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are competing with each other in this market, the nature and extent of this competition, &c., &c.
It will be seen that the imports of 1861 were valued at 612,682,000 marksbanco, whereas in 1860 they amounted only to 609,905,710 marks-banco. By this table you will observe that the aggregate importation of specie and other precious metals was of the value of 82,706,210 marks-banco in 1861.
Table B is a statement of the imports from the United States. This ought to be the most interesting of any. It contains every article that was received from the United States during the year, and the value of the same. It will be perceived from the following comparisons that in several articles we have greatly increased our business of late. Take copper as an illustration of this increasing trade.
Tabular statement showing the comparative value of importations at Hamburg
from the United States during the several years 1858, 1859, 1860, and 1861, in marks-banco.
Several other American productions have been quite as fortunate during the last year and the present, to this date, as the foregoing, which formerly had no sales here, to wit: sewing machines, petroleum, coal-oil lamps, hooped skirts, leather, cloth, butter, dried fruit, flour, (wheat and rye,) pork, and corn brandy.
The following articles, manufactured in the United States, although introduced some years ago, still have quite a large sale, notwithstanding the cheapness of German labor, viz: Yankee clocks, India-rubber shoes, and wooden pegs. Comparative statement showing the aggregate value of importations in marksbanco from the United States for the years 1858–59-'60-'61.
8,723, 550 1859......
12, 628, 040 1860..
14, 455, 040 1861.......
16, 916, 110
52, 722, 740
Thus it will be seen that our direct commerce with this place had been growing every year since 1858, and exceeded in 1861, during the great rebellion, any former year.
Of course it must be understood that a very small portion of the productions of the United States consumed in this country arrived at this port by a direct route ; that is, in the same ships that were laden in the United States.
The tables of the following American staples will, of course, interest the reader: Tobacco, cotton, sugar, rice, turpentine and spirits of turpentine, pepper and pimento, rhubarb, leather, potash, hops, salted hides, dry hides, whalebone, rosin, and coffee.
The weight and value of each of these productions is put down, as well as the place whence imported. Comparative tabular statement of the importations at the port of Hamburg
from the United States for the years 1860 and 1861, with their values in marks-banco.
748,500 533, 420 278,750
4,939, 870 4, 191, 370
951, 930 418, 510
| 1, 138, 760
9, 8801 2, 100
270 35, 430
109, 800 712, 540 602, 740
509, 200 319, 850 69, 060
The table on home and foreign navigation for 1861 shows the arrivals and departures of sea-going vessels for that year, and their nationality; also their tonnage and number of lasts for each seaman. The most striking column in the table is that showing the number of seamen employed about the vessels, according to tonnage. We employ one for every 54 tons ; Brazil one for every 15; France one for every 21; and Great Britain one for every 24.
Our crews are far smaller than those of any other country, and our ships gen.erally much faster. Hence our ships usually secure freights easier than others; and so long as our ship captains make better time with a smaller force than those of other nations, so long will our mercantile marine continue to gain in strength until it overshadows the navies of the world.
The table showing the total number of vessels that arrived at Hamburg in 1861 will surprise those who are not aware of the importance of this port, and that those arrived during that period from the rivers and the sea were 59,397 vessels of a tonnage equal to 1998,540 lasts, or about 2,995,620 tons, (a last being about equal to three tons.) However, only 5,219 sea-going vessels arrived during 1861, and 5,029 during 1860.
The table of "vessels of the United States, and where from, and where sailed to," is incorrect in one particular, as 13 did not arrive here direct from the United States. They all came from very remote places, and were usually large handsome ships, and having at this port completed long voyages, they usually tarried several months, in some instances to the total demoralization of the officers and men. Of the 42 that arrived nine were sold, the owners fearing to let them sail again at a time when the seas were infested with privateers. They brought less than their real value, yet their owners realized for several of them from six to seven thousand pounds apiece, on account of their size and beauty, Several of them came laden with guano from the islands of the Pacific, and others with sugar and more valuable stores from the East and West Indies.
Since my residence here several of our ships have cleared for the Argentine Confederation, and other ports of South America, laden in part with fine-wool
sheep, generally rams of the value of $400 and $500 apiece, it not being considered profitable to ship ewes.
The table of "arrivals of vessels from and departures for the United States direct," shows what vessels have sailed from one country to the other, and their Dumber and tonnage.
The table of "tonnage fees,” received at this port from sea-going vessels, shows what ones are subject to pay, and what ones not; the amount paid by vessels of every nation, and the aggregate amount paid. Thus 41 United States vessels paid on entering the port the large sum of 9,844 marks courant, ($2,952.)
An account of emigration, via Hamburg, in 1861–62, will doubtless, at the present time, when we are so much interested in its steady flow, be deeply interesting. 132 emigrant ships cleared from this port in 1861, with 14,399 passengers. Of these emigrants 9,370 went to the United States, 1,791 went to British North America, 986 to Brazil, 71 to Chili, 738 to Australia, 584 to Africa, 184 to other transatlantic places, and 675 emigrated by indirect routes.
You are aware of the untiring efforts I have been making to prevent emigration from seeking other lands than ours, and I am happy to say that my efforts have been crowned with partial success. Up to this date more emigrants have gone to our country than at this time last year (1861) had gone to all countries. This is very gratifying to me. Their services will be greatly needed in the large cities and in the great west. I shall continue my exertions, and at the begin. ning of the year will send you a detailed report. It is a subject that strongly engages my thoughts.
I wish the peasantry of Germany to emigrate to the United States, not simply because we need their labor in developing the inexhaustible resources of our country, but because they bring economical, industrious, and honest lovers of freedom. I wish to see their condition improved, which in this country, if not an unhappy one, is at least deplorable.
For information in full on the subject of which this despatch treats for the year 1860, I beg leave to refer to my annual report, No. 58.
Tabular statement showing the value of the import trade of Hamburg for the year ended December 31, 1862, with the names of the
countries whence it came.