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rica. None of these funds may be used, directly or indirectly, to influence the outcome of any election in any country.

(f) 82 (1) The report required by subsection (d) shall include the following:

(A) A description of the nature and extent of severe forms of trafficking in persons, as defined in section 103 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, in each foreign country.

(B) With respect to each country that is a country of origin, transit, or destination for victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons, an assessment of the efforts by the government of that country to combat such trafficking. The assessment shall address the following:

(i) Whether government authorities in that country participate in, facilitate, or condone such trafficking.

(ii) Which government authorities in that country are involved in activities to combat such trafficking.

(iii) What steps the government of that country has taken to prohibit government officials from participating in, facilitating, or condoning such trafficking, including the investigation, prosecution, and conviction of such officials.

(iv) What steps the government of that country has taken to prohibit other individuals from participating in such trafficking, including the investigation, prosecution, and conviction of individuals involved in severe forms of trafficking in persons, the criminal and civil penalties for such trafficking, and the efficacy of those penalties in eliminating or reducing such trafficking.

82 Sec. 104(a) of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (division A of Public Law 106– 386; 114 Stat. 1471) amended and restated subsec. (f). Originally added by sec. 597 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2000 (H.R. 3422, enacted by reference in sec. 1000(a)2) of Public Law 106-113; 113 Stat. 1535), the subsec. formerly read as follows: "() (1) The report required by subsection (d) shall include

"(A) a list of foreign states where trafficking in persons, especially women and children, originates, passes through, or is a destination; and

"B) an assessment of the efforts by the governments of the states described in paragraph (A) to combat trafficking. Such an assessment shall address

"(i) whether government authorities in each such state tolerate or are involved in trafficking activities;

"(ii) which government authorities in each such state are involved in anti-trafficking activities;

"(ui) what steps the government of each such state has taken to prohibit government officials and other individuals from participating in trafficking, including the investigation, prosecution, and conviction of individuals involved in trafficking;

"(iv) what steps the government of each such state has taken to assist trafficking victims; "(v) whether the government of each such state is cooperating with governments of other countries to extradite traffickers when requested;

"(vi) whether the government of each such state is assisting in international investigations of transnational trafficking networks; and

"(vii) whether the government of each such state refrains from prosecuting trafficking victims or refrains from other discriminatory treatment towards victims. "(2) In compiling data and assessing trafficking for the purposes of paragraph (1), United States Diplomatic Mission personnel shall consult with human rights and other appropriate nongovernmental organizations. "(3) For purposes of this subsection

“(A) the term 'trafficking means the use of deception, coercion, debt bondage, the threat of force, or the abuse of authority to recruit, transport within or across borders, purchas ell, transfer, receive, or harbor a person for the purposes of placing or holding such person, whether for pay or not, in involuntary servitude, slavery or slaverylike conditions, or in forced, bonded, or coerced labor;

"(B) the term 'victim of trafficking' means any person subjected to the treatment described in subparagraph (A).".

(v) What steps the government of that country has taken to assist victims of such trafficking, including efforts to prevent victims from being further victimized by traffickers, government officials, or others, grants of relief from deportation, and provision of humanitarian relief, including provision of mental and physical health care and shelter.

(vi) Whether the government of that country is cooperating with governments of other countries to extradite traffickers when requested, or, to the extent that such cooperation would be inconsistent with the laws of such country or with extradition treaties to which such country is a party, whether the government of that country is taking all appropriate measures to modify or replace such laws and treaties so as to permit such cooperation.

(vii) Whether the government of that country is assisting in international investigations of transnational trafficking networks and in other cooperative efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking in persons.

(viii) Whether the government of that country refrains from prosecuting victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons due to such victims having been trafficked, and refrains from other discriminatory treatment of such victims.

(ix) Whether the government of that country recognizes the rights of victims of severe forms of trafficking in per

sons and ensures their access to justice. (C) Such other information relating to trafficking in persons as the Secretary of State considers appropriate. (2) In compiling data and making assessments for the purposes of paragraph (1), United States diplomatic mission personnel shall consult with human rights organizations and other appropriate nongovernmental organizations.

Sec. 117.83 Assistance for Disadvantaged South Africans. * * * (Repealed-1993]

Sec. 117.84 Environment and Natural Resources.—(a) The Congress finds that if current trends in the degradation of natural 2.11

83 Formerly at 22 U.S.C. 215lo. Sec. 117 was repealed by sec. 4(a)(3)(B) of the South African Democratic Transition Support Act of 1993 (Public Law 103-149; 107 Stat. 1505). It had been added originally by sec. 20 i(b) of Public Law 99–440 (100 Stat. 1094). Sec. 117 provided assistance for disadvantaged South Africans through South African nongovernmental organizations, such as the Educational Opportunities Council, the South African Institute of Race Relations. READ, professional teachers' unions, the Outreach Program of the University of the Western Cape, the Funda Center in Soweto, SACHED, UPP Trust, TOPS, the Wilgespruit Fellowship Center (WFC), and civic and other organizations working at the community level which did not receive funds from the Government of South Africa.

A previous sec. 117, relating to infant nutrition, was repealed in 1978.

84 22 U.S.C. 2151p. Sec. 117 was redesignated from being sec. 118 by sec. 301(1) of Public Law 99–529, resulting in the creation of two sections 117. Sec. 301(2) of Public Law 99-529 (100 Stat. 3014) further deleted subsec. (d) of that section, which dealt with tropical forests, and then sec. 301(3) of Public Law 99-529 added a new section 118 entitled “Tropical Forests". This section, as added by sec. 113 of Public Law 95–88 (91 Stat. 537) and amended by sec. 110 of Public Law 95-424 (92 Stat. 948) and sec. 122 of Public Law 96-53 (93 Stat. 948), was further amended and restated by sec. 307 of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1981 (Public Law 97-113; 95 Stat. 1533). This section previously read as follows:

"Sec. 118. Environment and Natural Resources.(a) The President is authorized to furnish assistance under this part for developing and strengthening the capacity of less developed countres to protect and manage their environment and natural resources. Special efforts shall be made to maintain and where possible restore the land, vegetation, water, wildlife and other resources upon which depend economic growth and human well-being especially that of the poor.

Continued

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resources in developing countries continue, they will severely undermine the best efforts to meet basic human needs, to achieve sustained economic growth, and to prevent international tension and conflict. The Congress also finds that the world faces enormous, urgent, and complex problems, with respect to natural resources, which require new forms of cooperation between the United States and developing countries to prevent such problems from becoming unmanageable. It is, therefore, in the economic and security interests of the United States to provide leadership both in thoroughly reassessing policies relating to natural resources and the environment, and in cooperating extensively with developing countries in order to achieve environmentally sound development.

(b) In order to address the serious problems described in subsection (a), the President is authorized to furnish assistance under this part for developing and strengthening the capacity of developing countries to protect and manage their environment and natural resources. Special efforts shall be made to maintain and where possible to restore the land, vegetation, water, wildlife, and other resources upon which depend economic growth and human wellbeing, especially of the poor.

(c)(1) The President, in implementing programs and projects under this chapter and chapter 10 of this part,85 shall take fully into account the impact of such programs and projects upon the environment and natural resources of developing countries. Subject to such procedures as the President considers appropriate, the President shall require all agencies and officials responsible for programs or projects under this chapter

(A) to prepare and take fully into account an environmental impact statement for any program or project under this chapter significantly affecting the environment of the global commons outside the jurisdiction of any country, the environment of the United States, or other aspects of the environment which the President may specify; and

(B) to prepare and take fully into account an environmental assessment of any proposed program or project under this chapter significantly affecting the environment of any foreign

country. Such agencies and officials should, where appropriate, use local technical resources in preparing environmental impact statements and environmental assessments pursuant to this subsection.

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"(b) In carrying out programs under this chapter, the President shall take into consideration the environmental consequence of development actions.”.

See also sec. 517(e) of the Kenneth M. Ludden Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002 (Public Law 107-115; 115 Stat. 2144), relating to assistance to the new independent states of the former Soviet Union.

See also sec. 534 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1990 (Public Law 101-167; 103 Stat. 1228), as amended, relating to "Global Warming Initiative".

See also sec. 533 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1991 (Public Law 101-513; 104 Stat. 2013), as amended, relating to "Environment and Global Warming”.

See also sec. 532 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1993 (Public Law 102-391; 106 Stat. 1666), relating to "Environment".

85 Sec. 562 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1991 (Public Law 101-513; 104 Stat. 2026), added a new chapter 10 to part 1 of this Act, providing for long-term development in sub-Saharan Africa, and made a conforming amendment by inserting “and chapter 10 of this part" here.

(2) The President may establish exceptions from the requirements of this subsection for emergency conditions and for cases in which compliance with those requirements would be seriously detrimental to the foreign policy interests of the United States.

Sec. 118.86 Tropical Forests.

(a) IMPORTANCE OF FORESTS AND TREE COVER.-In enacting section 103(b)(3) of this Act the Congress recognized the importance of forests and tree cover to the developing countries. The Congress is particularly concerned about the continuing and accelerating alteration, destruction, and loss of tropical forests in developing countries, which pose a serious threat to development and the environment. Tropical forest destruction and loss

(1) result in shortages of wood, especially wood for fuel; loss of biologically productive wetlands; siltation of lakes, reservoirs, and irrigation systems; floods; destruction of indigenous peoples; extinction of plant and animal species; reduced capacity for food production; and loss of genetic resources; and

(2) can result in desertification and destabilization of the

earth's climate. Properly managed tropical forests provide a sustained flow of resources essential to the economic growth of developing countries, as well as genetic resources of value to developed and developing countries alike.

(b) PRIORITIES.—The concerns expressed in subsection (a) and the recommendations of the United States Interagency Task Force on Tropical Forests shall be given high priority by the President

(1) in formulating and carrying out programs and policies with respect to developing countries, including those relating to bilateral and multilateral assistance and those relating to private sector activities; and

(2) in seeking opportunities to coordinate public and private development and investment activities which affect forests in

developing countries. (c) ASSISTANCE TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.—In providing assistance to developing countries, the President shall do the following:

(1) Place a high priority on conservation and sustainable management of tropical forests.

(2) To the fullest extent feasible, engage in dialogues and exchanges of information with recipient countries

(A) which stress the importance of conserving and sustainably managing forest resources for the long-term economic benefit of those countries, as well as the irreversible losses associated with forest destruction, and

(B) which identify and focus on policies of those countries which directly or indirectly contribute to deforest

ation. (3) To the fullest extent feasible, support projects and activities

(A) which offer employment and income alternatives to those who otherwise would cause destruction and loss of forests, and

86 22 U.S.C. 2151p-1. Sec. 118 was added by sec. 301(3) of Public Law 99-529 (100 Stat. 3014). See also footnote 84.

(B) which help developing countries identify and implement alternatives to colonizing forested areas. (4) To the fullest extent feasible, support training programs, educational efforts, and the establishment or strengthening of institutions which increase the capacity of developing countries to formulate forest policies, engage in relevant land-use planning, and otherwise improve the management of their forests.

(5) To the fullest extent feasible, help end destructive slashand-burn agriculture by supporting stable and productive farming practices in areas already cleared or degraded and on lands which inevitably will be settled, with special emphasis on demonstrating the feasibility of agroforestry and other techniques which use technologies and methods suited to the local environment and traditional agricultural techniques and feature close consultation with and involvement of local people.

(6) To the fullest extent feasible, help conserve forests which have not yet been degraded, by helping to increase production on lands already cleared or degraded through support of reforestation, fuelwood, and other sustainable forestry projects and practices, making sure that local people are involved at all stages of project design and implementation.

(7) To the fullest extent feasible, support projects and other activities to conserve forested watersheds and rehabilitate those which have been deforested, making sure that local people are involved at all stages of project design and implementation.

(8) To the fullest extent feasible, support training, research, and other actions which lead to sustainable and more environmentally sound practices for timber harvesting, removal, and processing, including reforestation, soil conservation, and other activities to rehabilitate degraded forest lands.

(9) To the fullest extent feasible, support research to expand knowledge of tropical forests and identify alternatives which will prevent forest destruction, loss, or degradation, including research in agroforestry, sustainable management of natural forests, small-scale farms and gardens, small-scale animal husbandry, wider application of adopted traditional practices, and suitable crops and crop combinations.

(10) To the fullest extent feasible, conserve biological diversity in forest areas by

(A) supporting and cooperating with United States Government agencies, other donors (both bilateral and multilateral), and other appropriate governmental, intergovernmental, and nongovernmental organizations in efforts to identify, establish, and maintain a representative network of protected tropical forest ecosystems on a worldwide basis;

(B) whenever appropriate, making the establishment of protected areas a condition of support for activities involving forest clearance of degradation; and

(C) helping developing countries identify tropical forest ecosystems and species in need of protection and establish and maintain appropriate protected areas.

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