« 이전계속 »
JANUARY 19, 1863. The number of American vessels which in the year 1862, just ended, came into this port, was 25, and with one in port at the commencement of the year, makes the total number 26, divided as follows: In port 1 schooner..........
... ... burden 278 tons. Came in 4 schooners........
1,191 tons. Came in 6 brigs.......
1,611 tons. Came in 13 barks .......
4,651 tons. Came in 2 ships. ......
2,209 tons. Total... 26 vessels ...
UUUUUUIP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The value of the cargo brought in by these vessels was $553,720, and is divided among them in the following manner : In port 1 schooner... ... tonnage 278..value of cargo, $4,620 00 Came in 1 brig......
299.. ballast. Came in 4 schooners..
1,191..cargo....... 23,555 00 Came in 5 brigs.....
1,312..cargo....... 36,160 00 Came in 13 barks....
4,651..cargo....... 274,385 00 Came in 2 ships...
2,209..cargo....... 215,000 00
9,940..cargo...... $553,720 00
The above cargoes, according to countries, were as follows:
These 26 vessels were disposed of in the year 1862 as follows, viz:
Went out with cargo1 schooner ...... 278 tons....cargo salt...... ....., value $1,620 3 brigs ......... 825 tons.... cargo salt....
1,640 2 barks......... 654 tons....cargo salt........
6 vessels........ 1,757 tons ...cargo salt......,
3 schooners ..... 2 brigs ......... 8 barks ..... 1 ship... 1 schooner I bark 1 ship 1 brig .... barks.
932 tons.... in ballast.
294 tons....condemned and sold.
270 tons ... property changed.
Total...... 9,940 tons.
The outward cargo above mentioned was shipped to the following countries :
Owing to the increased rate of insurance for war risks, American bottoms are not generally sought after in this port during the past year for Charters to Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Ayres, Rio Grande, &c.; and this accounts for the large proportion of tonnage which left this port in ballast. Under ordinary circumstances, the American flag commands the best rate of freights for the South American ports.
The general trade between this port and the United States was excessively limited in the year just ended, and even in foreign vessels the imports were limited towards the fall to a few vessels with grain, admitted in virtue of the temporary law which allows the importation of grain until the month of April next.
The chief exports of this place to the United States are cork-wood, salt, wine, and marble, and a little olive-oil. But in the period of time to which I am referring, the exports of these articles were of little or no value.
During the year 1862 the general exports of wine, oil, and vinegar were as follows, viz:
........ 6,357,109 litres.
.... 1,391,432 "
The very imperfect statistical accounts to be had here, and the tardy way in which they are published, do not permit me to give more detailed accounts of these exports.
In general, the American shipping movement at this port for the year just ended may be looked upon as not one of the most active; and this must be attributed in great part to the unfortunate state of the markets at home, which does not permit merchants here to remit their goods to the States in view of depressed prices and high duties; while, on the other hand, shipmasters do not
feel inclined to scek a port where diminished trade does not offer them a chance of procuring remunerative freights or charters.
FEBRUARY 20, 1863. In reply to circular No. 30, from the Department of State, requesting information on the means adopted by the country of my official residence for the protection of its revenues and the collection of duties in the passage of goods across the national frontiers, I have the honor of communicating to you the following:
The chief revenue of Portugal is derived from the following sources, viz:
Direct taxes on trade, property, &c., about ................
Total yearly revenue about .......
The personal taxes are levied by the French system of reparation introduced within the last two years. The whole amount of such taxes for the year is divided proportionately to the population among the different provinces. Each province then divides the shares among the districts; and lastly, the municipal chạmber of each town, &c., &c., convenes each class of tax-payers, who divide the sum among themselves in proportion to each one's business or profession. The basis of this last division is a classification made by government of the tax which each trade, profession, or employment is' bound to pay. Thus, for example, the tax for a merchant of the first class is Rs. 80$000; and supposing there are one hundred such merchants in a town, the total amount of taxee for such town may be Rs. 8.000$000. The merchants then call a meeting of all the class, elect a chairman and two members, who proceed to divide among themselves the above sum of Rs. 8.000$000 in proportion to each one's amount of business, and under the proviso that the maximum of tax chargeable to one iu. dividual of the class is five times the original quota, (80$000 X 5 = Rs. 400$000,) and the minimum is one-fifth of the quota, or Rs. 16$000. The means adopted for the recovery of this tax is by district collectors, who twice a year open their bureaus for the interested parties to pay in their taxes during thirty days, after which the bureaus are still kept open for sixty days for the receipt of taxes, chargeable then with an additional mulct of three per cent.; and finally, if not then paid, suits are commenced judicially against the dilatory parties, with eventual execution on their goods and chattels. But this system has hitherto not answered well, as the aggregate of such taxes in arrear for many years now figures in a sum of nearly $5,000,000, of which a great part is of doubtful recovery. The means adopted by this country for the collection and protection of the export and import duties on foreign goods is more complicated, although, perhaps, still less efficient than those employed for the direct taxes. Two head custom-houses are established-one at Oporto and another at Lisbon-where, alone, certain classes of goods can be despatched, such as cotton and woollen manufactures, and colonial articles. On the chief frontier towns, along the Spanish inland line, petty custom-houses are established for the clearing in ward of such articles as are usually imported from that side. These chiefly consist of grain and cattle; and for the prevention of contraband a system of foot and mounted guards is adopted to prevent the clandestine introduction of articles. But these guards being few in number, and but very indifferently remunerated, are easily avoided or bought over by the innumerable smugglers who annually import over the Portuguese frontier every article which is subject to duty, besides large quantities of others which are the produce of this country, such as corkwood, wool, oil, wine, and cereals, all of which, once safely introduced, are subsequently consumed or exported as Portuguese produce. The mountainous nature of the border countries, the old and inveterate habits of the people all along the frontier, render smuggling of almost impossible extinction so long as prohibitive duties and aversion to free trade ideas offer a strong inducement to illicit operations of this nature, and to which the nature of the country itself offers great and easy inducements. Added to this a system of petty examination, weighing and verifying of every little article introduced through the customhouses, causing delay and vexation to all well-intentioned importers, only causes other less scrupulous parties to avail themselves of a readier and more profitable means of carrying on their operations. Government seems here well aware of all these defects, and of the serious loss to its revenues from the causes enumerated; and there is an apparent tendency to diminish their import duties on many important articles, and a gradual approach to free trade. But this event will probably only be more thoroughly carried into effect, or their system of duties more fully modified, so soon as their railways will approach and cross the Spanish frontier; when, inevitably, changes must take place in accordance with what is practiced by other enlightrned countries placed in similar geographical contact.
March 19, 1863. I have the honor of waiting on you, for the information of the department, with the enclosed translation of the royal decree of the 12th instant, just published, ordaining the code of signals and lights to be used by all Portuguese vessels when sailing at night. *
ROYAL DECREE. Considering the great increase in the navy of all countries, and the consequent. augmenting number of vessels which navigate all seas, thus increasing the chances and mutually causing collisions; considering the lamentable damages caused by such collisions, both by loss of lives and of property; considering that, for these reasons, the governments of France and England have agreed to put into execution a code which determines certain fixed rules for all vessels-of-war as well as merchantmen, to the end of avoiding collisions; considering that, in order to obtain good results, the general and mutual co-operation of all maritime countries is essentially necessary so as to cause such regulations to acquire a truly international character, based as it is on the most provident intention and due reciprocity which the law demands, I am pleased hereby to decree the following:
ARTICLE 1. From the 1st June next all commanders, captains, and masters of all ships or vessels, both government and private, are bound to follow the rules determined in the subsequent articles as a means of avoiding collisions.
ARTICLE 2. For the due application of the present decree are declared sailing ressels all such as navigate only by virtue of their sails, even if they possess engines. Are to be considered as steamers all such as are navigating under steam, even if they carry all their sails unfurled.
ARTICLE 3. It is expressly prohibited to show any other light but such as are determined in the present decree; the latter are to be maintained from sunset to sunrise.
ARTICLE 4. All steamers when navigating are to show
1. A white and brilliant light on the foretop; a green light on the starboard side; a red light on the larboard side.
2. The top light is to have sufficient intensity, and to be placed in such a way 22 to be seen on a dark night, but without fog, at a distance of at least five miles, and to shed a uniform and uninterrupted light with a horizon of twenty points of the compass, ten to each side—that is to say, from the bows as far as 22° 30' on both sides astern of the perpendicular.
3. The starboard green lights and the larboard red lights are to have the
requisite intensity, and to be placed in such a manner as to be seen on a dark night, but without fog, at a distance of two miles at least, and to shed a uniform and uninterrupted light with an arc of ten points of the compass—that is to say, from the bows to the stern of the perpendicular. These lights must not be seen from the bows—that is to say, the starboard and the larboard ones. For this purpose each one must be provided with a shade on the forward side of each of 0.9m. width.
ARTICLE 5. All steamers when acting as tow-ships are to carry, besides the side lights, two white lights on the fore-top. These lights are to be in every sense similar to the top lights for steamers.
ARTICLE 6. All sailing ships, when going under sail or in tow, are always to carry lights similar in every respect to those of steamers, with the exception of one on the fore-top, which they are never to show.
ARTICLE 7. In all cases where sailing vessels are of such dimensions as not to allow of the lights being permanently fixed on the sides, they must be always kept on deck, each one on its respective side, and ready to be shown to any vessel that may appear, and in full time to avoid a collision. Such lights, when required to be shown, are to be kept visible as long as possible, in such · manner as that the green may not be seen from the port bow, and the red from
the starboard bow. For greater certainty and facility, the lights or lanterns are to be painted outside of the respective color, and are to have the corresponding shading board.
ARTICLE 8. All vessels, both sailing vessels and steamers, when at anchor in any port, canal, or frequented locality, are to show, from sunset to sunrise, a white light, at a height of not less than 6 metres from the deck, and visible round a horizon of at least one mile.
ARTICLE 9. All pilot sailing boats are not obliged to carry more than one white light on the mast-top, which must be visible from all points of the horizon, and are likewise to fire a signal (torch or brand) every fifteen minutes.
ARTICLE 10. All fishing vessels, or all such as are not decked, are not hound to carry the lights demanded of all vessels; but if they have them not, they must be provided with a light or lantern with a red and a green glass, so that on approaching a vessel the proper color may be shown, in order to avoid a collision, that the green color may not be seen from larboard, nor the red from the starboard side. All fishing and undecked vessels, when at anchor and with nets cast, and consequently stationary, must show a white light. They may, besides this, burn a signal from time to time.
ARTICLE 11. During a fog, both in daytime and at night, all vessels are to make the following every five minutes at least :
1st. On board steamers, when navigating, the steam-whistle is to be sounded near the chimney, 2.40m. above the gunwale.
2d. On board sailing ships, when navigating, a trumpet or horn is to be sounded.
3d. In all vessels, whether sailing or steamers, when stationary, the bell is to be sounded.
Artici.E 12. If two sailing vessels be navigating directly towards each other, or in such a manner as to cause a chance of a collision, they must both bear up to starboard, and pass each other on the larboard sides.
ARTICLE 13. If two sailing vessels are sailing in such a manner as to cross each other, and run the risk of collision if carrying differing tacks on board, that vessel which has the larboard tack on board shall navigate in such a manner as not to stop the way of the vessel which has her starboard tack on board. If, however, the vessel carrying the larboard tack be close-hauled, and the other going free, the latter must then navigate in such manner as not to impede the course of the other. If one of these be going before the wind, or if