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ergy resources to produce the energy needed by their economies, the President is authorized to furnish assistance, on such terms and conditions as he may determine, to enable such countries to prepare for and undertake development of their energy resources. Such assistance may include data collection and analysis, the training of skilled personnel, research on and development of suitable energy sources, and pilot projects to test new methods of energy production.

(2) 42 The President is authorized to furnish assistance under this chapter for cooperative programs with developing countries in energy production and conservation through research on and development and use of small-scale, decentralized, renewable energy sources for rural areas carried out as integral parts of rural development efforts in accordance with section 103 of this Act. Such programs shall also be directed toward the earliest practicable development and use of energy technologies which are environmentally acceptable, require minimum capital investment, are most acceptable to and affordable by the people using them, are simple and inexpensive to use and maintain, and are transferable from one region of the world to another. Such programs may include research on and the development, demonstration, and application of suitable energy technologies (including use of wood); analysis of energy uses, needs, and resources; training and institutional development; and scientific interchange.

(c)43 The agency primarily responsible for administering this part and the Department of Energy shall coordinate with one another, to the maximum extent possible, the planning and implementation of energy programs under this chapter.

(d) 43 The President is authorized to furnish assistance, on such terms and conditions as he may determine, for the following activities, to the extent that such activities are not authorized by sections 103, 104, and 105 of this Act:

(1) programs of technical cooperation and development, particularly the development efforts of United States private and voluntary agencies and regional and international development organizations;

(2) 44 programs of research into, and evaluation of, the process of economic development in less developed countries and areas, into the factors affecting the relative success and costs of development activities, and into the means, techniques, and such other aspects of development assistance as the President may determine in order to render such assistance of increasing value and benefit;

and subpar. (B) was repealed by sec. 1211(a)(2) of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-83; 99 Stat. 279). Subpar. (B) previously read as follows: “Of the funds made available to carry out this section, up to $7,000,000 for the fiscal year 1981 shall be used for purposes of paragraph (A) to facilitate geological and geophysical survey work to locate potential oil, natural gas, and coal reserves and to encourage exploration for po

ntial oil, natural gas, and coal reserves in developing countries which are not members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries”.

13 Sec. 304 of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-533; 94 Stat. 3146) redesignated subsec. (c) as subsec. (d), amended former subsec. (d) and redesignated it as subsec. (e), and added a new subsec, (c).

44 Sec. 104(b)(1) of the International Development Cooperation Act of 1979 (Public Law 9653; 93 Stat. 360) struck out par. (2), which concerned various programs designed to alleviate energy problems experienced by developing countries, and redesignated pars. (3) through (6) as pars. (2) through (5), respectively,

(3) 44 programs of reconstruction following natural or manmade disasters and programs of disaster preparedness, 45 including the prediction of and contingency planning for natural disasters abroad;

(4)44 programs designed to help solve special development problems in the poorest countries and to make possible proper utilization of infrastructure and related projects funded with earlier United States assistance; and

(5) 44 programs of urban development, with particular emphasis on small, labor intensive enterprises, marketing systems for small producers, and financial and other institutions which enable the urban poor to participate in the economic and

social development of their country. (e) 43 (1) There are authorized to be appropriated to the President for purposes of this section, in addition to funds otherwise available for such purposes, $207,000,000 for fiscal year 1986 and $207,000,000 for fiscal year 1987.46

(2) Amounts appropriated under this section are authorized to remain available until expended.

(f) 47 Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated to carry out this chapter $5,000,000 for fiscal year 1986 and $5,000,000 for fiscal year 1987 shall be used to finance cooperative projects among the United States, Israel, and developing countries.

Sec. 107.48 Appropriate Technology.-(a) In carrying out activities under this chapter, the President shall place special emphasis on the use of relatively smaller, cost-saving, labor-using technologies that are generally most appropriate for the small farms, small businesses, and small incomes of the poor.

45 The reference to the program of disaster preparedness was added by sec. 304(a) of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1981 (Public Law 97-113; 95 Stat. 1533).

46 The authorization figures for fiscal years 1986 and 1987 were added by sec. 309(b) of the International Security and Development Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-83; 99 Stat. 190). Authorizations for recent years included the following: fiscal year 1976—$99,550,000; fiscal year 1977$104,500,000; fiscal year 1978-$105,000,000; fiscal year 1979–$126,244,000; fiscal year 1980$125,000,000; fiscal year 1981-$140,000,000; fiscal year 1982–$147,200,000; fiscal year 1983— $147,200,000; fiscal year 1984—$160,000,000; fiscal year 1985-no authorization; fiscal years 1988 through 2002-no authorization.

Sec. 402 of the Microenterprise for Self-Reliance and International Anti-Corruption Act of 2000 (Public Law 106,309; 114 Stat. 1097), however, provided the following:

"SEC. 402. FUNDING OF CERTAIN ENVIRONMENTAL ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES OF USAID.

"(a) ALLOCATION OF FUNDS FOR CERTAIN ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVITIES.--Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated for the fiscal year 2001 to carry out chapter 1 of part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.; relating to development assistance), there is authorized to be available at least $60,200,000 to carry out activities of the type carried out by the Global Environment Center of the United States Agency for International Development during fiscal year 2000.

b) ALLOCATION FOR WATER AND COASTAL RESOURCES.-Of the amounts made available under subsection (a), at least $2,500,000 shall be available for water and coastal resources activities under the natural resources management function specified in that subsection.".

Sec. 105 of Public Law 96-53 struck out language in subsec. (e) which provided $30,000,000 during the period July 1, 1975, to Sept. 3, 1977, for reimbursement to private voluntary agencies of the United States for costs incurred with respect to the shipment of food and nonfood commodities provided through private donations.

47 Subsec. (f) was added by sec. 307(b) of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-83; 99 Stat. 190).

48 22 U.S.C. 215le. Sec. 107, as added by sec. 306 of Public Law 94–161, was amended and restated by sec. 107 of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-424; 92 Stat. 947).

(b) Funds made available to carry out this chapter should be used to the extent practicable for activities in the field of appropriate technology, including support of an expanded and coordinated private effort to promote the development and dissemination of appropriate technology in developing countries.

Sec. 108.49 Application of Existing Provision. * * * (Repealed-1978] SEC. 108.50 MICRO- AND SMALL ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT CREDITS. (a) FINDINGS AND POLICY.—Congress finds and declares that

(1) the development of micro- and small enterprises is a vital factor in the stable growth of developing countries and in the development and stability of a free, open, and equitable international economic system; and

(2) it is, therefore, in the best interests of the United States to assist the development of the enterprises of the poor in developing countries and to engage the United States private sec

tor in that process. (b) PROGRAM.—To carry out the policy set forth in subsection (a), the President is authorized to provide assistance to increase the availability of credit to micro- and small enterprises lacking full access to credit, including through

(1) loans and guarantees to credit institutions for the purpose of expanding the availability of credit to micro- and small enterprises;

(2) training programs for lenders in order to enable them to better meet the credit needs of microentrepreneurs; and

(3) training programs for microentrepreneurs in order to enable them to make better use of credit and to better manage

their enterprises. (c) ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA.—The Administrator of the agency primarily responsible for administering this part shall establish criteria for determining which credit institutions described in subsection (b)(1) are eligible to carry out activities, with respect to micro- and small enterprises, assisted under this section. Such criteria may include the following:

(1) The extent to which the recipients of credit from the entity do not have access to the local formal financial sector.

(2) The extent to which the recipients of credit from the entity are among the poorest people in the country.

(3) The extent to which the entity is oriented toward working directly with poor women.

(4) The extent to which the entity recovers its cost of lending.

(5) The extent to which the entity implements a plan to become financially sustainable.

49 Sec. 108, as added by the FA Act of 1973, was repealed by sec. 102(gX2XKX(i) of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1978 (92 Stat. 943).

50 22 U.S.C. 2151f. Formerly titled "Private Sector Revolving Fund”; amended and restated by sec. 106 of the Microenterprise for Self-Reliance Act of 2000 (title I of Public Law 106– 309; 114 Stat. 1085). Earlier versions of the section were added by the International Security and Development Assistance Authorization Act of 1983 (sec. 101(b)(2) of the Further Continuing Appropriations, 1984; Public Law 98-151; 97 Stat. 972), and by sec. 2211 of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (Public Law 100_418; 102 Stat. 1335). Previously, the section authorized up to $18,000,000 in each of fiscal year 1986 and fiscal year 1987 to be deposited in the Private Sector Revolving Fund.

(d) ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENT.-Assistance provided under this section may only be used to support micro- and small enterprise programs and may not be used to support programs not directly related to the purposes described in subsection (b).

(e) PROCUREMENT PROVISION.- Assistance may be provided under this section without regard to section 604(a). (f) AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS.

(1) IN GENERAL.-Of the amounts authorized to be available to carry out section 131, there are authorized to be available $1,500,000 for each of fiscal years 2001 and 2002 to carry out this section.51

(2) COVERAGE OF SUBSIDY COSTS.—Amounts authorized to be available under paragraph (1) shall be made available to cover the subsidy cost, as defined in section 502(5) of the Federal

Credit Reform Act of 1990, for activities under this section. Sec. 109.52 Transfer of Funds.—Whenever 53 the President determines it to be necessary for the purposes of this chapter, not to exceed 15 per centum of the funds made available for any provision of this chapter may be transferred to, and consolidated with, the funds made available for any other provision of this chapter, and may be used for any of the purposes for which such funds may be used, except that the total in the provision for the benefit of which the transfer is made shall not be increased by more than 25 per centum of the amount of funds made available for such provision. The authority of sections 610(a) and 614(a) of this Act may not be used to transfer funds made available under this chapter for use for purposes of any other provision of this Act except that the authority of such sections may be used to transfer for the purposes

61 Title II of the Kenneth M. Ludden Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002 (Public Law 107-115; 115 Stat. 2123), provided the following:

“DEVELOPMENT CREDIT AUTHORITY

"(INCLUDING TRANSFER OF FUNDS) "For the cost of direct loans and loan guarantees, up to $18,500,000, as authorized by sections 108 and 635 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961: Provided, That such funds shall be derived by transfer from funds appropriated by this Act to carry out part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, and under the heading “Assistance for Eastern Europe and the Baltic States": Provided further, That such funds shall be made available only for micro and small enterprise programs, urban programs, and other programs which further the purposes of part I of the Act: Provided further, That during fiscal year 2002, commitments to guarantee loans shall not exceed $267

hat such costs shall be as defined in section 502 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974: Provided further, That the provisions of section 107A(d) (relating to general provisions applicable to the Development Credit Authority) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as contained in section 306 of H.R. 1486 as reported by the House Committee on International Relations on May 9, 1997, shall be applicable to direct loans and loan guarantees provided under this heading. In addition, for administrative expenses to carry out credit programs administered by the United States Agency for International Development, $7,500,000, all of which may be transferred to and merged with the appropriation for Operating Expenses of the United States Agency for International Development: Provided further, That funds appropriated under this heading shall remain available until September 30, 2007.".

52 22 U.S.C. 2151g. Sec. 109 was added by sec. 2(3) of the FA Act of 1973.

Sec. 509 of the Kenneth M. Ludden Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002 (Public Law 107-115; 115 Stat. 2140), provided the following:

"TRANSFERS BETWEEN ACCOUNTS "SEC. 509. None of the funds made available by this Act may be obligated under an appropriation account to which they were not appropriated, except for transfers specifically provided for in this Act, unless the President, prior to the exercise of any authority contained in the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to transfer funds, consults with and provides a written policy justification to the Committees on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Senate.”.

63 The words “Notwithstanding sec. 108 of this Act," that had previously appeared before *whenever," were struck by sec. 102(g) 2XKXii) of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1978 (92 Stat. 943).

110.55 Cor section 667(e) per centum of

assurances to through 106 of thiss Government

of section 667 not to exceed five per centum of the amount of funds made available for section 667(a)(1).54

Sec. 110.55 Cost-Sharing and Funding Limits.—No assistance shall be furnished by the United States Government to a country under sections 103 through 106 of this Act until the country provides assurances to the President, and the President is satisfied, that such country provide at least 25 per centum of the costs of the entire program, project, or activity with respect to which such assistance is to be furnished, except that such costs borne by such country may be provided on an "in-kind” basis. 56

Sec. 111.57 Development and Use of Cooperatives. In order to strengthen the participation of the rural and urban poor in their country's development, high priority shall be given to increasing the use of funds made available under this Act for technical and capital assistance in the development and use 58 of cooperatives in the less developed countries which will enable and encourage greater numbers of the poor to help themselves toward a better life. 59 In meeting the requirement of the preceding sentence, specific priority shall be given to the following: 60

64 The words to this point beginning with "except that the authority of such sections * * * were added by sec. 129(b) of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1977 (91 Stat. 543).

65 22 U.S.C. 2151h. Sec. 110 was added by sec. 2(3) of the FA Act of 1973. Sec. 1211(a)(3) of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 deleted par. (b) and removed the "(a)" designation from the preceding paragraph. Par. (b) previously read as follows:

"No grant assistance shall be disbursed by the United States Government under sections 103 through 106 of this Act for a project, for a period exceeding thirty-six consecutive months, without further justification satisfactory to the Congress and efforts being made to obtain sources of financing within that country and from other foreign countries and multilateral organizations.".

The initial phrase of subsec. (b), which had been added by Public Law 95–88 (91 Stat. 535), was struck by sec. 112(b)(2) of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1978 (92 Stat. 949). It previously read as follows:

“Except for grants to countries determined to be relatively least developed based on the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development list of 'relatively least developed countries',".

See also in this Act, sec. 124(d).

66 The following phrase, as added by Public Law 94–161 (89 Stat. 849) and previously appeared at this point, was struck by sec. 112(b)(1) of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1978 (92 Stat. 949): "and except that the President may waive this cost-sharing requirement in the case of a project or activity in a country which the agency primarily responsible for administering part I of this Act determines is relatively least developed based on the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development list of ‘relatively least developed countries'.".

6722 U.S.C. 2151i. Sec. 111, as added by sec. 2(3) of the FA Act of 1973, was amended by sec. 308 of Public Law 94-161 (89 Stat. 849). It formerly read as follows: "In order to strengthen the participation of the urban and rural poor in their country's development, not less than $20,000,000 of the funds made available for the purposes of this chapter shall be available during the fiscal years 1974 and 1975 only for assistance in the less developed countries which will enable and encourage greater numbers of the poor to help themselves toward a better life.".

68 The words "technical and capital assistance in the development and use" were inserted in lieu of "assistance in the development” by sec. 107(a) of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-88; 91 Stat. 535).

69 A sentence that earmarked funds specifically for technical assistance to carry out the purposes of this section and had previously appeared at this point was repealed by sec. 122 of the International Development Cooperation Act of 1979 (Public Law 96–53; 93 Stat. 366).

60 Sec. 401(c)2) of the Support for Overseas Cooperative Development Act (sec. 401 of Public Law 106-309; 114 Stat. 1097) added this sentence and paras. (1) through (4). Sec. 401(d) of that Act provided the following:

"(d) REPORT.-Not later than 6 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, in consultation with the heads of other appropriate agencies, shall prepare and submit to Congress a report on the implementation of section 111 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151i), as amended by subsection (c).".

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