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may be made available for personal services contractors assigned only to the Office of Health and Nutrition; the Office of Procurement; the Bureau for Africa; the Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean; and the Bureau for Asia and the Near East: Provided further, That such funds appropriated to carry out title II of the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, may be made available only for personal services contractors assigned to the Office of Food for Peace.
"(d)(1) WAIVER.—The President may waive the provisions of section 1003 of Public Law 100–204 if the President determines and certifies in writing to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President pro tempore of the Senate that it is important to the national security interests of the United States.
“(2) PERIOD OF APPLICATION OF WAIVER.—Any waiver pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be effective for no more than a period of 6 months at a time and shall not apply beyond 12 months after the enactment of this Act.
“(e) During fiscal year 2002, the President may use up to $45,000,000 under the authority of section 451 of the Foreign Assistance Act, notwithstanding the funding ceiling in section 451(a).
"(f) SMALL BUSINESS.—In entering into multiple award indefinite-quantity contracts with funds appropriated by this Act, the United States Agency for International Development may provide an exception to the fair opportunity process for placing task orders under such contracts when the order is placed with any category of small or small disadvantaged business.”.
NOTE.—The Federal Reports Elimination and Sunset Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-66; 109 Stat. 707), as amended, modified or eliminated numerous reporting requirements in law. Sec. 3003(a) of that Act provided that, subject to certain restrictions, “each provision of law requiring the submittal to Congress (or any committee of the Congress) of any annual, semiannual, or other regular periodic report specified on the list (prepared by the Clerk of the House of Representatives for the first session of the 103rd Congress, House Document No. 103–7] * * * shall cease to be effective, with respect to that requirement, May 15, 2000.”.
Sec. 3003(d) of that Act, however, exempted certain sections of law from the application of subsec. (a). Among those exempted were several reports required by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 in secs. 116, 240A, 306, 489, 502B, and 634. Among those exempted were several reports required by the Arms Export Control Act in secs. 25, 28, and 36. Among those exempted was sec. 502 of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985. For a complete list of sections of law exempted from the application of sec. 3003(a) of Public Law 104-66, see Legislation on Foreign Relations Through 2001, vol. IV.
Sec. 209(e) of the Admiral James W. Nance and Meg Donovan Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 2000 and 2001 (H.R. 3427, enacted by reference in sec. 1000(a)(7) of Public Law 106–113; 113 Stat. 1536), continued the requirement of several reports to which Public Law 104-66 would otherwise have applied, including those required in secs. 118(f), 239(c), and 620C(c) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961; sec. 1205 of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985; secs. 533(b) and 586J(c)(4) of the Foreign Assistance Appropriations Act, 1991. For a complete list of sections of law exempted from the application of sec. 3003(a) of Public Law 104-66 by sec. 209(e) of Public Law 106–113, see Legislation on Foreign Relations Through 2001, vol. IV.
Sec. 103.12 Agriculture, Rural Development, and Nutrition.—a)(1) In recognition of the fact that the great majority of the people of developing countries live in rural areas and are dependent on agriculture and agricultural-related pursuits for their livelihood, the President is authorized to furnish assistance, on such terms and conditions as he may determine, for agriculture, rural development, and nutrition
(A) to alleviate starvation, hunger, and malnutrition;
12 22 U.S.C. 2151a. Sec. 103, as added by sec. 2(3) of the FA Act of 1973 (87 Stat. 715), was amended and restated by sec. 103(a) of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1978 (92 Stat. 943). Previous amendments to sec. 103 were made by sec. 2 of Public Law 93-559 (88 Stat. 1795), sec. 302 of Public Law 94–161 (89 Stat. 856), and by sec. 102 of Public Law 95-88 (91 Stat. 534).
(B) to expand significantly the provision of basic services to rural poor people to enhance their capacity for self-help; and
(C) to help create productive farm and off-farm employment in rural areas to provide a more viable economic base and enhance opportunities for improved incomes, living standards, and contributions by rural poor people to the economic and so
cial development of their countries. (2) There are authorized to be appropriated to the President for purposes of this section, in addition to funds otherwise available for such purposes, $760,000,000 for the fiscal year 1986 and $760,000,000 for the fiscal year 1987.13 Of these amounts, the President may use such amounts as he deems appropriate to carry out the provisions of section 316 of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1980.14 .
(3) 15 Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated in paragraph; (2) for the fiscal year 1987, not less than $2,000,000 shall be available only for the purpose of controlling and eradicating amblyomman variegatum (heartwater) in bovine animals in the Caribbean.
(b)(1) Assistance provided under this section shall be used primarily for activities which are specifically designed to increase the productivity and income of the rural poor, through such means as creation and strengthening of local institutions linked to the regional and national levels; organization of a system of financial institutions which provide both savings and credit services to the poor; stimulation of small, labor-intensive enterprises in rural towns; improvement of marketing facilities and systems; expansion of rural infrastructure and utilities such as farm-to-market roads, water management systems, land improvement, energy, and storage facilities; establishment of more equitable and more secure land tenure arrangements; and creation and strengthening of systems to provide other services and supplies needed by farmers, such as extension, research, training, fertilizer, water, forestry, soil conservation, and improved seed, in ways which assure access to them by small farmers.
(2) In circumstances where development of major infrastructure is necessary to achieve the objectives set forth in this section, assistance for that purpose should be furnished under this chapter in association with significant contributions from other countries working together in a multilateral framework. Infrastructure projects so assisted should be complemented by other measures to ensure that the benefits of the infrastructure reach the poor.
13 The authorization figures for fiscal years 1986 and 1987 were added by sec. 302 of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-83; 99 Stat. 190). Authorizations for recent years included: fiscal year 1975-$500,000,000; fiscal year 1976 $618,000,000; fiscal year 1977-$745,000,000; fiscal year 1978_$580,000,000; fiscal year 1979— $665,231,000; fiscal year 1980_$659,000,000; fiscal year 1981-$713,500,000; fiscal year 1982$700,000,000; fiscal year 1983—$700,000,000; fiscal year 1984—$725,213,000; fiscal year 1985– no authorization; fiscal years 1988 through 2002-no authorization.
14 Sec. 316 of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1980 concerns world hunger and instructs the Director of IDCA to encourage the ongoing work of PVOs to deal with world hunger problems abroad.
15 Paragraph 3 was added by sec. 1304 of Public Law 99-399 (100 Stat. 898).
(3) 16 The Congress recognizes that the accelerating loss of forests and tree cover in developing countries undermines and offsets efforts to improve agricultural production and nutrition and otherwise to meet the basic human needs of the poor. Deforestation results in increased flooding, reduction in water supply for agricultural capacity, loss of firewood and needed wood products, and loss of valuable plants and animals. In order to maintain and increase forest resources, the President is authorized to provide assistance under this section for forestry projects which are essential to fulfill the fundamental purposes of this section. Emphasis shall be given to community woodlots, agroforestry, reforestation, protection of watershed forests, and more effective forest management.
(c) The Congress finds that the greatest potential for significantly expanding availability of food for people in rural areas and augmenting world food production at relatively low cost lies in increasing the productivity of small farmers who constitute a majority of the agricultural producers in developing countries. Increasing the emphasis on rural development and expanded food production in the poorest nations of the developing world is a matter of social justice and a principal element contributing to broadly based economic growth, as well as an important factor in alleviating inflation in the industrialized countries. In the allocation of funds under this section, special attention shall be given to increasing agricultural production in countries which have been designated as “least developed” by the United Nations General Assembly.
(d) Assistance provided under this section shall also be used in coordination with programs carried out under section 104 to help improve nutrition of the people of developing countries through encouragement of increased production of crops with greater nutritional value; improvement of planning, research, and education with respect to nutrition, particularly with reference to improvement and expanded use of indigenously produced foodstuffs; and the undertaking of pilot or demonstration programs explicitly addressing the problem of malnutrition of poor and vulnerable people. In particular, the President is encouraged
(1) to devise and carry out in partnership with developing countries a strategy for programs of nutrition and health improvement for mothers and children, including breast feeding; and
(2) to provide technical, financial, and material support to individuals or groups at the local level for such programs. (e) Local currency proceeds from sales of commodities provided under the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 which are owned by foreign governments shall be used whenever practicable to carry out the provisions of this section.
(f) 16 The Congress finds that the efforts of developing countries to enhance their national food security deserves encouragement as a matter of United States development assistance policy. Measures complementary to assistance for expanding food production in developing countries are needed to help assure that food becomes increasingly available on a regular basis to the poor in such countries. Therefore, United States bilateral assistance under this Act and the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, and United States participation in multilateral institutions, shall emphasize policies and programs which assist developing countries to increase their national food security by improving their food policies and management and by strengthening national food reserves, with particular concern for the needs of the poor, through measures encouraging domestic production, building national food reserves, expanding available storage facilities, reducing postharvest food losses, and improving food distribution.
16 Par. (3) and subsec. () were added by sec. 101 of the International Development Cooperation Act of 1979 (Public Law 96-53; 93 Stat. 359).
(g) 17 (1) In order to carry out the purposes of this section, the President may continue United States participation in and may make contributions to the International Fund for Agricultural Development.
(2) Of the aggregate amount authorized to be appropriated to carry out part I of this Act, up to $50,000,000 for fiscal year 1986 and up to $50,000,000 for fiscal year 1987 may be made available, by appropriation or by transfer, for United States contributions to the second replenishment of the International Fund for Agricultural Development.
Sec. 103Ă.18 Agricultural Research.-Agricultural research carried out under this Act shall (1) take account of the special needs of small farmers in the determination of research priorities, (2) include research on the interrelationships among technology, institutions, and economic, social, environmental, 19 and cultural factors affecting small-farm agriculture, and (3) make extensive use of field testing to adapt basic research to local conditions. Special emphasis shall be placed on disseminating research results to the farms on which they can be put to use, and especially on institutional and other arrangements needed to assure that small farmers have effective access to both new and existing improved technology.
Sec. 104.20 Population and Health.-(a) FINDINGS.—The Congress recognizes that poor health conditions and uncontrolled population growth can vitiate otherwise successful development efforts.
Large families in developing countries are the result of complex social and economic factors which change relatively slowly among the poor majority least affected by economic progress, as well as the result of a lack of effective birth control. Therefore, effective family planning depends upon economic and social change as well as the delivery of services and is often a matter of political and reli
17 Sec. 1001 of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-83; 99 Stat. 190) amended and restated subsec. (g). Subsec. (g), in its previous form, had been added by sec. 301(c) of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1981 (Public Law 97-113; 95 Stat. 1532). It previously read as follows: “In order to carry out the purposes of this section, the President may continue to participate in and may provide, on such terms and conditions as he may determine, up to $180,000,000 to the International Fund for Agricultural Development. There are authorized to be appropriated to the President for the purposes of this subsection $180,000,000, except that not more than $40,500,000 may be appropriated under this subsection for the fiscal year 1982. Amounts appropriated under this subsection are authorized to remain available until expended.”.
18 22 U.S.C. 2151a-1. Sec. 103A was added by sec. 303 of Public Law 94–161 (89 Stat. 849).
19 The word "environmental," was added by sec. 103(d) of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1978 (92 Stat. 945).
20 22 U.S.C. 215lb. Sec. 104, as added by sec. 2(3) of the FA Act of 1973 (87 Stat. 715), was amended and restated by sec. 104(a) of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1978 (92 Stat. 945). Previous amendments to sec. 104 were made by sec. 4(1) of Public Law 93-559 (88 Stat. 1795), sec. 304 of Public Law 94-161 (89 Stat. 857), and sec. 103 of Public Law 95-88 (91 Stat. 534).