(C) provide, in addition to the program established under paragraph (1) of this subsection, training in technical matters relating to the causes, prevention, reduction, and elimination of pollution for personnel of public agencies and other persons with suitable qualifications.
(4) The Administrator shall submit, through the President, a report to the Congress Report to not later than December 31, 1973, summarizing the actions taken under this subsection and
President, the effectiveness of such actions, and setting forth the number of persons trained, the
transmittal occupational categories for which training was provided, the effectiveness of other Federal, to Congress. State, and local training programs in this field, together with estimates of future needs, recommendations on improving training programs, and such other information and recommendations, including legislative recommendations, as he deems appropriate.
(h) The Administrator is authorized to enter into contracts with, or make grants to, public or Lake pollution. private agencies and organizations and individuals for
(A) the purpose of developing and demonstrating new or improved methods for the prevention, removal, reduction, and elimination of pollution in lakes, including the undesirable effects of nutrients and vegetation, and
(B) the construction of publicly owned research facilities for such purpose. (i) The Administrator, in cooperation with the Secretary of the department in which the Oil pollution Coast Guard is operating, shall
control, studies. (1) engage in such research, studies, experiments, and demonstrations as he deems appropriate,
relative to the removal of oil from any waters and to the prevention, control, and elimination of oil and hazardous substances pollution;
(2) publish from time to time the results of such activities; and