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(1) AGRICULTURE.—Technical assistance to low income farmers who form and develop member-owned cooperatives for farm supplies, marketing and value-added processing.

(2) FINANCIAL SYSTEMS.—The promotion of national credit union systems through credit union-to-credit union technical assistance that strengthens the ability of low income people and micro-entrepreneurs to save and to have access to credit for their own economic advancement.

(3) INFRASTRUCTURE.—The support of rural electric and telecommunication cooperatives for access for rural people and villages that lack reliable electric and telecommunications services.

(4) HOUSING AND COMMUNITY SERVICES.—The promotion of community-based cooperatives which provide employment opportunities and important services such as health clinics, selfhelp shelter, environmental improvements, group-owned busi

nesses, and other activities. Sec. 112.61 Prohibiting Police Training. * * * [Repealed1974]

Sec. 113.62 Integrating Women Into National Economies.(a) In recognition of the fact that women in developing countries play a significant role in economic production, family support, and the overall development process of the national economies of such countries, this part shall be administered so as to give particular attention to those programs, projects, and activities which tend to integrate women into the national economies of developing countries, thus improving their status and assisting the total development effort.

(b) 62 (1) Up to $10,000,000 of the funds made available each fiscal year under this chapter and chapter 10 of this part 63 shall be used, in addition to funds otherwise available for such purposes, for assistance on such terms and conditions as the President may determine to encourage and promote the participation and integration of women as equal partners in the development process in the developing countries. These funds shall be used primarily to support activities which will increase the economic productivity and income earning capacity of women.

61 Sec. 112, as added by sec. 2(3) of the FA Act of 1973, was repealed by sec. 30(b) of the FA Act of 1974. (See sec. 660 of this Act, “Prohibiting Police Training”).

62 22 U.S.C. 2151k. Sec. 113, as added by sec. 2(3) of the FA Act of 1973, was amended and restated by sec. 108 of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1977 (Public Law 95–88; 91 Stat. 536). Sec. 113 formerly read as follows:

“SEC. 113. INTEGRATING WOMEN INTO NATIONAL ECONOMIES.- Part I of this Act shall be administered so as to give particular attention to those programs. projects, and activit tend to integrate women into the national economies of foreign countries, thus improving their status and assisting the total development effort.”.

Subsecs. (b) and (c), as added by Public Law 95–88 and which required a report from the President concerning the impact of development programs, projects, and activities on the integration of women into the developing economies of countries receiving assistance under this part, were repealed by sec. 122 of the International Development Cooperation Act of 1979 (Public Law 96–53; 93 Stat. 366) (such report was submitted to the Congress on August 3, 1978). This subsec. (b), originally added as subsec. (d) by Public Law 95–424 (92 Stat. 947), was redesignated as subsec. (b) by Public Law 96–53.

The current text of subsec. (c) was added by sec. 305 of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1981 (Public Law 97-113; 95 Stat. 1533).

63 Sec. 562 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1991 (Public Law 101-513; 104 Stat. 2026), added a new chapter 10 to part 1 of this Act, providing for long-term development in sub-Saharan Africa, and made a conforming amendment by inserting "and chapter 10 of this part" here.

(2) Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize the establishment of a separate development assistance program for women.

(C) 62 Not less than $500,000 of the funds made available under this chapter for fiscal year 1982 shall be expended on international programs which support the original goals of the United Nations Decade for Women.

Sec. 114.64 Limiting Use of Funds for Abortions or Involun. tary Sterilization. * * * (Repealed-1978]

Sec. 115.65 Prohibiting Use of Funds for Certain Countries. * * * (Repealed—1978]

Sec. 116.66 Human Rights.(a) No assistance may be provided under this part to the government of any country which engages in a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights, including torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, prolonged detention without charges, causing the disappearance of persons by the abduction and clandestine detention of those persons,67 or other flagrant denial of the right to life, liberty, and the security of person, unless such assistance will directly benefit the needy people in such country.

(b) In determining whether this standard is being met with regard to funds allocated under this part, the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate or the Committee on Foreign Affairs 68 of the House of Representatives may require the Administrator primarily responsible for administering part I of this Act to submit in writing information demonstrating that such assistance will directly benefit the needy people in such country, together with a detailed explanation of the assistance to be provided (including the dollar amounts of such assistance) and an explanation of how such assistance will directly benefit the needy people in such country. If either committee or either House of Congress disagrees with the Administrator's justification it may initiate action to terminate assistance to any country by a concurrent resolution under section 617 of this Act.

(b) 69 No assistance may be provided to any government failing to take appropriate and adequate measures, within their means, to protect children from exploitation, abuse or forced conscription into military or paramilitary services.

64 Sec. 114, as added by the FA Act of 1973, was repealed by sec. 104(b) of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-424; 92 Stat. 947). See sec. 104(f) of this Act for new language concerning this issue.

65 Sec. 115, as added by the FA Act of 1974, was repealed by sec. 1021) of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-424, 92 Stat. 942).

66 22 U.S.C. 2151n. Sec. 116 was added by sec. 310 of Public Law 94-161 (89 Stat. 849). See also in the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002: sec. 534, relating to special authorities, and sec. 537, relating to eligibility for assistance.

67 This phrase beginning with "causing the disappearance of * * *” was added by sec. 701(a) of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-533; 94 Stat. 3156).

6A Sec. 9(aX6) of Public Law 103-437 (108 Stat. 4588) struck out “International Relations" and inserted in lieu thereof “Foreign Affairs”. Subsequently, sec. 1(aX5) of Public Law 104-14 (109 Stat. 186) provided that references to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives shall be treated as referring to the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives.

69 Sec. 599D of the of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1991 (Public Law 101-513; 104 Stat. 2066), added this second subsec. (b).

(c) 70 In determining whether or not a government falls within the provisions of subsection (a) and in formulating development assistance programs under this part, the Administrator shall consider, in consultation with the Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor71 and in consultation with the Ambassador at Large for International Religious Freedom_72

(1) the extent of cooperation of such government in permitting an unimpeded investigation of alleged violations of internationally recognized human rights by appropriate international organizations, including the International Committee of the Red Cross, or groups or persons acting under the authority of the United Nations or of the Organization of American States; 73

(2) specific actions which have been taken by the President or the Congress relating to multilateral or security assistance to a less developed country because of the human rights practices or policies of such country; and 73 (3) 73 whether the government

(A) has engaged in or tolerated particularly severe violations of religious freedom, as defined in section 3 of the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998; or

(B) has failed to undertake serious and sustained efforts to combat particularly severe violations of religious freedom (as defined in section 3 of the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998), when such efforts could have been

reasonably undertaken. (d) 70 The Secretary of State shall transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, by February 25 74 of each year, a full and complete report regarding

70 Sec. 111 of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1977 (Public Law 95– 88; 91 Stat. 537) amended and restated subsecs. (c) and (d), and added a new subsec. (e). Subsecs, (c) and (d) formerly read as follows:

"(c) In determining whether or not a government falls within the provisions of subsection (a), consideration shall be given to the extent of cooperation of such government in permitting an unimpeded investigation of alleged violations of internationally recognized human rights by appropriate international organizations, including the International Committee of the Red Cross, or groups or persons acting under the authority of the United Nations or of the Organization of American States.

"d) The President shall transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, in the annual presentation materials on proposed economic development assistance programs, a full and complete report regarding the steps he has taken to carry out the provisions of this section.".

71 Sec. 162(e)(1) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995 (Public Law 103-236; 108 Stat. 405), struck out “Assistant Secretary for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs" and inserted in lieu thereof "Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor". Previously, “Assistant Secretary" was inserted in lieu of "Coordinator" by sec. 109(aX2) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1978 (Public Law 95–105; 91 Stat. 846).

72 Sec. 421(aX1) of the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (Public Law 105–292; 112 Stat. 2809) added "and in consultation with the Ambassador at Large for International Religious Freedom” after “Labor".

73 Sec. 421(a) of the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (Public Law 105–292; 112 Stat. 2809) struck out "and" at the end of para. (1); replaced a period at the end of para. (2) with ; and"; and added para. (3).

74 Sec. 2216(1) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1998 and 1999 (subdivision B of division G of Public Law 105–277; 112 Stat. 2681), struck out “January 31" and inserted in lieu thereof “February 25”.

(1) 75 the status of internationally recognized human rights, within the meaning of subsection (a)

(A) in countries that receive assistance under this part,

and

(B) in all other foreign countries which are members of the United Nations and which are not otherwise the sub

ject of a human rights report under this Act; (2) 76 wherever applicable, practices regarding coercion in population control, including coerced abortion and involuntary sterilization;

(3)77 the status of child labor practices in each country, including

(A) whether such country has adopted policies to protect children from exploitation in the workplace, including a prohibition of forced and bonded labor and policies regarding acceptable working conditions; and

(B) the extent to which each country enforces such policies, including the adequacy of the resources and oversight

dedicated to such policies; (4) 76, 77 the votes of each member of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights on all country-specific and thematic resolutions voted on at the Commission's annual session during the period covered during the preceding year;

(5) 76 the extent to which each country has extended protection to refugees, including the provision of first asylum and resettlement; 78

(6) 76, 78 the steps the Administrator has taken to alter United States programs under this part in any country because of human rights considerations;

(7) 77, 78 wherever applicable, violations of religious freedom, including particularly severe violations of religious freedom (as defined in section 3 of the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998) and

(8) 78 wherever applicable, consolidated information regarding the commission of war crimes, crimes against humanity,

75 Paragraph (1) was amended and restated by sec. 504 of the International Development Cooperation Act of 1979 (Public Law 96-53; 93 Stat. 378) by adding the requirement contained in clause (B). Sec. 504 also required a report from the Secretary of State by November 15, 1979, on the impact on the foreign relations of the United States of the reports required by this Act on the human rights practices of foreign governments.

76 A new para. (2) was added and the former para. (2) was redesignated as para. (3) by sec. 127 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989 (Public Law 100% 204; 101 Stat. 1342). Subsequently, sec. 201(a) of Public Law 104-319 (110 Stat. 3864) struck out “and” at the end of para. (2), redesignated para. (3) as para. (5), and added new paras. (3) and (4). See also footnote 77.

77 Sec. 2216(2) and (3) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1998 and 1999 (subdivision B of division G of Public Law 105-277; 112 Stat. 2681). redesignated paras. (3) through (6) as paras. (4) through (7) and added a new para. (3). At the time of enactment of Public Law 105–277, however, no para. (6) was contained in the section. Public Law 105–292 added para. (6) later, shown here redesignated as para. (7).

78 Sec. 102(d)(1) of the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (Public Law 105–292; 112 Stat. 2794) struck out “and” at the end of para. (4); replaced a period at the end of this para. (5) with “; and"; and added a new para. (6). Paras. (4) and (5), however, had already been redesignated as paras. (5) and (6) by sec. 2216 of Public Law 105-277. Sec. 2216 of Public Law 105– 277 also redesignated a then-nonexistent para. (6) as para. (7). The amendment has been made to the subsequently enacted para. (6), shown here as para. (7).

Sec. 806(a) of the Admiral James W. Nance and Meg Donovan Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 2000 and 2001 (H.R. 3427, enacted by reference in sec. 1000(a)(7) of Public Law 106-113; 113 Stat. 1536), struck out "and" at the end of para. (6), struck out a period at the end of para. (7) and inserted in lieu thereof “and”, and added a new para. (8).

and evidence of acts that may constitute genocide (as defined in article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide and modified by the United States instrument of ratification to that convention and section

2(a) of the Genocide Convention Implementation Act of 1987). (e) 70, 79 The President is authorized and encouraged to use not less than $3,000,000 of the funds made available under this chapter, chapter 10 of this part, 80 and chapter 4 of part II for each fiscal year for studies to identify, and for openly carrying out, programs and activities which will encourage or promote increased adherence to civil and political rights, including the right to free religious belief and practice, 81 as set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in countries eligible for assistance under this chapter or under chapter 10 of this part, except that funds made available under chapter 10 of this part may only be used under this subsection with respect to countries in sub-Saharan Af

79 The first phrase, “The President is authorized and encouraged to use not less than", was added by sec. 109(1) of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-424; 92 Stat. 947).

The authorization level of $3,000,000 and the reference to funds available under chapter 4 of part II were added by sec. 1002(a)(1) of the Department of State Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1984 and 1985 (Public Law 98-164; 97 Stat. 1052). Previously, amendments by sec. 306 of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1981 (Public Law 97-113; 95 Stat. 1533), sec. 504 of Public Law 96–533 (94 Stat. 378), and sec. 109(2) of Public Law 95424 (92 Stat. 947) authorized the use of $1,500,000 for this purpose in fiscal years 1982-1983, fiscal year 1981, and fiscal year 1979, respectively. The original text of subsec. (e), added by sec. 111 of Public Law 95-88 (91 Stat. 537), authorized the use of $750,000 for this purpose during fiscal year 1978.

The authorization level of $1,500,000 for the fiscal year 1986 and for each fiscal year thereafter was added by sec. 202 of Public Law 99-440 (100 Stat. 1095).

ragraph designation "(1)" and a new par. (2) were added to subsec. (e) by sec. 1002(aX3) of the Department of State Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1984 and 1985 (Public Law 98-164; 97 Stat. 1052). Par. (2) subsequently was repealed by sec. 4(a)(3)(B) of the South African Democratic Transition Support Act of 1993 (Public Law 103-149; 107 Stat. 1505), and the designation for par. (1) was struck out.

Par. (2) of subsec. (e) had stated a priority, with supporting guidelines and conditions, for giving grants to “nongovernmental organizations in South Africa promoting political, economic, social, juridical, and humanitarian efforts to foster a just society and to help victims of apartheid.”.

Section 4(a)(3XB) of the South African Democratic Transition Support Act of 1993 (Public Law 103–149; 107 Stat. 1505) also repealed subsec. (f) and (g) of sec. 116, which had been added by sec. 202(b) of Public Law 99-440 (100 Stat. 1095).

Subsec. (f) directed not less than $500.000 under section (eX2XA) to be used for direct legal and other assistance to political detainees and prisoners and their families, including the investigation of the killing of protesters and prisoners, and for support for actions of black-led community organizations to resist, through nonviolent means, the enforcement of apartheid policies

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Subsec. (g) directed $175,000 each fiscal year to “be used for direct assistance to families of victims of violence such as 'necklacing and other such inhumane acts”, and another $175,000 to “be made available to black groups in South Africa which are actively working toward a multi-racial solution to the sharing of political power in that country through nonviolent, constructive means.".

80 Sec. 562 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1991 (Public Law 101-513; 104 Stat. 2026), added a new chapter 10 to part 1 of this Act, providing for long-term development in sub-Saharan Africa, and made a conforming amendment by inserting“, chapter 10 of this part,” here, and text at the end of the first sentence beginning at "or under chapter 10”.

81 Sec. 501(b) of the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (Public Law 105–292; 112 Stat. 2811) inserted “, including the right to free religious belief and practice” after “adherence to civil and political rights”. Subsec. (a) of that sec. provided the following:

"SEC. 501. ASSISTANCE FOR PROMOTING RELIGIOUS FREEDOM. "(a) FINDINGS.-Congress makes the following findings:

"(1) In many nations where severe violations of religious freedom occur, there is not sufficient statutory legal protection for religious minorities or there is not sufficient cultural and social understanding of international norms of religious freedom.

"(2) Accordingly, in the provision of foreign assistance, the United States should make a priority of promoting and developing legal protections and cultural respect for religious freedom.".

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