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the cost of operation to the account appropriate according to the use of the power.

When the power from such a plant is properly chargeable to more than one account, the expenses of maintaining and operating the plant shall be included in clearing account "Power plant operations." The expense of maintenance shall be cleared from that account to the appropriate maintenance accounts for operating expenses. The expenses of operation shall be apportioned to the appropriate accounts upon the basis of quantity of power used for the various purposes.

When a part of the power produced by a power plant is sold and the remainder is used in the carrier's own operations, the cost of maintaining and operating the plant shall be charged to a clearing account. The expense of maintenance shall be cleared from that account to the appropriate maintenance account in operating expenses. The proportion of the expenses of operation assignable to the power sold, on the basis of ratio of quantity of power sold to total quantity of power produced, shall be credited to this clearing account and charged to account No. 445, "Producing power sold." The remainder of the cost of operation shall be distributed to the appropriate expense accounts for the carrier's own operations, in the manner indicated in the preceding paragraphs.

When power plants are intended and used solely for furnishing power to others, the investment therein shall be included in balance sheet account No. 705, "Miscellaneous physical property," and the operation shall not be included in the accounts of this classification. (See § 10.02-4, and income account No. 534, "Expenses of miscellaneous operations.")*+

10.2-14 Maintaining transmission and distribution systems. The accounting for the maintenance of transmission systems and distribution systems shall be in accordance with instructions pertaining to power plant operations.*†

10.2-15 Shop expenses. A clearing account entitled "Shop expenses" shall be kept, to which shall be charged items of expense at shops, enginehouses, repair tracks, and other places at which mechanical work is done, not assignable directly to specific accounts. Such expenses shall be apportioned among the various accounts affected. The basis of distribution shall be the relative proportion which the total amount of charges to "Shop expenses" bears to the total of the directly distributed labor. To avoid monthly fluctuations in the ratio of shop expenses to the total of distributed labor, carriers are permitted to make the monthly apportionment on the basis of a percentage of the distributed labor, provided the shop expense account be adjusted and closed out at the end of each year. The expenses assignable to this account are as follows:

(a) General shop employees. The pay of general foremen in small shops, who exercise direct supervision over all departments unassisted by department foremen; the pay of department foremen, assistant department foremen, other supervising or directing employees, and their clerks; pay of chauffeurs and oilers; pay of

*For statutory citation, see note to § 10.00-1.

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sweepers, cleaners, roustabouts, and other unskilled laborers employed in general work in and about shops and shop grounds; pay of watchmen, gatekeepers, and policemen at shops, repair tracks, and other places at which mechanical work is done; pay of employees while attending fires or fire drills; and pay of employees while making, repairing, or having charge of small shop tools.

(b) Power. The cost of fuel used in steam and other power plants in producing power for shops and for other places at which mechanical work is done; cost of oil, grease, waste, and other material used in the operation of such power plants; pay of stationary engineers, firemen, electricians, coal handlers, and other employees engaged in production of power; cost of carbon brushes, fuses, lamps, picks, pokers, scuttles, shovels, and other small tools and supplies; and cost of water and power purchased. (See § 10.2-12.)

(c) Heating. The cost of fuel and other supplies used for heating shops and other places at which mechanical work is done, shop offices, watchmen's and gatekeepers' boxes, and inspectors' shanties; and the pay of firemen, coal handlers, and other employees engaged in operating heating boilers. (See § 10.2-12.)

(đ) Lighting. The cost of electric current, gas, oil, torches, lamp burners, lamp chimneys, lamps not permanently attached to buildings, incandescent lamps and carbons, and other material used in lighting shops and shop offices, repair tracks, and other places at which mechanical work is done, and cost of material used and labor expended in operating electric-light plants and repairing electric-light and other lamps at shops. (See § 10.2-12.)

(e) Switching locomotives. All expenses, including wages, fuel, and supplies, of operating switching locomotives when exclusively assigned to switching service at shops. (The expenses of incidental switching at shops by locomotives in transportation switching service shall be charged to appropriate transportation accounts.)

(f) Shop supplies. Fuel for forge and other shop work; supplies and small tools used by mechanics on miscellaneous work and not durable; test-room and laboratory supplies used in connection with shop work; lubricating material for shop machinery and tools; water used at shops and shop offices, repair tracks, and other places at which mechanical work is done; and other supplies used generally in shop work.

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(g) Incidental expenses. Watchmen's uniforms, clocks, and call boxes; traveling expenses connected with the operation of shops and not directly chargeable to other accounts; removal of snow and ice from transfer tables and shop yards; cleaning of privy vaults; horse keep; cost of ice for shops; and other undistributed shop expenses.*†

10.2-16 Material store expenses. To a clearing account called "Material store expenses" shall be charged expenses in connection with purchasing, handling, and storing material in and distributing it from the company's storehouses, including the pay of officers and empoyees in the purchasing and store departments and their traveling, office, and other expenses; also all expenses, including wages, fuel, and supplies, of operating switching locomotives when exclusively assigned to the service of switching at material storehouses. (Expenses of incidental switching at material yards by locomotives in regular switching service shall be charged to the appropriate transportation accounts.) The pay and expenses of men employed in

*For statutory citation, see note to § 10.00-1.

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purchasing or inspecting a single class of material, such as ties, shall be added as store expenses to the cost of that particular material.

The total amount of storehouse expense charged to this account shall be so distributed among the accounts to which material has been charged that the amounts thus distributed will be, for each account, in proportion to the value of the material issued chargeable thereto, except that the amount representing the purchasing department expenses shall be apportioned on the value of the material issued which was purchased by that department. To avoid monthly fluctuations in the ratio of store expenses to the value of material purchased or issued, carriers may make a monthly apportionment on the basis of fair percentage rates, provided the store expense account be adjusted and closed out at the end of each year.*†

10.2-17 Stationery store expenses. A clearing account entitled "Stationery store expenses" shall be kept, to which shall be charged expenses in connection with purchasing, handling, and storing stationery, and for distributing it from the stationery stores, including the pay of officers and employees in the stationery store department and their traveling, office, and other expenses. The amounts charged to this account shall be apportioned to the accounts to which is charged stationery issued from the store, upon the basis of the charges to these accounts for such stationery. To avoid monthly fluctuations in the ratio of store expenses to the value of material issued or purchased, carriers may make a monthly apportionment on the basis of fair percentage rates, provided the stationery store expense account be adjusted and closed out at the end of each year.**

10.2-18 Insurance. Provision has been made in each of the general accounts for premiums paid and amounts set aside for fire and other insurance. Amounts of insurance recovered on account of losses shall be credited to the accounts to which the losses are chargeable.**

10.2-19 Equalization of maintenance expenses. The cost of maintaining way and structures and equipment shall be included in the appropriate primary accounts in the month in which the expense is incurred. In case the carrier adopts a budget or estimate for all or a part of the calendar year of expenses includible in one or more primary maintenance accounts or for the general accounts, Maintenance of Way and Structures, and Maintenance of Equipment, the difference between the budgeted or estimated expenses and the actual expenses chargeable each month may be equalized as appropriate in account 280, "Equalization-Way and structures," or 338, "Equalization-Equipment," with contra entries in account 774, "Maintenance reserves." If certain primary accounts only are budgeted the carrier's records shall show for amounts included in the equalization accounts the amount of the equalization assignable to each such primary account.

Amounts included in account 774, "Maintenance reserves," in accordance with the foregoing paragraph, shall be cleared therefrom at the close of each calendar year through the accounts originally charged or credited.

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*For statutory citation, see note to § 10.00-1.

When so authorized by this Commission, for the purpose of anticipating heavy or extraordinary repairs to equipment, there may be included each month in the appropriate primary repair accounts an equitable proportion of the amounts necessary to provide for the cost of such repairs as are usually done at intervals of several years. The carrier's application to this Commission for authority for such accounting shall contain a statement showing by equipment numbers, or the number of units by series or groups, the estimated cost of general repairs anticipated by charges to the repair accounts and credits to account 774, "Maintenance reserves," and the approximate date or dates on which it is anticipated the repairs will be made. The cost of such repairs when made shall be charged, to the extent of the provisions therein, to account 774, "Maintenance reserves."** [As amended June 13, 1934]

10.2-20 Accruals of expenses. In order that the liability for unaudited expenses, such as those for injuries to persons and loss and damage may currently be shown in the carrier's accounts the carrier is permitted to record in the appropriate operating expense accounts an estimate of such liabilities through credits to account 778, "Other unadjusted credits." If under this plan the actual expenses as audited are charged to the suspense account the balances in each suspense account for each year shall be maintained separately until substantially all items anticipated have been audited. The balance shall then be cleared to the account through which the reserve was created. If under the carrier's plan the accrued expenses when audited are included in the appropriate operating expense accounts and the reserve is maintained as a continuing reserve the amount of the reserve shall be adjusted from time to time through operating expenses to meet the estimated changes in the amount of such liabilities.** [As amended June 13, 1934]

10.2-21 Subprimary accounts for water lines and electric divisions. When a carrier operates a water line and desires to set up subprimary accounts under the primary accounts for such operations contained in this classification, the subprimary accounts shall conform to the accounts prescribed in the classification of operating expenses of carriers by water. When the carrier operates an electric division and desires to set up subprimary accounts under the primary accounts contained in this classification, the subprimary accounts shall conform to the accounts prescribed in the classification of operating expenses of electric railways.**

10.2-22 Interpretation of item lists. Lists of "items," "details," etc., have been given as a part of this classification for the purpose of clearly indicating the application of the accounting rules in specific cases. The lists in every case are to be considered as merely representative and not as excluding from any account analogous items which happen to be omitted from the list appended. On the other hand, the appearance of an item in a list warrants the inclusion of such item in the account concerned only when the text of the account also indicates inclusion, inasmuch as the same item frequently

*For statutory citation, see note to § 10.00-1.

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