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posed for financing under this chapter shall be designed to build motivation for smaller families through modification of economic and social conditions supportive of the desire for large families, in programs such as education in and out of school, nutrition, disease control, maternal and child health services, improvements in the status and employment of women, agricultural production, rural development, and assistance to the urban poor, and through community-based development programs which give recognition to people motivated to limit the size of their families.29 Population planning programs shall be coordinated with other programs aimed at reducing the infant mortality rate, providing better nutrition for pregnant women and infants, and raising the standard of living of the poor.

(2) Since the problems of malnutrition, disease, and rapid population growth are closely related, planning for assistance to be provided under subsections (b) and (c) of this section and under section 103 shall be coordinated to the maximum extent practicable.

(3) Assistance provided under this section shall emphasize lowcost integrated delivery systems for health, nutrition, and family planning for the poorest people, with particular attention to the needs of mothers and young children, using paramedical and auxiliary medical personnel, clinics and health posts, commercial distribution systems, and other modes of community outreach.

(e) RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS.-(1) Health and population research and analysis carried out under this Act shall

(A) be undertaken to the maximum extent practicable in developing countries by developing country personnel, linked as appropriate with private and governmental biomedical research facilities within the United States;

(B) take account of the special needs of the poor people of developing countries in the determination of research priorities; and

(C) make extensive use of field testing to adapt basic research to local conditions. (2) The President is authorized to study the complex factors affecting population growth in developing countries and to identify factors which might motivate people to plan family size or to space their children.

(f) 30 PROHIBITION ON USE OF FUNDS FOR ABORTIONS AND INVOLUNTARY STERILIZATIONS.-(1) None of the funds made available to carry out this part may be used to pay for the performance of abortions as a method of family planning or to motivate 31 or coerce any person to practice abortions.

29 The reference to community-based development programs was added by sec. 102(b) of the International Development Cooperation Act of 1979 (Public Law 96–53; 93 Stat. 360).

30 Sec. 518 of the Kenneth M. Ludden Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002 (Public Law 107-115; 115 Stat. 2144), made a similar prohibition.

31 Title II of the Kenneth M. Ludden Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002 (Public Law 107-115; 115 Stat. 2121), under “Child Survival and Health Programs Fund”, provided the following:

“That in awarding grants for natural family planning under section 104 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 no applicant shall be discriminated against because of such applicant's religious or conscientious commitment to offer only natural family planning; and, additionally, all such applicants shall comply with the requirements of the previous proviso: Provided further, That for purposes of this or any other Act authorizing or appropriating funds for foreign oper

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(2) None of the funds made available to carry out this part may be used to pay for the performance of involuntary sterilizations as a method of family planning or to coerce or provide any financial incentive to any person to undergo sterilizations.

(3) 32 None of the funds made available to carry out this part may be used to pay for any biomedical research which relates, in whole or in part, to methods of, or the performance of, abortions or involuntary sterilization as a means of family planning.

(g) AUTHORIZATIONS OF APPROPRIATIONS.—(1) There are authorized to be appropriated to the President, in addition to funds otherwise available for such purposes

(A) $290,000,000 for fiscal year 1986 and $290,000,000 for fiscal year 1987 to carry out subsection (b) of this section, and

(B) $205,000,000 for fiscal year 1986 and $180,000,000 for fiscal year 1987 to carry out subsection (c) of this section. (2) Funds appropriated under this subsection are authorized to remain available until expended.33

ations, export financing, and related programs, the term "motivate", as it relates to family planning assistance, shall not be construed to prohibit the provision, consistent with local law, of information or counseling about all pregnancy options: Provided further, That nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to alter any existing statutory prohibitions against abortion under section 104 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.".

Relating to family planning, see also the President's Memorandum of March 28, 2001, to the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development, restoring the Mexico City Policy (66 F.R. 17303).

32 Par. (3) of subsec. (f) was added by sec. 302(b) of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1981 (Public Law 97-113; 95 Stat. 1532).

33 The authorization figures for fiscal years 1986 and 1987 to carry out subsecs. (b) and (c) were added by sec. 303 of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-83; 99 Stat. 190). Subsequently, sec. 404 of Public Law 99–529 (100 Stat. 3341) replaced the $205,000,000 authorization for subsec. (c) with an authorization of $180,000,000. Authorizations under subsec. (b) in recent years include: fiscal year 1978—$167,000,000; fiscal year 1979–$224,745,000; fiscal year 1980—$201,000,000; fiscal year 1981-$238,000,000; fiscal year 1982-$211,000,000; fiscal year 1983—$211,000,000; fiscal year 1984—$244,600,000; fiscal

985-no authorization: fiscal years 1988 through 2002-no authorization Authorizations under subsec. (c) in recent years include: fiscal year 1978-$107,700,000; fiscal year 1979–$148,494,000; fiscal year 1980–$141,000,000; fiscal year 1981-$145,300,000; fiscal year 1982–$133,405,000; fiscal year 1983—$133,405,000 (of the 1982 and 1983 subsec. (c) authorizations, not less than 16 percent or $38,000,000 whichever amount is less was made available for United Nations Fund for Population Activities); fiscal year 1984-$133,404,000; fiscal year 1985-no authorization: fiscal years 1988 through 2002-no authorization.

Congress did not enact an authorization for fiscal year 2002. Instead, the Kenneth M. Ludden Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002 (Public Law 107-115), waived the requirement for authorization, and title II of that Act (at 115 Stat. 2121) provided the following:

"CHILD SURVIVAL AND HEALTH PROGRAMS FUND "* * * Provided further, That none of the funds made available in this Act nor any unobligated balances from prior appropriations may be made available to any organization or program which, as determined by the President of the United States, supports or participates in the management of a program of coercive abortion or involuntary sterilization: Provided further, That none of the funds made available under this Act may be used to pay for the performance of abortion as a method of family planning or to motivate or coerce any person to practice abortions: Provided further. That none of the funds made available under this Act may be used to lobby for or against abortion: Provided further, That in order to reduce reliance on abortion in developing nations, funds shall be available only to voluntary family planning projects which offer, either directly or through referral to, or information about access to, a broad range of family planning methods and services, and that any such voluntary family planning project shall meet the following requirements: (1) service providers or referral agents in the project shall not implement or be subject to quotas, or other numerical targets, of total number of births, number of family planning acceptors, or acceptors of a particular method of family planning (this provision shall not be construed to include the use of quantitative estimates or indicators for budgeting and planning purposes); (2) the project shall not include payment of incentives, bribes, gratuities, or financial reward to: (A) an individual in exchange for becoming a family planning acceptor; or (B) program personnel for achieving a numerical target or quota of total number of births, number of family planning acceptors, or acceptors of a particular method of family planning; (3) the project shall not deny any right or benefit, including the right of access to participate in any program of general welfare or the right of access to health care, as a consequence

Sec. 105.34 Education and Human Resources Development.—a) 35 In order to reduce illiteracy, to extend basic education, and to increase manpower training in skills related to development, the President is authorized to furnish assistance on such terms and conditions as he may determine, for education, public administration, and human resource development. There are authorized to be appropriated to the President for the purposes of this section, in addition to funds otherwise available for such purposes, $180,000,000 for fiscal year 1986 and $180,000,000 for fiscal year 1987, which are authorized to remain available until expended. 36

(b) 35, 37 Assistance provided under this section shall be used primarily to expand and strengthen nonformal education methods, es

action

of any individual's decision not to accept family planning services; (4) the project shall provide family planning acceptors comprehensible information on the health benefits and risks of the method chosen, including those conditions that might render the use of the method inadvisable and those adverse side effects known to be consequent to the use of the method; and (5) the project shall ensure that experimental contraceptive drugs and devices and medical procedures are provided only in

n the context of a scientific study in which participants are advised of potential risks and benefits; and, not less than 60 days after the date on which the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development determines that there has been a violation of the requirements contained in paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (5) of this proviso, or a pattern or practice of violations of the requirements contained in paragraph (4) of this proviso, the Administrator shall submit to the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives, a report containing a descripti n of such violation and the corr taken by the Agency: Provided further, That in awarding grants for natural family planning under section 104 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 no applicant shall be discriminated against because of such applicant's religious or conscientious commitment to offer only natural family planning; and, additionally, all such applicants shall comply with the requirements of the previous proviso: Provided further, That for purposes of this or any other Act authorizing or appropriating funds for foreign operations, export financing, and related programs, the term “motivate", as it relates to family planning assistance, shall not be construed to prohibit the provision, consistent with local law, of information or counseling about all pregnancy options: Provided further, That nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to alter any existing statutory prohibitions against abortion under section 104 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.".

See also sec. 518 of that Act, relating to the prohibition on funding for abortions and involuntary sterilization, sec. 522, relating to child survival and health activities, and sec. 576, relating to U.S. participation in the United Nations Population Fund.

Relating to family planning, see also the President's Memorandum of March 28, 2001, to the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development, restoring the Mexico City Policy (66 F.R. 17303).

34 22 U.S.C. 2151c. Sec. 105 was added by sec. 2(3) of the FA Act of 1973.

35 Sec. 305 of Public Law 94-161 (89 Stat. 849) added subsection designation “(a)” and new subsecs. (b) and (c).

36 The authorization figures for fiscal years 1986 and 1987 were added by sec. 306 of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-83; 99 Stat. 190). Authorizations for recent years include fiscal year 1975–$92,000,000; fiscal year 1976$89,200,000; fiscal year 1977_$101,800,000; fiscal year 1978—$84,900,000; fiscal year 1979— $126,244,000; fiscal year 1980—$105,000,000; fiscal year 1981-$101,000,000; fiscal year 1982$103,600,000; fiscal year 1983-$103,600,000; fiscal year 1984—$121,477,000; fiscal year 1985no authorization; fiscal years 1988 through 2002-no authorization.

37 Sec. 562 of the Foreign Operations, Ěxport Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1991 (Public Law 101-513; 104 Stat. 2026), added a new chapter 10 to part 1 of this Act, providing for long-term development in sub-Saharan Africa, and made conforming amendments by striking out paragraph designation "(1)” and by striking out paragraph (2). Paragraph (2), previously added by sec. 201 of Public Law 99-440 (100 Stat. 1094), formerly read as follows:

"(2XAX(i) Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section for the fiscal years 1987, 1988, and 1989, not less than $4,000,000 shall be used in each

al year to finance education, training, and scholarships for the victims of apartheid, including teachers and other educational professionals, who are attending universities and colleges in South Africa. Amounts available to carry out this subparagraph shall be provided in accordance with the provisions of section 802(c) of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985.

"(ii) Funds made available for each such fiscal year for purposes of chapter 4 of part II of this Act may be used to finance such education, training, and scholarships in lieu of an equal amount made available under this subparagraph.

"(BXi) In addition to amounts used for purposes of subparagraph (A), the agency primarily responsible for administering this part, in collaboration with other appropriate departments or agencies of the United States, shall use assistance provided under this section or chapter 4 of part II of this Act to finance scholarships for students pursuing secondary school education in

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pecially those designed to improve productive skills of rural families and the urban poor and to provide them with useful information; to increase the relevance of formal education systems to the needs of the poor, especially at the primary level, through reform of curricula, teaching materials, and teaching methods, and improved teacher training; and to strengthen the management capabilities of institutions which enable the poor to participate in development. Assistance under this section shall also be provided for advanced education and training of people of developing countries in such disciplines as are required for planning and implementation of public and private development activities. 38

(c) 37, 39 * * * (Repealed—1979)

Sec. 106.40 Energy, Private Voluntary Organizations, and Selected Development Activities.(a)(1)(A)41 The Congress finds that energy development and production are vital elements in the development process, that energy shortages in developing countries severely limit the development process in such countries, that two-thirds of the developing countries which import oil depend on it for at least 90 percent of the energy which their economies require, and that the dramatic increase in world oil prices since 1973 has resulted in considerable economic hardship for many developing countries. The Congress is concerned that the value and purpose of much of the assistance provided to developing countries under sections 103, 104, and 105 are undermined by the inability of many developing countries to satisfy their energy requirements. Unless the energy deficit of the developing countries can be narrowed by more fully exploiting indigenous sources of energy such as oil, natural gas, and coal, scarce foreign exchange will increas

South Africa. The selection of scholarship recipients shall be by a nationwide panel or by regional panels appointed by the United States chief of diplomatic mission to South Africa.

"(11) Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section and chapter 4 of part II of this Act for the fiscal years 1987, 1988, and 1989, up to an aggregate of $1,000,000 may be used in each such fiscal year for purposes of this subparagraph.

"(C)(i) In addition to the assistance authorized in subparagraph (A), the agency primarily responsible for administering this part shall provide assistance for in-service teacher training programs in South Africa through such nongovernmental organizations as TOPS or teachers' unions.

(1) Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section and chapter 4 of part II of this Act, up to an aggregate of $500,000 for the fiscal year 1987 and up to an aggregate of $1,000,000 for the fiscal year 1988 may be used for purposes of this subparagraph, subject to standard procedures for project review and approval.".

38 This sentence was added by sec. 103(b) of the International Development Cooperation Act of 1979 (Public Law 96-53; 93 Stat. 360).

39 Subsec. (c), which authorized funds during fiscal year 1977 and fiscal year 1978 for the southern African student program and the southern African training program, was repealed by sec. 122 of the International Development Cooperation Act of 1979 (Public Law 96-53: 93 Stat. 366).

40 22 U.S.C. 2151d. Sec. 106, as added by Public Law 94-161 (89 Stat. 849), was amended by sec. 104 of the International Development Cooperation Act of 1979 (Public Law 96–53; 93 Stat. 360) by redesignating subsecs. (a) and (b) as (c) and (d) and by adding new subsecs. (a) and (b). Sec. 304(a) of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-533; 94 Stat, 3146) substituted the current section heading in lieu of "Technical Assistance, Energy, Research, Reconstruction, and Selected Development Activities". A prior version of sec. 106 (added in 1973 by Public Law 93-189) had also been repealed by Public Law 94-161.

See also the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486; 106 Stat. 2776), particularly title XII, as it relates to the export of renewable energy technologies, and title XIII, as it relates to the export of clean coal technology. See Legislation on Foreign Relations Through 2001, vol. IV, sec. L.

41 Sec. 304(b) of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-533; 94 Stat. 3146) redesignated pars. (1), (2), (3), and (4) of subsec. (a) as subpars. (A), (B), (C), and (D), respectively; redesignated subpars. (A), (B), and (C) of former par. (3) as clauses (i), (ii), and (ui), respectively; and added a new par. (2).

ingly have to be diverted to oil imports, primarily to the detriment of long-term development and economic growth.

(B)41 The Congress recognizes that many developing countries lack access to the financial resources and technology necessary to locate, explore, and develop indigenous energy resources.

(C) 41 The Congress declares that there is potential for at least a moderate increase by 1990 in the production of energy for commercial use in the developing countries which are not members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. In addition, there is a compelling need for vigorous efforts to improve the available data on the location, scale, and commercial exploitability of potential oil, natural gas, and coal reserves in developing countries, especially those which are not members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. The Congress further declares that there are many benefits to be gained by the developing countries and by the United States and other developed countries through expanded efforts to expedite the location, exploration, and development of potential sources of energy in developing countries. These benefits include, but are not limited to, the following:

(i) 41 The world's energy supply would be increased and the fear of abrupt depletion would be lessened with new energy production. This could have a positive impact upon energy prices in international markets as well as a positive effect upon the balance of payments problems of many developing countries.

(ii)41 Diversification of the world's supplies of energy from fossil fuels would make all countries, developing and developed, less susceptible to supply interruptions and arbitrary production and pricing policies.

(iii) 41 Even a moderate increase in energy production in the developing countries would improve their ability to expand commercial trade, foreign investment, and technology transfer possibilities with the United States and other developed coun

tries. (D) 41 Assistance for the production of energy from indigenous resources, as authorized by subsection (b) of this section, would be of direct benefit to the poor in developing countries because of the overwhelming impact of imported energy costs upon the lives of the poor and their ability to participate in development.

(2) 41 The Congress also finds that energy production from renewable, decentralized sources and energy conservation are vital elements in the development process. Inadequate access by the poor to energy sources as well as the prospect of depleted fossil fuel reserves and higher energy prices require an enhanced effort to expand the energy resources of developing countries through greater emphasis on renewable sources. Renewable and decentralized energy technologies have particular applicability for the poor, especially in rural areas.

(b) 40 (1) 42 In order to help developing countries alleviate their energy problems by improving their ability to use indigenous en

42 Sec. 304(c) of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-533; 94 Stat. 3146) redesignated pars. (1) and (2) of subsec. (b) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, and added a new par. (2). Subsequently, designation of subpar. (A) was struck out

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