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part shall conduct an annual review of bilateral concessional loan balances and shall determine and identify those countries whose financial resources make possible accelerated loan repayments. In particular, European countries that were recipients of concessional loans by predecessor agencies to the agency primarily responsible for administering this part shall be contacted to negotiate accelerated repayments. The criteria used by the Administrator in making these determinations shall be established in conjunction with the Committee on Foreign Affairs 117 of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate.
Sec. 128.118 Targeted Assistance.—a) The President shall use poverty measurement standards, such as those developed by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and other appropriate measurements in determining target populations for United States development assistance, and shall strengthen United States efforts to assure that a substantial percentage of development assistance under this chapter directly improves the lives of the poor majority, with special emphasis on those individuals living in absolute poverty.
(b) To the maximum extent possible, activities under this chapter that attempt to increase the institutional capabilities of private organizations or governments, or that attempt to stimulate scientific and technological research, shall be designed and monitored to ensure that the ultimate beneficiaries of these activities are the poor majority. SEC. 129.119 PROGRAM TO PROVIDE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TO FOR
EIGN GOVERNMENTS AND FOREIGN CENTRAL BANKS OF
DEVELOPING OR TRANSITIONAL COUNTRIES. (a) ESTABLISHMENT OF PROGRAM.—
127 within the annual reports on foreign assistance submitted to Congress in 1980 and 1981 pursuant to sec. 634 of this Act.
117 Sec. 1(a)(5) of Public Law 104-14 (109 Stat. 186) provided that references to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives shall be treated as referring to the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives.
118 22 U.S.C. 2151z. Sec. 128 was added by sec. 101(b)(2) of Public Law 97–377 (96 Stat. 1832). Sec. 121(b)(2) of such Act also required a report to Congress within six months from the Administrator of AID on the implementation of this provision, the types of projects determined to meet these requirements, and the effect on the overall U.S. foreign assistance program.
Sec. 312(a) of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-83; 99 Stat. 190) amended sec. 128 by replacing its previous text into new paragraphs “(a)” and “(b).” Previously sec. 128 read as follows:
"Sec. 128. Targeting Assistance for Those Living in Absolute Poverty.-In carrying out this chapter, the President in fiscal year 1983, shall attempt to use not less than 40 per centum of the funds made available to carry out this chapter to finance productive facilities, goods, and services which will expeditiously and directly benefit those living in absolute poverty (as determined under the standards for absolute poverty adopted by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Development Association). Such facilities, goods, and services may include, for example, irrigation facilities, extension services, credit for small farmers, roads, safe drinking water supplies, and health services. Such facilities, goods, and services may not include studies, reports, technical advice, consulting services, or any other items unless (A) they are used primarily by those living in absolute poverty themselves, or (B) they constitute research which produces or aims to produce techniques, seeds, or other items to be primarily used by those living in absolute poverty. Research shall not constitute the major part of such facilities, goods, and services.".
Sec. 312(b) of Public Law 99–83 (99 Stat. 190), amended sec. 634(a)(1) of this Act, requiring annual reports to Congress to include an evaluation of the extent to which programs under chapter 1 part I directly benefit the poor majority.
(1) IN GENERAL.—Not later than 150 days after the date of the enactment of this section, the Secretary of the Treasury, after consultation with the Secretary of State and the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, is authorized to establish a program to provide technical assistance to foreign governments and foreign central banks of developing or transitional countries.
(2) ROLE OF SECRETARY OF STATE.—The Secretary of State shall provide foreign policy guidance to the Secretary to ensure that the program established under this subsection is effec
tively integrated into the foreign policy of the United States. (b) CONDUCT OF PROGRAM.
(1) IN GENERAL.-In carrying out the program established under subsection (a), the Secretary shall provide economic and financial technical assistance to foreign governments and foreign central banks of developing and transitional countries by providing advisers with appropriate expertise to advance the enactment of laws and establishment of administrative procedures and institutions in such countries to promote macroeconomic and fiscal stability, efficient resource allocation, transparent and market-oriented processes and sustainable private sector growth.
(2) ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS.—To the extent practicable, such technical assistance shall be designed to establish
(A) tax systems that are fair, objective, and efficiently gather sufficient revenues for governmental operations;
(B) debt issuance and management programs that rely on market forces;
(C) budget planning and implementation that permits responsible fiscal policy management;
(D) commercial banking sector development that efficiently intermediates between savers and investors; and
(E) financial law enforcement to protect the integrity of financial systems, financial institutions, and government
programs. (3) 120 EMPHASIS ON ANTI-CORRUPTION.—Such technical assistance shall include elements designed to combat anti-competitive, unethical, and corrupt activities, including protection against actions that may distort or inhibit transparency in market mechanisms and, to the extent applicable, privatization procedures.
119 22 U.S.C. 215laa. Added by sec. 589(a) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1999 (division A, sec. 101(d) of Public Law 105–277; 112 Stat. 2681).
Title II of the Kenneth M. Ludden Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002 (Public Law 107-115; 115 Stat. 2133), provided the following:
"DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY
“INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE “For necessary expenses to carry out the provisions of section 129 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (relating to international affairs technical assistance activities), $6,500,000, to remain available until expended, which shall be available notwithstanding any other provision of law.".
120 Sec. 204 of the International Anti-Corruption and Good Governance Act of 2000 (title II of Public Law 106,309; 114 Stat. 1092) added para. (3).
(c) ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS.-In carrying out the program established under subsection (a), the Secretary
(1) shall establish a methodology for identifying and selecting foreign governments and foreign central banks to receive assistance under the program;
(2) prior to selecting a foreign government or foreign central bank to receive assistance under the program, shall receive the concurrence of the Secretary of State with respect to the selection of such government or central bank and with respect to the cost of the assistance to such government or central bank;
(3) shall consult with the heads of appropriate Executive agencies of the United States, including the Secretary of State and the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, and appropriate international financial institutions to avoid duplicative efforts with respect to those foreign countries for which such agencies or organizations provide similar assistance;
(4) shall ensure that the program is consistent with the International Affairs Strategic Plan and Mission Performance Plan of the United States Agency for International Development;
(5) shall establish and carry out a plan to evaluate the program. (d) ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITIES.-In carrying out the program established under subsection (a), the Secretary shall have the following administrative authorities:
(1) The Secretary may provide allowances and benefits under chapter 9 of title I of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (22 U.S.C. 4081 et seq.) to any officer or employee of any agency of the United States Government performing functions under this section outside the United States.
(2)(A) The Secretary may allocate or transfer to any agency of the United States Government any part of any funds available for carrying out this section, including any advance to the United States Government by any country or international organization for the procurement of commodities, supplies, or services.
(B) Such funds shall be available for obligation and expenditure for the purposes for which such funds were authorized, in accordance with authority granted in this section or under authority governing the activities of the agency of the United States Government to which such funds are allocated or transferred.
(3) Appropriations for the purposes of or pursuant to this section, and allocations to any agency of the United States Government from other appropriations for functions directly related to the purposes of this section, shall be available for
(A) contracting with individuals for personal services abroad, except that such individuals shall not be regarded as employees of the United States Government for the purpose of any law administered by the Office of Personnel Management;
(B) the purchase and hire of passenger motor vehicles, except that passenger motor vehicles may be purchased only
(i) for use in foreign countries; and
(ii) if the Secretary or the Secretary's designee has determined that the vehicle is necessary to accomplish
the mission; (C) the purchase of insurance for official motor vehicles acquired for use in foreign countries;
(D)(i) the rent or lease outside the United States, not to exceed 5 years, of offices, buildings, grounds, and quarters, including living quarters to house personnel, consistent with the relevant interagency housing board policy, and payments therefor in advance;
(ii) maintenance, furnishings, necessary repairs, improvements, and alterations to properties owned or rented by the United States Government or made available for use to the United States Government outside the United States; and
(iii) costs of insurance, fuel, water, and utilities for such properties;
(+) expenses of preparing and transporting to their former homes or places of burial the remains of foreign participants or members of the family of foreign participants, who may die while such participants are away from their homes participating in activities carried out with funds covered by this section;
(F) notwithstanding any other provision of law, transportation and payment of per diem in lieu of subsistence to foreign participants engaged in activities of the program under this section while such participants are away from their homes in countries other than the United States, at rates not in excess of those prescribed by the standardized Government travel regulations;
(G) expenses in connection with travel of personnel outside the United States, including travel expenses of dependents (including expenses during necessary stop-overs while engaged in such travel), and transportation of personal effects, household goods, and automobiles of such personnel when any part of such travel or transportation begins in one fiscal year pursuant to travel orders issued in that fiscal year, notwithstanding the fact that such travel or transportation may not be completed during the same fiscal year, and cost of transporting automobiles to and from a place of storage, and the cost of storing automobiles of such personnel when it is in the public interest or more economical to authorize storage; and
(H) grants to, and cooperative agreements and contracts with, any individual, corporation, or other body of persons, nonprofit organization, friendly government or government agency, whether within or without the United States, and international organizations, as the Secretary determines is appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section.
(4) Whenever the Secretary determines it to be consistent with the purposes of this section, the Secretary is authorized to furnish services and commodities on an advance-of-funds basis to any friendly country or international organization that is not otherwise prohibited from receiving assistance under this Act. Such advances may be credited to the currently applicable appropriation, account, or fund of the Department of the Treasury and shall be available for the purposes for which
such appropriation, account, or fund is authorized to be used. (e) ISSUANCE OF REGULATIONS.—The Secretary is authorized to issue such regulations with respect to personal service contractors as the Secretary deems necessary to carry out this section.
(f) RULE OF CONSTRUCTION.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to infringe upon the powers or functions of the Secretary of State (including the powers or functions described in section 103 of the Omnibus Diplomatic Security and Antiterrorism Act of 1986 (22 U.S.C. 4802)) or of any chief of mission (including the powers or functions described in section 207 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (22 U.S.C. 3927)).
(g) TERMINATION OF ASSISTANCE.—The Secretary shall conclude assistance activities for a recipient foreign government or foreign central bank under the program established under subsection (a) if the Secretary, after consultation with the appropriate officers of the United States, determines that such assistance has resulted in the enactment of laws or the establishment of institutions in that country that promote fiscal stability and administrative procedures, efficient resource allocation, transparent and market-oriented processes and private sector growth in a sustainable manner. (h) REPORT.
(1) IN GENERAL.-Not later than 3 months after the date of the enactment of this section, and every 6 months thereafter, the Secretary shall prepare and submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the conduct of the program established under this section during the preceding 6-month period.
(2) DEFINITION.—In this subsection, the term “appropriate congressional committees” means
(A) the Committee on International Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives; and
(B) the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Com
mittee on Appropriations of the Senate. (i) DEFINITIONS.- In this section:
(1) DEVELOPING OR TRANSITIONAL COUNTRY.—The term “developing or transitional country” means a country eligible to receive development assistance under this chapter.
(2) INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTION.— The term “international financial institution" means the International Monetary Fund, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Development Association, the International Finance Corporation, the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, the Asian Development Bank, the African Development Bank, the African Development Fund, the Inter-American Development Bank, the Inter-American Invest