Economic Development in Mainland China: Hearings Before ..., 92-2, June 13, 14, and 15, 1972

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121 페이지 - ... beneficial. Each side undertakes to facilitate the further development of such contacts and exchanges. Both sides view bilateral trade as another area from which mutual benefit can be derived, and agreed that economic relations based on equality and mutual benefit are in the interest of the peoples of the two countries. They agree to facilitate the progressive development of trade between their two countries.
53 페이지 - ... with ragged peasants, they attribute the fantastically fast city growth to rural-urban migration. Actually this migration now does little more than make up for the small difference in the birth rate between city and countryside. In the history of the industrial nations, as we have seen, the sizable difference between urban and rural birth rates and death rates required that cities, if they were to grow, had to have an enormous influx of people from farms and villages. Today in the underdeveloped...
54 페이지 - ... experience, however, that the inhabitants of communities both large and small can do much more to help themselves than is customarily recognized. If the small towns and villages of India and elsewhere wait for their central governments to install public water supplies, most of them will wait indefinitely. It is surprising how much can be accomplished with local labor and local materials, and the benefits in health are incalculable. In the larger cities, where self-help is not feasible, municipal...
8 페이지 - The image of China as a desperately poor nation with most of its people living in misery and degradation is an image of the past. At the start of 1972, the People's Republic of China is by no means an ordinary less-developed country. No run-of-the-mill LDC could boast of the following achievements : The feeding and clothing of an estimated 865 million people. The detonation of 13 nuclear devices. The launching of two space satellites.
5 페이지 - Foreign trade is a state monopoly, controlled by the Ministry of Foreign Trade. It is conducted exclusively through a network of corporations in accordance with priorities established considerably in advance through the country's economic plan.
5 페이지 - Peking with branch offices in various industrial centers and are represented in Hong Kong by China National Resources Corporation. Development of foreign trade and economic relations with most nations of the world is an important part of China's present policy. It does not rely on just a few Western suppliers and in fact, now has trading relations with some 100 countries. A desire to finance its imports with export earnings has resulted in an effort to balance its trade with the rest of the world.
53 페이지 - ... correctly interpreted only in relation to the parallel evolution of technology and social organization (especially political organization); these are not just prerequisites to urban life but the basis for its development. As centers of innovation cities provided a fertile setting for continued technological advances; these gains made possible the further expansion of cities. Advanced technology in turn depended on the increasingly complex division of labor, particularly in the political sphere....
53 페이지 - I shall be concerned therefore with three metabolic problems that have become more acute as cities have grown larger and whose solution rests almost entirely in the hands of the local administrator. Although he can call on many outside sources for advice, he must ultimately provide solutions fashioned to the unique needs of his own community. These three problems are the provision of an adequate water supply, the effective disposal of sewage and the control of air pollution.
53 페이지 - During the 19th century the urbanizing nations were learning how to keep crowded populations in cities from dying like flies. Now the lesson has been learned, and it is being applied to cities even in countries just emerging from tribalism. In fact, a disproportionate share of public health funds goes into cities. As a result throughout the nonindustrial world people in cities are multiplying as never before, and rural-urban migration is playing a much lesser...
7 페이지 - Mainland to a feeling of complacency regarding her technical capabilties in certain narrowly defined spheres. At the same time, it is equally erroneous to consider the achievement in a specialized field as an indicator of the degree of development of the economy as a whole. All these inadequacies notwithstanding, an analysis of the movement in its national product is a necessary and important part in any attempt to understand the working of the Communist economy on the Chinese Mainland. The performance...

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