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The following statement shows the arrivals and departures of vessels of all nations during the year 1862:

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The following shows the arrivals and departures of vessels (Brazilian only) engaged in the coasting trade for the year 1862:

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Total number of arrivals and departures during the past five ycars.

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The year has been an unusually healthy and prosperous one for Maranham. The city, considered as completed years ago, has suddenly revived, owing to the great demand and remunerative prices paid for productions of the province, and numerous public improvements, as also a large number of business houses and private residences, are in course of construction. Gas-works have been completed during the year by an American company, and are in successful operation.

The construction of improved works for supplying the place with water, I am led to believe, will also be given to American citizens, by whom is owned onehalf of the stock of the company ($100,000.) It is a fact, and worthy of note, that a decided preference is given here to American artisans in the distribution of contracts for public and private improvements. Formerly Brazilians were induced to believe that nothing could be good or efficient except it came from Europe. The perseverance of our citizens, however, has greatly set aside their impressions, and we find ourselves gaining a footing in their good opinion which must result in great benefit to our countrymen.

PERU.

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Callao—John E. Lovejoy, Consul.

SEPTEMBER 30, 1863. In complying with sections 153 and 154 of consular regulations, I beg to state that the continuance of the war in the United States during the past year has prevented any extensive renewal of trade between that country and this.

The total value of exports from this port to the United States from October 1, 1862, to October 1, 1863, amounted to $332,244 33. The articles exported consisted principally of sugars, goatskins, orchilla weed, calisaya tabla, and Italia. The export of guano to the United States has entirely ceased, but American vessels are still employed to a considerable extent in carrying this article to other parts of the world. The imports from the United States in American bottoms, during the year ended September 30, 1863, have been very small; most of the staple articles of trade are now imported from Europe.

Table A shows the amount of imports from and exports to the United States for the year above ended.

Table B shows the number of American vessels which have arrived here during the same period, with their destination and outward cargo.

Table C shows the total amount of exports from this and several other ports from January to July, 1863.

No new branches of American industry have been established since my last report. A grant has been obtained by Mr. Renton, of Newark, New Jersey, for the establishment of a submarine railway, to be located at the island of San Lorenzo, near this port. Should this be completed, it will be of great benefit to ships needing repair, as there are no facilities here at present for that business.

In my last annual report I called the attention of the government to the fact that quite a number of emigrants, so called, had been imported from some of the Polynesian islands. Subsequent to that, several other vessels arrived here with some hundreds more of those unfortunate people. When the privilege of importing these people was granted by the Peruvian government, it was intended that they should be introduced as voluntary apprentices, similar to the Chinese coolies. But it having been ascertained that the privilege given had been grossly abused by those engaged in it, and that instead of coming voluntarily, these unfortunate people in many instances were stolen, by being induced to come on board the vessels by deceitful promises, and then retained by force, the grant has been revoked, and quite a number of them have been repurchased by the government and sent back to their native islands. Large mnmbers died after arriving in this country, having been found perfectly useless as laborers. I am sorry to say that some American citizens were engaged in this inhuman traffic. No new regulations have been introduced during the year past which would affect American industry.

A survey of the guano islands, “not including the Chinchas," belonging to Peru, has been made by the government during the past year, and the result may be briefly stated as follows:

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In addition to this, there is sufficient guano on the Chincha group to form a supply for quite a number of years. Although the guano is a source of great revenue to the Peruvian gover ment, I cannot but think that it is an injury to the country, as while it lasts no energetic efforts will be made to develop the agricultural and mineral resources of the country. Agriculture is yet in its primitive state, and far behind what it was in the days of the Incas. And the inexhaustible wealth of the Andes still remains hidden, for the want of proper energy, industry, and skill to bring it to light. The government is engaged in surveying a route for a railroad from Lima, some 150 miles into the interior, and there is a fair prospect of its succeeding. Great obstacles have to be overcome to complete it, but none greater than have been made to yield to perseverance and skill in other countries. Should it be completed, it will unfold a new and glorious era in the annals of Peru.

A table showing the imports to and exports from Callao to the United States during the year ended September 30, 1863 :

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Sugars .........
Calisaya tabla..............
Cotton ....................
Goatskins ...............
Italia....................
Orchilla weed ..........
Wool...
Tin and copper ore ........
Canuto..

$282, 550 60

25,513 74 15, 026 40 5,183 42 1,417 99

11 45 1,982 83

341 76 216 00

332, 244 33

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Statement showing the number of American vessels arrived at and departed

from the port of Callao during the several quarters of the year ended September 30, 1863, together with description of outward cargoes and destina

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Statement showing the value of the national merchandise exported from the

several ports of Peru for the six months ended July 1, 1863. Callao..

$11, 790, 274 00 Itlay......

998, 685 00 Arica

1, 579, 954 00 Iquique ......

1,943, 342 00 Payta...

419, 373 00 Total.

16,731, 628 00

TUMBEZ_D. CARD, Consul.

SEPTEMBER 1, 1863. I have the honor to transmit to the department, in accordance with the consular instructions, such information as I deem of interest concerning the commerce, &c., of this consular district.

Tumbez is, by the laws of Peru, a “ porte minor,” and no foreign vessels or goods are permitted to enter here, (except in cases of distress,) without having first passed the custom-house at Payta, and obtained a permit to enter this port. To this rule there are but two exceptions : one in favor of American vessels engaged in the whale fishery, (as defined by treaty,) and the other caused by a

decree of the Peruvian government, issued in March, 1863, by which lard and rice are admitted free of duty, and may be landed at Tumbez, without the formality of passing the custom-house at Payta.

For two or three years past the number of American whale-ships visiting this port has been constantly decreasing, owing to some extent to the opening of new sources of supply for the “recruits” needed by such vessels, and the high price demanded for such recruits here; but mainly to the want of success of the vessels engaged in that pursuit in this portion of the Pacific. Causes growing out of the rebellion in the United States have also contributed materially to make this decrease of vessels more rapid than it would otherwise have been.

The decree admitting lard and rice free of duty has led to the introduction of considerable quantities of the former article of American production. It comes principally via Guayaquil, and no statistics are preserved, showing its amount or value. The operations of the decree alluded to, unless extended. will cease at the expiration of eighteen months from the date of its passage.

The agriculture of this portion of Peru is, owing to the want of rain, of very limited extent. The arable land is confined to the comparatively small tracts subject to annual overflow, and the quantity thus irrigated and fertilized seems, from some natural cause, to be constantly decreasing. There are conclusive proofs of the progress of this desiccation in considerable tracts of land, in profitable cultivation up to a recent period, that are now entirely barren, for want of moisture.

The principal agricultural productions are sweet potatoes, corn, and pumpkins or squashes. Formerly there were several plantations of sugar-cane in this vicinity ; but, with two or three inconsiderable exceptions, these have now disappeared.

The high prices recently and at present borne by cotton and tobacco, hare induced some attempts at the cultivation of those crops in this vicinity. The tobacco culture has met with fair success, so far as quantity is concerned ; what the quality will be, it is too early yet to determine. The experiments in the cultivation of cotton have demonstrated that no considerable success can be looked for without thorough and systematic artificial irrigation, and measures are being taken in several instances to procure machinery for that purpose; but several obstacles will retard the success of the cotton culture here. 1st. Laborers are few and difficult to be obtained, and owing to causes growing out of the prevalent social and religious systems, the labor of any given number of workmen is available to little more than one-half the extent customary, where different systems in those respects prevail. 2d. The best lands are so subdivided into small tracts, and held at so high a rate, that it will be difficult to form plantations of sufficient extent to permit the economical application of irrigating machinery. It is only a very high price for cotton that can warrant its production by the means that must be employed here.

Decisive indications of the existence of petroleum have been discovered at Mal Paso, sixteen miles south of Tumbez; but the explorations have not been carried to a sufficient extent to determine whether it can be obtained in sufficient quantity to warrant its manufacture for the purposes of commerce.

PAYTA.-C. F. WINSLOW, Consul.

DECEMBER 8, 1863. I have the honor briefly to fulfil that part of my instructions relative to an official report upon the commercial interests of this consular district.

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