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thick, with side guards 4 inches high, extending 3 inches above top face of bottom board of chute, and throughout its length fastened with brass screws. D-shaped strips or runners not more than 6 inches apart and running lengthwise of the chute must be fastened to the upper surface of the bottom board by means of glue and wooden pegs extending through the bottom board and wooden runners. Chutes must be occasionally wiped down with waste, moistened with machine oil, when explosives as defined by § 80.268 (a) (1), (2) are being handled. Pitch of chutes must be such that the velocity of sliding packages will not be great enough to cause violent shocks when packages are in contact or upon reaching the bottom of slide, or men must be stationed alongside of chutes to retard the velocity of packages. No container shall be permitted to travel the entire length of chute unless its progress is retarded and all previous packages have been removed from the cushion at the discharging end of the chute.
(f) A stuffed cushion, 4 feet wide by 6 feet long and not less than 4 inches thick, or a heavy jute or hemp mat of like dimensions, must be placed under the discharging end of the chute.
(g) The chief stevedore or other person in charge of loading or unloading must make inspection of ropes, baskets, crates, and other equipment used for transferring explosives before work is started, and shall authorize the use of such equipment only as is in proper condition. He must also keep watch, or have watch kept, of equipment during transfer of explosives, and if any part of the equipment shows any defect or is damaged, work must be stopped and the damaged or defective equipment must be replaced before work again proceeds.** [Par. W59]
83.55 Stowage of explosives-(a) Competent supervision. The master or other competent officer of every vessel subject to the regulations in Parts 72-83 and/or the chief stevedore, or person in charge of stevedores, shall be assured that cargoes of explosives are properly stowed in accordance with the regulations in this part.
(b) Lockers, compartments and magazines for explosives properly stayed. (1) Packages containing explosives must be so stowed and stayed in the lockers, compartments, or magazines of vessels that the packages will not shift in any direction. Boxes of high explosives must be stowed top side up. Kegs of black powder must be placed in upright position with bungs up, and each tier must be completely covered with dunnage. The top tier of boxes and kegs must be so braced or blocked that no displacement of any package can occur either upwardly or laterally. Containers of explosives must be so braced, as prescribed herein, that they will not be penetrated by nails or spikes, or be crushed. In stowing explosives in lockers, compartments, and magazines, the charts which appear in § 83.0 (b) should be closely followed, and only those articles may be stowed in the places named as are permitted by the charts.
(2) Large barrels or drums may be stowed on their sides or ends as will best suit existing conditions.
(3) Fireworks must not be stowed with any explosive named in § 80.268 (a) (1).
**For statutory and source citations, see note to § 83.1.
(4) Detonating fuzes, blasting caps, or electric blasting caps in any quantity must not be stowed in the same part of any vessel with explosives, explosive projectiles, explosive torpedoes, explosive mines, explosive bombs, wet nitrocellulose, wet nitrostarch, picric acid, trinitrotoluol, tetranitroaniline, or tetranitromethylaniline. When necessary to transport blasting caps, detonating fuzes, or other detonating agents on the same vessel with high explosives liable to be detonated by the detonating agents, the detonating agents and high explosives must be stowed in magazines, lockers, or compartments, located as far apart as possible, with a minimum distance of 25 feet.* [Pars. W60, W61]
CROSS REFERENCE: For stowage chart, see § 83.0 (b).
83.56 Stowage of explosives with other dangerous articles-(a) Restricted stowage. (1) Articles required to be shipped under white (acid or corrosive liquid) label must not be stowed in the same part of any vessel with explosives, explosive projectiles, explosive torpedoes, explosive mines, explosive bombs, wet nitrocellulose, wet nitrostarch, picric acid, trinitrotoluol, tetranitroaniline, or tetranitromethylaniline.
(2) Explosives named in § 80.268 (a) (1), (2) must not be stowed near any of the dangerous articles for which labels are prescribed by the regulations in Parts 80-83.
(3) Explosives and other dangerous articles must not be stowed together, except as provided in the stowage charts, § 83.0 (b).
(4) Charged electric batteries must be well insulated to prevent short circuits and must not be stowed with explosives.
(5) Packages bearing red, yellow, green, or white (acid or corrosive liquid) labels must not be stowed with explosives named in § 80.268 (a) (1).
(b) Transfer vessels carrying explosives and other dangerous articles. Vessels, barges, lighters, or scows carrying explosives shall not also carry inflammable liquids, inflammable solids, acids, oxidizing materials, or compressed gases as defined by the regulations in Parts 80-83, including articles liable to spontaneous ignition, and articles likely to give off inflammable gases or vapors, unless the explosives are stowed in separate rooms or compartments, or are otherwise effectually separated from the other articles referred to.*† [Pars. W62, W63]
83.57 Stowage of dangerous articles other than explosives— (a) Competent supervision. (1) The master or other competent officer of every vessel subject to the regulations in Parts 72-83 and/or the chief stevedore, or person in charge of stevedores, shall be assured that cargoes of dangerous articles other than explosives are properly stowed in accordance with the regulations in this part.
(2) Packages bearing caution labels prescribed herein must be so stowed that they cannot fall and other freight cannot fall onto or slide against them. Packages bearing yellow labels must not be stowed near packages bearing white (acid or corrosive liquid) labels.
(3) Packages bearing red, yellow, or green labels should be stowed in parts of vessels where the packages will be most readily accessible in case of fire or accident.
**For statutory and source citations, see note to § 83.1.
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(b) Stowage of matches. "Strike-anywhere" (friction) matches must be stowed as compactly as possible to prevent shifting. Stowage of such matches should be such as to prevent the puncturing of containers, either by other packages or projections, and boxes must be so stowed that they cannot fall and other freight cannot fall onto or slide against them. Whenever practicable, the packages of matches should be so stowed as to facilitate ready removal from the vessel in case of fire. A smoking box of matches should not be broken open; the fire will cease of itself if air can be kept from the contents. (c) Stowage of charcoal. (1) Charcoal screenings, or ground, crushed, granulated or pulverized charcoal, in bags, must be stowed with bags laid horizontally in holds or compartments, and so piled as to allow spaces for efficient air circulation. These spaces must not be less than 4 inches wide; except that if the bags are not completely filled and closed so as to avoid free space within, transverse wooden strips must be laid between bags, extending the full width of hold space or compartment. These strips should be approximately 2 feet apart vertically and longitudinally of hold or compartment. Other methods of stowing may be used when investigations by the Bureau of Explosives show such methods to be equally efficient in securing the necessary ventilation.
(2) Loose material must be swept up and removed from the vessel before stowage is completed.
(3) When fire occurs in charcoal in transit, water should not be used if it is practicable to locate and remove the charcoal on fire, since wet charcoal is much the more liable to ignite spontaneously and the fire cannot be stopped permanently by the use of water. If fire occurs in ground charcoal or screenings, any material that has become wet in extinguishing the fire must be destroyed and the remaining material should be kept under observation.
NOTE: Experience having shown that charcoal screenings from "pinon" wood can be shipped in bulk without danger of spontaneous heating, this method of shipment may be used for such screenings when rules of individual carriers permit. Labels are not required on such shipments but shipping orders and other shipping papers should be certified "No label required."
(d) Red and green labeled articles in cool, ventilated stowage; stowage of cylinders, barrels, and drums. (1) Packages bearing red or green labels should be stowed in cool places that can be ventilated if necessary.
(2) Cylinders containing compressed gas, except when packed in boxes or crates, must be stowed on their sides and securely lashed or braced to prevent shifting.
(3) Large barrels or drums may be stowed on their sides or ends as will best suit existing conditions.
(e) Prevention of fire in stowage assigned to volatile inflammable materials. (1) Portions of vessels used for the stowage of packages bearing red labels should not be entered with any light other than properly protected incandescent electric lights, and should be ventilated if practicable before unloading.
(2) Material liable to give off fumes or vapors should be stowed in a part of the vessel remote from quarters of passengers and crew, and ventilated to the outside of the vessel.
(3) A hold or compartment known to contain inflammable liquids must not be entered with a lighted lantern, torch, or other fire, until such hold or compartment has been open a sufficient time for the escape of vapors. The presence of these vapors will generally be indicated by characteristic odors. When leakage causing the vapors is continuous, ventilation will not remove the danger and leaking packages should be located and removed. Only electric lights should be used.
(4) All available opportunities for noting odors which are characteristic of leakage of dangerous articles must be utilized, in order that the source of leakage may be discovered and the leakage stopped; or leaking packages must be removed.
(f) Carboys blocked and braced; drain for leakage; crushing of packages prevented. (1) Carboys of acid or other corrosive liquids must be so blocked and braced or lashed as to prevent shifting during transit.
(2) When carboys of corrosive liquids are stowed with other freight, the carboys must have wooden strips not less than 2 inches thick nailed to the deck about 8 inches from carboy boxes. These strips must be so arranged that liquid from a broken carboy will drain away from other lading and out of the vessel. The space between strips and floor braces or blocking, used for staying the carboy boxes, must be covered with at least 1-inch thickness of clean and dry sand or earth (not sawdust or other combustible material). (3) Packages bearing caution labels should be so stowed that they will not be crushed or otherwise injured.** [Pars. W64-W69]
83.58 Semihazardous articles. (a) Calcium carbide should be stowed between decks. Care must be exercised to prevent water coming into contact with containers of the material, and under no circumstances may open-flame lights or fire be allowed in proximity to the material.
(b) Alfalfa feed, so-called wet mixed feed, crude camphor, cotton, cotton batting, cotton wadding, cotton waste, cotton batting dross, excelsior, fiber, hay, hemp, jute, oakum, oil-well cables, rags, sawdust, shellac dry in bags, peat moss, sulphur, tow or straw, or other articles liable to be ignited by sparks, as well as unslacked lime, or paper in rolls or bales, which must be protected from water, should, when practicable, be stowed in a tight hold or compartment. (c) Lime, coke, including petroleum coke, coal briquets, chipped bone, ashes, or similar substances, must not be stowed until thoroughly cooled.
(d) Shipments of unwashed, exhausted, storage-battery parts, including plates or other elements containing electrolyte, must be packed in wooden boxes or barrels, or in iron or steel drums without holes in bottoms or sides.
(e) Untreated lead dross, scrap, or waste, from sulphuric acid tanks, or sulphate of lead containing free sulphuric acid must be mixed with a sufficient quantity of sawdust or similar material to absorb the liquid, and must be packed for shipment in tight wooden barrels.** [Par. W70]
*For statutory and source citations, see note to § 83.1.
83.59 Bulk shipments. Shipments of inflammable liquids, inflammable solids and oxidizing materials may be made in bulk on vessels provided with tanks, compartments or holds specially provided for this purpose. Each tank, hold, or compartment must be properly prepared before shipment is loaded and suitable provision must be made to prevent contamination of materials loaded therein. Ventilators or other openings which may admit sparks or other foreign material must be kept closed.*+ [Par. W71]
83.60 Injured, leaking, and astray packages-(a) Packages of explosives found defective in transit; precautions. (1) Packages of explosives found injured or broken in transit may be recoopered when this is evidently practicable and not dangerous. A broken box of high explosives that cannot be recoopered should be reinforced with stout wrapping paper and twine, placed in another strong box, and surrounded by dry, fine sawdust or dry and clean cotton waste, or elastic wads made from dry newspapers. A ruptured can or keg should be inclosed in a grain bag of good quality and boxed. Injured packages thus protected may be forwarded.
(2) Particles of explosive compositions from damaged containers possibly may be strewn on floors, decks, or freight, and due care should be exercised in repacking such containers that no sparks may be produced by contact of metal or other hard surfaces, or otherwise. Water will prevent the explosion of all explosive substances except dynamite, and in such cases, floors or decks should be thoroughly swept, and washed with a plentiful supply of water. Use of ironwheel trucks, metal hammers, or other metal tools should be avoided. (b) Packages of explosives with evidence of leaking ingredient; disposition. Packages of explosives showing evidence of leakage of liquid ingredient must be (1) returned immediately to the shipper, if at point of shipment; or (2) removed immediately by consignee, if shipment is at destination; or (3) if discovered leaking in transit, removed entirely from the vessel, or must be packed in other boxes large enough to permit inclosure, and the leaking box must be surrounded with at least 2 inches of dry, fine sawdust, or dry and clean cotton waste, and be stored in ship's magazine or other safe place until the arrival of an inspector of the Bureau of Explosives or other authorized person to superintend the destruction or other disposition of the condemned material.
(c) Astray shipments of explosives and other dangerous_articles; disposition; labels replaced. (1) An astray shipment of explosives must be forwarded immediately to its destination if known, provided a careful inspection shows the packages to be in proper condition for safe transportation. When a package in an astray shipment is not in proper condition for safe transportation (see subparagraph (1)), or when the name and address of consignee or shipper are unknown, disposition must be made as prescribed in paragraph (b). (2) An astray package of dangerous article other than explosives, of known destination and in proper condition for safe transportation must be forwarded immediately on an "astray bill," or other form
**For statutory and source citations, see note to § 83.1.