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ticable, through international agencies and private voluntary organizations such as (among others) the World Relief Committee, World Medical Missions, Inc., Cama Services, World Vision, Food for the Hungry, Thailand Baptist Mission, Catholic Relief Services, Oxfam, and the International Rescue Committee.

(c)(1) In providing assistance under this section, the President shall satisfy himself that adequate procedures have been established to ensure that such assistance reaches the innocent victims of famine and disease for whom it is intended. Such procedures shall include end use monitoring of deliveries on a periodic basis by individuals having freedom of movement where the assistance is being distributed within Cambodia.

(2) 558 * * * [Repealed—1981)

(d)(1) In addition to amounts otherwise available for such purposes, there is authorized to be appropriated for purposes of this section $30,000,000 for the fiscal year 1980, which amount is authorized to remain available until expended.559

(2) Obligations incurred, prior to the enactment of appropriations to carry out this section, against other appropriations or accounts for the purpose of alleviating the human suffering caused by famine and disease in Cambodia may be charged to the appropriations authorized by paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(3) The President may exercise the authority of section 610(a) of this Act (without regard to the 20 percent limitation contained in that section on increases in accounts) in order to transfer, for use in carrying out this section, up to $30,000,000 of the funds made available for the fiscal year 1980 to carry out other provisions of this Act.

(4) Priority shall be given in allocating assistance under the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 to furnishing agricultural commodities for use in carrying out this section.

(e) Assistance under this section shall be provided in accordance with the policies and utilizing the general authorities provided in section 491.

Sec. 4951.560 Assistance for Displaced Persons in Central America. a)(1) The Congress recognizes that prompt United States assistance is necessary to help meet the basic human needs of persons displaced by strife in El Salvador. Therefore, the President is authorized to furnish assistance, on such terms and conditions as he may determine, to help alleviate the suffering of these displaced persons. Assistance provided under this section shall be for humanitarian purposes, with emphasis on the provision of food, medicine, medical care, and shelter and, where possible, implementation of other relief and rehabilitation activities. The Congress encourages the use, where appropriate of the services of private and

558 Par. (2), which had required a report by the President that adequate procedures have been established ensure that the assistance provided under this section is reaching the innocent victims of famine and disease for whom it is intended, was repealed by sec. 734(1) of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1981 (Public Law 97-113: 95 Stat. 1560). Such report was submitted on February 11, 1980.

559 The Supplemental Appropriation and Rescission Bill, 1980 (Public Law 96-304; 94 Stat. 873), included $30 million intended for Cambodian Disaster Relief Assistance.

560 22 U.S.C. 22920. Sec. 4951 was added by sec. 504 of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1981 (Public Law 97-113; 95 Stat. 1540).

voluntary organizations and international relief agencies in the provision of assistance under this section.

(2) The Congress understands that the country of Belize has expressed interest and willingness in the resettlement in its territory of Haitian nationals who desire to settle in Belize. Therefore, the President is authorized to furnish assistance, on such terms and conditions as he may determine, to assist the Government of Belize in the resettlement of Haitian nationals in the national territory of Belize.

(b) There are authorized to be appropriated to the President for the purposes of this section, in addition to amounts otherwise available for such purposes, $5,000,000 for the fiscal year 1982 and $5,000,000 for the fiscal year 1983.561 Amounts appropriated under this section are authorized to remain available until expended.

(c) Assistance under this section shall be provided in accordance with the policies and utilizing the general authorities provided in section 491.

Sec. 495J.562 Lebanon Emergency Relief, Rehabilitation, and Reconstruction Assistance.—a) The Congress recognizes that prompt United States assistance is necessary to alleviate the human suffering and resettlement needs of the innocent victims of recent strife in Lebanon. Therefore, the President is authorized to furnish assistance, on such terms and conditions as he may determine, for the relief, rehabilitation, and reconstruction needs of such victims. Assistance provided under this section shall emphasize the provision of food, medicine, clothing, shelter, and water supply systems, and similar efforts to ameliorate the suffering of the people in Lebanon.

(b) In addition to amounts otherwise available for such purpose, there is authorized to be appropriated to the President $50,000,000 to carry out this section. Amounts appropriated under this subsection are authorized to remain available until expended.

(c) Assistance under this section shall be furnished in accordance with the policies and general authorities contained in section 491.

Sec. 495K.563 African Famine Assistance.

561 The FA Appropriations Act, 1982, provided that out of the $473 million in funds for migration and refugee assistance during fiscal year 1982, “$5,000,000 of this amount shall be used for assistance for persons displaced by strife in El Salvador as provided in H.R. 3566 as reported May 19, 1981.". Under the provisions of the Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 1983 (Public Law 97–377), which continued funding for foreign assistance at the rates and under the terms and conditions provided in the FA Appropriations Act, 1982, with exceptions, no prior year earmarking of funds under the “Migration and Refugee Assistance” account would apply.

562 22 U.S.C. 2292p. Sec. 495J was added by Public Law 97-208 (96 Stat. 138). The Supplemental Appropriations Act, 1982 (Public Law 97-257; 96 Stat. 818 at 833), included the following:

"LEBANON EMERGENCY RELIEF

"TRANSFER OF FUNDS) “For expenses necessary to carry out the provisions of section 495J of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, $50,000,000 which shall be derived by transfer from the Department of State, Migration and Refugee Assistance', to remain available until expended: Provided, That of such amount not less than $10,000,000 shall be available only for the America University of Beirut.”.

563 22 U.S.C. 2292q. Sec. 495K was added by sec. 2 of the African Relief and Recovery Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-8; 99 Stat. 21).

The Urgent Supplemental Appropriations, 1985–African Famine Relief (Public Law 99-10; 99 Stat. 27), provided the following:

“For an additional amount for international disaster assistance, $137,500,000 for emergency relief and recovery assistance for Africa, to be available only for such purpose and to remain available until March 31, 1986 Provided, That the Committee on Appropriations of each House of Congress is notified five days in advance of the obligation of any funds made available under this paragraph, unless the emergency is life threatening and immediate action is necessary.

(a) AUTHORIZATION OF ASSISTANCE.—The President is authorized to provide assistance for famine relief, rehabilitation, and recovery in Africa. Assistance under this section shall be provided for humanitarian purposes and shall be provided on a grant basis. Such assistance shall include

(1) relief, rehabilitation, and recovery projects to benefit the poorest people, including the furnishing of seeds for planting, fertilizer, pesticides, farm implements, farm animals and vaccine and veterinary services to protect livestock upon which people depend, blankets, clothing, and shelter, disease prevention and health care projects, water projects (including water purification and well-drilling), small-scale agricultural projects, and food protection and preservation projects; and

(2) projects to meet emergency health needs, including vaccinations. (b) USES OF FUNDS.

(1) PRIVATE AND VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS.—Funds authorized to be appropriated by this section shall be used primarily for grants to private and voluntary organizations and international organizations.

(2) EMERGENCY HEALTH PROJECTS.—A significant portion of the funds authorized to be appropriated by this section shall be used for emergency health projects pursuant to subsection (a)(2).

(3) MANAGEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES.—Of the amount authorized to be appropriated by this section, $2,500,000 shall be transferred to the “Operating Expenses of the Agency for International Development” account. These funds shall be used for management support activities associated with the planning, monitoring, and supervision of emergency food and disaster assistance provided in those countries in Africa described in section 5(a) of the African Famine Relief and Recovery Act of

1985. (c) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.—In addition to the amounts otherwise available for such purpose, there are authorized to be appropriated $137,500,000 for the fiscal year 1985 for use in providing assistance under this section.

(d) POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES TO BE APPLIED.-Assistance under this section shall be furnished in accordance with the policies and general authorities contained in section 491.

Chapter 10—Development Fund for Africa 564 Sec. 496.565 Long-Term Development Assistance for SubSaharan Africa.-(a) FINDINGS.—The Congress finds that

"OPERATING EXPENSES “Of the amount appropriated in this Act for ‘International disaster' assistance, $2,500,000 shall be transferred to 'Operating expenses of the Agency for International Development to be used for monitoring food and disaster assistance in Africa.”.

564 Sec. 562(a) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1991 (Public Law 101-513; 104 Stat. 2026), added chapter 10, secs. 496497. Pre

Continued “(4) program assistance provided, including the amounts obligated, the criteria used for assisting reforms, and the provisions made pursuant to section 496(hX(2XB) to protect vulnerable groups from possible negative consequences of the reforms; and

(1) drought and famine have caused countless deaths and untold suffering among the people of sub-Saharan Africa;

(2) drought and famine in combination with other factors such as desertification, government neglect of the agricultural sector, and inappropriate economic policies have severely affected long-term development in sub-Saharan Africa, and

(3) the most cost-effective and efficient way of overcoming Africa's vulnerability to drought and famine is to address Africa's long-term development needs through a process that builds upon the needs and capabilities of the African people, promotes sustained and equitable economic growth, preserves the envi

ronment, and protects the rights of the individual. (b) AUTHORITY TO FURNISH ASSISTANCE.—The President is authorized to furnish project and program assistance, on such terms and conditions as he may determine in accordance with the policies contained in this section, for long-term development in sub-Saharan Africa. (c) PURPOSE OF ASSISTANCE.

(1) PURPOSE.—The purpose of assistance under this section shall be to help the poor majority of men and women in subSaharan Africa to participate in a process of long-term development through economic growth that is equitable, participatory, environmentally sustainable, and self-reliant.

(2) USE OF ASSISTANCE TO ENCOURAGE PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT.-Assistance under this section should, in a manner consistent with paragraph (1), be used to promote sustained economic growth, encourage private sector development, promote individual initiatives, and help to reduce the role of central governments in areas more appropriate for the private

sector. (d) APPLICATION OF DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL AUTHORITIES AND POLICIES.—Except to the extent inconsistent with this section

viously, chapter 10, sec. 496, relating to assistance to Portugal and Portuguese colonies in Africa gaining independence, as added by sec. 53 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1974, was repealed by sec. 1211(a)(4) of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-83; 99 Stat. 279).

Sec. 562 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1991 (Public Law 101-513; 104 Stat. 2030), further stated:

"(b) EVALUATIONS.-It is the sense of the Congress that there should be periodic evaluations of the progress of the Agency for International Development in achieving the purpose specified in section 496(c) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.

"(c) REPORTS TO CONGRESS.-As part of the annual Congressional Presentation materials for economic assistance, the Administrator of the Agency for International Development shall include a description of the progress made during the previous fiscal year in carrying out chapter 10 of part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 in three countries in sub-Saharan Africa which represent differing economic situations and levels of progress. The description shall include

"(1) the nature and extent of consultation to ensure local perspectives, as described in subsections (e)(1) and (f) of section 496;

“(2) the degree of involvement of local people in the implementation of projects having a local focus;

“(3) the extent to which there has been expansion of the participation and integration of African women in each of the critical sectors specified in section 496(i);

"(5) a description of the assistance for the critical sector priorities specified in section 496(i), by sector, including the amounts obligated.”. See related legislation in "Assistance to Africa,” in Legislation on Foreign Relations Through 2001, vol. 1-B.

565 22 U.S.C. 2293.

(1) any reference in any law to chapter 1 of this part (including references to sections 103 through 106) shall be deemed to include a reference to this section; and

(2) assistance under this section shall be provided consistent with the policies contained in section 102. (e) PRIVATE AND VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS.—

(1) CONSULTATION TO ENSURE LOCAL PERSPECTIVES.—The Agency for International Development shall take into account the local-level perspectives of the rural and urban poor in subSaharan Africa, including women, during the planning process for project and program assistance under this section. In order to gain that perspective the Agency for International Development should consult closely with African, United States, and other private and voluntary organizations that have demonstrated effectiveness in or commitment to the promotion of local, grassroots activities on behalf of long-term development in sub-Saharan Africa as described in subsection (c).

(2) DEFINITION OF PRIVATE AND VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS.—For purposes of this section, the term “private and voluntary organization” includes (in addition to entities traditionally considered to be private and voluntary organizations) cooperatives, credit unions, trade unions, women's groups, nonprofit development research institutions, and indigenous local

organizations, which are private and nonprofit. (f) LOCAL INVOLVEMENT IN PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION.—Local people, including women, shall be closely consulted and involved in the implementation of every project under this section which as a local focus.

(g) PARTICIPATION OF AFRICAN WOMEN.—The Agency for International Development shall ensure that development activities assisted under this section incorporate a significant expansion of the participation (including decisionmaking) and integration of African women in each of the critical sectors described in subsection (i). (h) TYPES OF ASSISTANCE.—

(1) PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS TO ADDRESS CRITICAL SECTORAL PRIORITIES.-Assistance under this section shall emphasize primarily projects and programs to address critical sectoral priorities for long-term development described in subsection (i). (2) REFORM OF ECONOMIC POLICIES.—

(A) USE OF PROGRAM ASSISTANCE.-Assistance under this section may also include program assistance to promote reform of sectoral economic policies affecting long-term development in sub-Saharan Africa as described in subsection (c), with primary emphasis on reform of economic policies to support the critical sectoral priorities described in subsection (i).

(B) PROTECTION OF VULNERABLE GROUPS.-Assisted policy reforms shall also include provisions to protect vulnerable groups (especially poor, isolated, and female farmers, the urban poor, and children including displaced children) and long-term environmental interests from possible negative consequences of the reforms.

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