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(E) 341 that, with expanding global markets and increasing imports into many countries, including the United States, food safety and quality, as well as secure supply, have emerged as mutual concerns of all countries;

(F) 341 that research, teaching, and extension activities, and appropriate institutional and policy development therefore are prime factors in improving agricultural production, food distribution, processing, storage, and marketing abroad (as well as in the United States);

(G) 342 moreover, that agricultural research abroad has in the past and will continue in the future to provide benefits for agriculture and the broader economy of the United States and that increasing the availability of food of higher nutritional quality is of benefit to all: 343

(H) 344 that there is a need to responsibly manage the world's agricultural and natural resources for sustained productivity, health and resilience to climate variability; and

(I) 344 that universities and public and private partners of universities need a dependable source of funding in order to increase the impact of their own investments and those of their State governments and constituencies, in order to continue and expand their efforts to advance agricultural development in cooperating countries, to translate development into economic growth and trade for the United States and cooperating countries, and to prepare future teachers, researchers, extension specialists, entrepreneurs, managers, and decisionmakers for

the world economy. (b) 345 Accordingly, the Congress declares that, in order to prevent famine and establish freedom from hunger, the following components must be brought together in a coordinated program to increase world food and fiber production, agricultural trade, and responsible management of natural resources, including

(1) continued efforts by the international agricultural research centers and other international research entities to provide a global network, including United States universities, for international scientific collaboration on crops, livestock, forests,

341 Sec. 2(a)2X(H) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–373; 114 Stat. 1428) added subparas. (E) and (F).

342 Sec. 2(a)(2XF) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–373; 114 Stat. 1428) struck out "and" at the end of this subpara.; subpara. (G) of that sec. redesignated this subpara. as subpara. (G).

343 Sec. 2(a)(2X(I) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–373; 114 Stat. 1428) struck out “in the United States” and inserted in lieu thereof “and the broader economy of the United States”.

344 Sec. 2(a)(2XJ) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–373; 114 Stat. 1428) added subparas. (H) and (I).

345 Sec. 2(b) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–373; 114 Stat. 1428) amended and restated subsec. (b). It formerly read as follows:

"(b) Accordingly, the Congress declares that, in order to prevent famine and establish freedom from hunger, various components must be brought together in order to increase world food production, including

"(1) strengthening the capabilities of universities to assist in increasing agricultural production in developing countries;

"(2) institution-building programs for development of national and regional agricultural research and extension capacities in developing countries which need assistance;

“(3) international agricultural research centers;
"(4) contract research; and
"(5) research program grants.

fisheries, farming resources, and food systems of worldwide importance;

(2) contract research and the implementation of collaborative research support programs and other research collaboration led by United States universities, and involving research systems in other countries focused on crops, livestock, forests, fisheries, farming resources, and food systems, with benefits to the United States and partner countries;

(3) broadly disseminating the benefits of global agricultural research and development including increased benefits for United States agriculturally related industries through establishment of development and trade information and service centers, for rural as well as urban communities, through extension, cooperatively with, and supportive of, existing public and private trade and development related organizations;

(4) facilitation of participation by universities and public and private partners of universities in programs of multilateral banks and agencies which receive United States funds;

(5) expanding learning opportunities about global agriculture for students, teachers, community leaders, entrepreneurs, and the general public through international internships and exchanges, graduate assistantships, faculty positions, and other means of education and extension through long-term recurring Federal funds matched by State funds; and

(6) competitive grants through universities to United States agriculturalists and public and private partners of universities from other countries for research, institution and policy development, extension, training, and other programs for global agricultural development, trade, and responsible management of

natural resources. (c) The United States should

(1) effectively involve the United States land-grant and other eligible universities more extensively in each of the program components described in paragraphs (1) through (6) of subsection (b); 346

(2) provide mechanisms for the universities and public and private partners of universities 347 to participate and advise in the planning, development, implementation, and administration of each component; 347

(3) assist such universities and public and private partners of universities 348 in cooperative joint efforts with,

(A) agricultural institutions in developing nations; 349

346 Sec. 2(c)(1) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–373; 114 Stat. 1429) struck out “each component” and inserted in lieu thereof "each of the program components described in paragraphs (1) through (6) of subsection (b)".

347 Sec. 2(c)2XA) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–373; 114 Stat. 1429) inserted “and public and private partners of universities" after “for the universities”. Sec. 2(cX2XB) of that Act struck out "and" at the end of para. (2).

348 Sec. 2(c/3XA) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–373; 114 Stat. 1429) inserted “and public and private partners of universities" after “such universities".

349 Sec. 21cX3XB) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–373; 114 Stat. 1429) struck out“, and” and inserted in lieu thereof a semicolon.

(B) regional and international agricultural research centers; 350

(C)351 multilateral banks and agencies receiving United States funds;

(D) 351 development agencies of other countries; and

(E) 351 United States Government foreign assistance and economic cooperation programs; (4) 352 generally engage the United States university community more extensively in the agricultural research, trade, and development initiatives undertaken outside the United States, with the objectives of strengthening its capacity to carry out research, teaching, and extension activities for solving problems in food production, processing, marketing, and consumption in agriculturally developing nations, and for transforming progress in global agricultural research and development into economic growth, trade, and trade benefits for aid recipient countries and United States communities and industries, and for the wise use of natural resources; and

(5) 352 ensure that all federally funded support to universities and public and private partners of universities relating to the

goals of this title is periodically reviewed for its performance. (d) As used in this title, the term “universities” means those colleges or universities in each State, territory, or possession of the United States, or the District of Columbia, now receiving, or which may hereafter receive, benefits under the Act of July 2, 1862 (known as the First Morrill Act), or the Act of August 30, 1890 (known as the Second Morrill Act), which are commonly known as "land-grant” universities; institutions now designated or which may hereafter be designated as sea-grant colleges under the Act of October 15, 1966 (known as the National Sea Grant College and Program Act), which are commonly known as sea-grant colleges; Native American land-grant colleges as authorized under the Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 301 note); 353 and other United States colleges and universities which

(1) have demonstrable capacity in teaching, research, and extension (including outreach) 354 activities in the agricultural sciences; and

(2) can contribute effectively to the attainment of the objective of this title.

360 Sec. 2(c3XC) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–373; 114 Stat. 1429) replaced a comma with a semicolon. Sec. 2(0X3HD) of that Act struck out a phrase following subpara. (B), which had read as follows:

"directed to strengthening their joint and respective capabilities and to engage them more effectively in research, teaching, and extension activities for solving problems in food production, distribution, storage, marketing, and consumption in agriculturally underdeveloped nations.".

351 Sec. 2(c)(2XE) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–373; 114 Stat. 1429) added subparas. (C), (D), and (E).

352 Sec. 2(c)(4) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-373; 114 Stat. 1430) added paras. (4) and (5).

353 Sec. 2(d)(1) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-373; 114 Stat. 1430) inserted "Native American land-grant colleges as authorized under the Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 301 note);" after "sea-grant colleges;".

354 Sec. 2(d(2) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-373; 114 Stat. 1430) struck out "extension" and inserted in lieu thereof “extension (through outreach)".

(e) As used in this title, the term “Administrator” means the Administrator of the United States 355 Agency for International Development. 356

(f) 357 As used in this title, the term “public and private partners of universities” includes entities that have cooperative or contractual agreements with universities, which may include formal or informal associations of universities, other education institutions, United States Government and State agencies, private voluntary organizations, nongovernmental organizations, firms operated for profit, nonprofit organizations, multinational banks, and, as designated by the Administrator, any organization, institution, or agency incorporated in other countries.

(g) 358 As used in this title, the term "agriculture” includes the science and practice of activity related to food, feed, and fiber production, processing, marketing, distribution, utilization, and trade, and also includes family and consumer sciences, nutrition, food science and engineering, agricultural economics and other social sciences, forestry, wildlife, fisheries, aquaculture, floraculture, veterinary medicine, and other environmental and natural resources sciences.

(h) 359 As used in this title, the term “agriculturists” includes farmers, herders, and livestock producers, individuals who fish and others employed in cultivating and harvesting food resources from salt and fresh waters, individuals who cultivate trees and shrubs and harvest nontimber forest products, as well as the processors, managers, teachers, extension specialists, researchers, policymakers, and others who are engaged in the food, feed, and fiber system and its relationships to natural resources.

Sec. 297.360 General Authority.-(a) To carry out the purposes of this title, the President is authorized to provide assistance on such terms and conditions as he shall determine

(1) 361 to implement program components through United States universities as authorized by paragraphs (2) through (5) of this subsection;

(2) to build and strengthen the institutional capacity and human resources skills of agriculturally developing countries so that these countries may participate more fully in the international agricultural problem-solving effort and to introduce and adapt new solutions to local circumstances;

355 Sec. 2(e) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–373; 114 Stat. 1430) inserted “United States” before "Agency".

356 Sec. 6 of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1979 (establishing IDCA), transferred all responsibilities and functions vested in this subsection from the Administrator to the Director of IDCA. The Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1979 ceased to be effective with enactment of the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998, pursuant to sec. 1422(aX1) (division G of Public Law 105-277; 112 Stat. 2681).

357 Added by sec. 2(f) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–373; 114 Stat. 1430).

Former subsecs. (f) and (g), which defined the terms "agriculture” and “farmers,” were repealed in 1978 by sec. 103(c) of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-424; 92 Stat. 945). Similar definitions for these terms can now be found in sec. 644 (0) and (p) of this Act.

358 Added by sec. 2(g) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-373; 114 Stat. 1430).

359 Sec. 21h) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–373; 114 Stat. 1430) added subsec. (h).

360 22 U.S.C. 2220b. Sec. 297 was added by sec. 312 of Public Law 94-161 (89 Stat. 849).

361 Sec. 31aX1) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–373; 114 Stat. 1431) amended and restated para. (1). It formerly read as follows:

"(1) to strengthen the capabilities of universities in teaching, research, and extension work to enable them to implement current programs authorized by paragraphs (2), (3), (4), and (5) of this subsection, and those proposed in the report required by section 300 of this title;".

(3) 362 to provide long-term program support for United States university global agricultural and related environmental collaborative research and learning opportunities for students, teachers, extension specialists, researchers, and the general public;

(4) to involve United States 363 universities more fully in the international network of agricultural science, including the international agricultural 364 research centers, the activities of international organizations such as the United Nations Development Program and the Food and Agriculture Organization, multilateral banks, the institutions of agriculturally developing nations, and United States and foreign nongovernmental organizations supporting extension and other productivity-enhancing programs; 365 and

(5) to provide program support for international agricultural research centers, to provide support for research projects identified for specific problem-solving needs, and to develop and strengthen national research systems in the developing coun

tries. (b) Programs under this title shall be carried out so as to

(1) utilize and strengthen the capabilities of United States universities with public and private partners of universities 366 in

(A) developing capacity in the cooperating nation for classroom teaching in agriculture, plant and animal sciences, human nutrition, and vocational and domestic arts and other relevant fields appropriate to local needs;

(B) agricultural research to be conducted in the cooperating nations, at international agricultural research centers, or in the United States;

(C) the planning, initiation, and development of extension services through which information concerning agriculture, environment, 367 and related subjects will be made available directly to agriculturalists 368 in the agricultur

362 Sec. 3(a)(2) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-373; 114 Stat. 1431) amended and restated para. (3). It formerly read, as amended, as follows:

"(3) to provide program support for long-term collaborative university research, in the developing countries themselves to the maximum extent practicable, on food production, distribution, storage, marketing and consumption;".

YA) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–373; 114 Stat. 1431) inserted “United States” before "universities”.

364 Sec. 3(a)(3)(B) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–373; 114 Stat. 1431) inserted “agricultural” before “research centers”.

365 Sec. 3(a)(3XC) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-373; 1 Stat. 1431) struck out and the institutions of agriculturally developing nations” and inserted in lieu thereof "multilateral banks, the institutions of agriculturally developing nations, and United States and foreign nongovernmental organizations supporting extension and other productivity-enhancing programs”.

366 Sec. 3(b)(1)(A) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-373: 114 Stat. 1431) struck out "universities” and inserted in lieu thereof “United States universities with public and private partners of universities”.

367 Sec. 3(bX1)(B)(i) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–373; 114 Stat. 1431) inserted“, environment,” before “and related".

368 Sec. 3(b)(1)(B)(ii) of the Famine Prevention and Freedom From Hunger Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–373; 114 Stat. 1431) struck out “farmers and farm families” and inserted in lieu thereof “agriculturalists".

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