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very door where I would en knows what, so shortly get in.

immediately, and while n being fastened, to conLe identity of the number; ern had gone out in the reet was deserted, and the t icy flakes. I trembled y limb, and apprehended, , a dangerous illness, if I at longer, thinly dressed as Under these cirg was left me but to give find the right house in cold, and I hurried down advantage of the first hotel t offer itself.


id not require to search red paces lower down I antic gold letters of a sign. at the right place, and I scarcely able to stand on ld room, but a warm bed, cover from the misery and ght. Exhausted to death, sleep directly, and only pright daylight shone into waiter came in with the ed for eight o'clock.

of the past night lay upon loomy nightmare, but the


coffee exerted its beneficial effects upon me; I shook off all my unhappy thoughts, and with the firm determination to leave Emilie for ever (I have not, up to the present the false locks, or the opinion about my moment, quite made up my mind whether poetry, decided me on this), I put on my cloak, donned my hat, which the events of the night had bestowed upon me, and, after paying my little account, opened my door, which led out into a narrow passage.

I took my hat off, and saw, for the first time, that there was a little silver cockade on the side of it. I had, in my hurry on the previous evening, seized some servant's.

had stood the previous night, the bell-handle Soon after I recognized the door at which I knob I had pulled so furiously--and, plague I had not yet forgotten-the thick round take it, a 13 grinned horribly at me, which I had certainly taken in the darkness for 15. The measure of my anger was filled up.

lines, in which I confessed The same evening I wrote to Emilie a few and begged for her friendship. Meier I also my unworthiness, acquainted with all the details, and three days later received my carpet-bag, as well as all the letters I had written her. Only one thing was missing-my poems. I had insulted a woman, and she revenged herself. A fortnight later they appeared in the Frankfurt Didaskalia, with my own name.



-iod that Washington rehia, the incident occurred e artist with the subject of lustrates the considerate racter of that great man. one day accosted in the Doy of interesting appearms for a sick mother. a few inquiries, and then see her. This he accorday. It needed but a brief that the poor woman had lowly a condition-that, rase, she had seen better e suffered more from the ze of poverty, than from


down by an old table the very scanty furniture

of the apartment, and after being a few moson, on his return, should take the paper to ments engaged in writing, requested that her the place indicated upon it; and, after a few words of consolation and encouragement, took his departure. In a little while, the lad came home with the scanty pittance he had collected, and delightedly told his mother that a kind gentleman he had spoken with in the had promised to call and see what he could street, and who was doubtless a physician, do for her. "He has already been here,' replied the gratified mother; "and there on the table is the prescription he has left; you will see where to take it when you read." The boy hastened to examine it, and to the for quite a liberal amount, signed with the joy and astonishment of both, found a check name of-George Washington.

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A WELL-KNOWN and attractive work has been reproduced in very handsome style, by the Messrs. APPLETON, of this city-the celebrated Memoirs of the Duchess D'Abrantes. It was one of the earliest of those disclosures of the private life and personal habits and traits of Napoleon, that have since been so plentifully supplied. Written with wonderful vivacity and tact, and taking a candid though favorable view of the Emperor's character, and abounding in those personal sketches and anecdotes which are entertaining when told of any body, but become fascinating when relating to such a character, it forms one of the best portraitures and most readable books to be found. The lively author brings within the scope of her observation and criticism a great variety of the lesser lights that revolved around the imperial sun; so that a very fair reflex of the court and society of that most pregnant and interesting era can be obtained from these pages. The authenticity of her disclosures has never been questioned, as certainly the skill with which they are made will not be. The style in which the work has been got up is highly creditable to the publishers.

The same house has favored the reading public with rather more and better books for the pleasant uses of the holidays, than ordinary. Some of their issues are magnificent, equalling the costly preparations of the transatlantic houses who cater for aristocratic buyers. The Republican Court, edited by Dr. GRISWOLD, is a very sumptuous affair, yet its elegance of adornment and illustration is the least of its claims. It is a gallery of the portraits of a number of the ladies who adorned the social circles of the revolutionary era-Mrs. Washington, Mrs. Hamilton, Mrs. Jay, Mre. Madison, and others, who were distinguished for their beauty and talent in their day, and whose memory is still cherished. These portraits are engraved in the highest style of art, and certainly form a beautiful gallery. The accompanying letter-press is composed of very spirited sketches of the principal social events of the era, in which all that remains of biographical details respecting these ladies and others, is inwrought. It is an interesting contribution to this important period of our national history, and a beautiful work of art, worthy of cherishing for either or both respects.

Ornaments of Memory is another fine work for holiday purposes, published by the APPLETONS; and to these may be added their editions of juvenile gift-books, prepared by the renowned PETER PARLEY, and embellished with elegant French engravings.

The busy and useful press of the Messrs. CARTER has recently furnished some valuable works. The Autobiography of William Jay, of Bath, is a very pleasant work, revealing with great simplicity and grace the life and character of a good man. There is a kind of Vicar of Wakefield frankness in the disclosures, which carry the reader's sympathy at


His life, as one of the mo evangelical ministers of his day i a man of culture, genius, and mc traits, has many points of deci was brought into close relations most eminent personages, upon doings he ingenuously comments, ness, and always with interest. autobiography is a series of sket his clerical contemporaries, whic are, nevertheless, valuable as the of an eye-witness. Some literary added, all of which discover the style, and the sobriety of thought understood to distinguish his pulp very engaging and profitable boo

Remains of the late Rev. W. H volumes, is a collection of the lit of a young clergyman of the Ch who died early, but not until he nent record of exalted worth and These Remains are epistolary and ters strike us as very fine specim literature in which few excel.

yet elegant and expressive, and 1 vout and pure spirit. R. CARTER

A fine edition of the Comple Rev. Edward Bickersteth, has be comprising all that this energe writer had ever issued. It forms a reading of rare value, combining ligious views, clear thought, and purpose. R. CARTER & BRO.

A neat edition of a unique a by the late Rev. Dr. DUNCAN, gyman, entitled the Sorial Philo sons, has been issued by the CAR scription of the various phenome replete with learning and accurat followed to their moral and reli The abundant facts and truths of cellent feeling it displays, and in which it is composed, make i scientific and moral value.

of Infidelity, from the pen of A Prize Essay on the Modern ar PEARSON, has been republished by


It is an elaborate treatise, d aspects of the controversy whic interest at the present day.

A Life of Horace Greeley has b which, like all gossip, has its int some admiring Boswell of the may be thought of Mr. Greeley sturdy independence of his chara cessful industry of his life, are attract and deserve admiration. this sketch are quite varied and personal anecdotes with which it detain the reader to its pages till t BROTHERS.

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THE two main divisions of the history of philosophy are ancient and modern. All that does not strictly belong to either of these may be regarded as forming transition steps. Modern civilization, though it may not have excelled antiquity in the fine arts, poetry, rhetoric, statuary-and is indebted to it for the foundation of pure mathematics-has far surpassed it in those branches of knowledge which are based on observation and experi


In order rightly to estimate the scientific reformation which was mainly brought about by Bacon, let us glance at the chief charac

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teristics of the scholastic philosophy. As early as the second century of the present era, Christianity came in contact with the philosophy of the age, and especially with New Platonism. It was not, however, till the eleventh century, that what may be called Christian philosophy sprung up, which, under its varied phases, is collectively styled scholasticism. The origin of this term is to be found in the Scholæ, or schools, which were founded by Charlemagne for philosophical studies; in which, however, scarcely any in those days had either leisure or inclination to engage, except the clergy. Hence the main characteristic of this period was constant endeavor to explain the doctrines of the church philosophically, and to work them up into the form of scientific systems. Anselm's declaration, "credo ut intelligam," was adopted as the guiding principle. The works of the scholastic The present article is intended to be an exposi-writers exhibit an immense amount of subtion. We have endeavored to gather the vintage' of the accounts given by Stewart, Playfair, Napier, Campbell, Macaulay, Hallam, Morell, Cousin, Hoppus, Lewis, Craik, &c. The editions which we have noticed above contain valuable illustrative notes. Their cheapness places the works of the illustrious philosopher within the reach of a large circle of

With In

Bacon's Essays, Apophthegms, Wisdom of the Ancients, New Atlantis, and Henry VII. troductory Dissertation and Notes by J. Devey, M.A. (Bohn's Standard Library, 1852.)

Bacon's Novum Organum, and Advancement of Learning. With Notes by J. Devey, M.A. (Bohn's Scientific Library, 1853.)

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tlety and acuteness, industry and toil; but,
on the other hand, a mass of barren defini-
tions and fruitless distinctions, "grave trif-
ling, and solemn folly;" hence, the absence
of really valuable results.

The final aim of scholastic philosophy was



a scientific development of the tenets of the Roman church. It assumed as its basis the truth of those tenets, and employed as its instrument the Aristotelian logic. The deep and extensive influence of Aristotle's writings at this period is thus graphically described by Dr. Hoppus :-"This logic was the engine by which, for ages, the minds of men were bewitched in a manner that was altogether extraordinary. phrases, summaries, arguments, and dissertations on his works were composed without end.. Many of the inhabitants of the west learned Arabic, in order to read a translation of them in that language. The Latin tongue was made another medium of their circulation, and they were read in most parts of the known world. Aris totle's works were the great text-book of knowledge, and his logic was the only weapon of truth. Christians, Jews, and Mahometans united in professing assent to the great law-giver of human opinions; not Europe alone, but also Africa and Asia acknowledged his dominion; and while his Greek originals were studied at Paris, translations were read in Persia and at Samarcand. The rage for disputation, which now began to prevail in consequence of the spread of this philosophy, induced the council of Lateran, under Pope Innocent III., to proclaim a prohibition of the use of the physics and metaphysics of Aristotle; but awful as were the struggle after national independence then the thunders of the Vatican, they were the efforts of society to liberate itself fr not mighty enough to dethrone him from that the Roman hierarchy-the desire of expl despotism over men's minds which, by longing the facts and laws of nature-above custom, had now rendered itself almost omnipotent." At length, "in some of the uni versities of Europe, statutes were framed, which required the professors to promise on oath, that in their public lectures on philosophy, they would follow no other guide."

clesiastical authority. As the first of t we may place the revival of learning in fifteenth century. During the scholastic the study of the ancient classical author declined: even the Platonic and Aristot systems were known almost exclusively translations and secondary sources. first awoke to a juster appreciation of beauties of the antique. The arriva Glosses, para-Greek fugitives from Constantinople ga great impulse to the study of ancient aut in that land. Greek and Latin works read in the original languages, and the a printing multiplied copies. Learned assembled at the court of the Medic Florence. Bessarion and Marsilius Fic distinguished themselves as expositors of ancient, and especially of the Platonic pl sophy. Classical refinement protested aga the dry, inelegant, uncritical mode in wi the sciences had hitherto been hand "The mere substitution of the Academic the Peripatetic philosophy would ind have done little good. But any thing better than the old habit of unreasoning vility. It was something to have a ch of tyrants. A spark of freedom,' as Gibl has justly remarked, was produced by collision of adverse servitude.'"'*

The most important point of philosophical discussion during the scholastic age, and one which exhibits itself through the whole period, is that between Nominalism and Realism. Realism philosophized in support of the church, and was in turn protected by ecclesiastical authority; Nominalism contended against the dominion of ecclesiastical power; Realism represents the dogmatical, Nominalism the critical element; Realism fettered individual freedom with the bonds of external authority; Nominalism sought to establish the autonomy of human reason.

During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, several great events combined in bringing about the ultimate freedom of rational speculation from subordination to ec

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The second and main cause was the F ormation. The contest against the spirit scholasticism-the advocacy of classic cult

the grasping of individual reason after a emancipation from external authorityshort, every element of modern times fir its centre-point in the great German ref mation. Luther and many of his dist guished contemporaries did not hesitate express their contempt of the Peripate philosophy.

A third cause was a number of disco nected attempts at independent thinking the part of Peter Ramus (1515–1572) in science of logic; of Telesius and Campan la in physics; and of Patritius, and Giorda Bruno in metaphysics-all which, howev failed to produce any permanent results.

A fourth cause was the rise of the natu

sciences. Copernicus, Kepler, and Gali restored to nature the honor of which sch lasticism had robbed her, gave a new aspe to the world of thought, and shook me faith in the authority of the church. T

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investigation of nature's laws, shamefully but, vainly opposed by the hierarchy and papal orthodoxy, came to be viewed as an essential object of philosophy.

Thus, even before the time of Bacon, the justice of the tyrannic sway which scholasticism had exercised over the minds of men had been called in question, and in opposition to servile obedience to external authority, a revolutionary spirit had raised its head; nor had the fortresses of that dominion remained free from direct and repeated attack. But the fundamental reason of the injustice of that rule had not been clearly pointed out: the revolution needed the guidance of some master-mind, who should plan and effect an assault upon the citadel itself, and who should sketch the outline of a future government which merited the lofty name of sci


In the words of Mr. Morell, "Two such minds arose, both of gigantic powers and almost inexhaustible resources. Each of them applied his whole strength to aid the work of reformation; and their combined influence succeeded in turning the stream of all scientific investigation into the two main directions, which it has been pursuing more or less ever since. The first of these was Lord Bacon; the next in the order, both of time and influence, was Descartes." We postpone the comparison of their merits and philosophical methods,

vestigations in mathematics, astronomy, and political philosophy, gave birth to a life of disputation and contest. Bacon, however, did not avail himself of those advantages of college discipline, which, by extending his sphere of knowledge, would not only have benefited his mind at the time, but have saved him from faults which mark his subsequent writings. He left Cambridge with "a just scorn for the trifles on which the followers of Aristotle had wasted their powers, and no great reverence for Aristotle himself." As he declared to his secretary, Dr. Rawley, he fell into a dislike of the philosophy of Aristotle, "not for the worthlessness of the author, to whom he would ever ascribe high attributes, but for the unfruitfulness of the way; being a philosophy, as his lordship used to say, only strong for disputations and contentions, but barren of the production of works for the benefit of the life of man."

In his seventeenth year he was sent to Paris, in the suite of Sir Amias Paulet, Queen Elizabeth's ambassador. This visit had doubtless a lasting influence on his character. The state of a country which had but recently witnessed the massacre of St. Bartholomew's day, abidingly confirmed his adherence to Protestant principles. He travelled through several French provinces, and subsequently published the results of his acute and extensive observations in a work entitled "The State of Europe."

Francis Bacon was born at York House, On receiving intelligence of the sudden in the Strand, January 22, 1561. He was death of his father, Bacon returned hastily the son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, who, during home. His father having died intestate, he the first twenty years of Elizabeth's reign found himself bereft of pecuniary resources. was lord-keeper of the great seal, and in Hence he was compelled to seek some lucralegal ability and political wisdom was univer- tive occupation. After having in vain ensally ranked second only to the great Bur- deavored to obtain a government post leigh. His mother, who was the second through the patronage of his uncle, Lord daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, was well Burleigh (who wished to promote his own versed in the Greek, Latin, and Italian lan- son, afterwards Sir Robert Cecil), he enguages, and also eminent for ber piety. He rolled himself as a student at Gray's-inn. was delicate in health, and fond of sedentary For some years he labored in obscurity. At pursuits. His activity of intellect, which length, by his profound acquaintance with early showed itself in attempts to explain the principles of law, and his admirable talthe anomalies of legerdemain, and the curi- ents and address, he acquired such reputaous echo in a vault in St. James' Fields, tion, that the queen appointed him her was no doubt fostered by contact with the "counsel extraordinary" (1590). Cecil also varied minds of a Cecil, a Jewel, a Sidney, a procured for him the reversion of the regisRaleigh, and a Drake, and won the flattering trarship of the Star Chamber, which lucraacknowledgement of Queen Elizabeth, who tive office fell in after some years. conferred upon him the title of her young Lord-keeper.

At the age of thirteen he entered Trinity College, Cambridge. The university was at that time the scene of much activity. The

In 1593 Bacon took his seat in parliament for the county of Middlesex, and soon became distinguished as an orator and debater. "There happened in my time," says Ben Jonson, "one noble speaker who was full of


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