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Twenty-six letters from Dr. Cornelius | the character of Charles V., with which it is Mathys, the Flemish physician who had the concluded. troublesome task of repairing the infirmities! and controlling the appetite of his gouty edacious master, complete the gossiping correspondence which relates the domestic life of Charles V.

"I may be accused, perhaps, of having dwelt too much on the two last years of Charles V. But nothing that relates to a great man is unimportant. We are anxious to know what were his thoughts when he Nearly all the rest of the letters are polit- had ceased to act, and what was his life ical, and consist principally of a correspond- when he had ceased to reign. And these ence between Charles V. and his daughter, details explain the remarkable termination of Doña Juana, acting as Vice Queen of Spain; his political existence. Complicated infirmJuan Vasquez de Molina, her Secretary of ities, unrestrained appetites, long-endured State; Charles's sister, Mary, Queen Dow-fatigue of mind, and increasing devotional ager of Hungary; and Philip II.

What the contents of M. Gachard's second volume will be, we have not been informed, except it will contain in full the narrative of the Monk of Yuste.

M. Pichot's work is, what he calls it, a chronicle. It is a collection of anecdotes, letters, conversations, and remarks relating to the domestic life of Charles V. both before and after his abdication, and to the persons who came most into contact with him. Its defect is that which most easily besets biographers-partiality to its hero. Some of the faults imputed to Charles V. M. Pichot extenuates; others he takes the bolder course of denying. When the evidence is doubtful, he explains it away; where it is positive, he discredits it. He disbelieves, for instance, much of the language ascribed to Charles V. by the Prior of Yuste, although the Prior's narrative was written at the request of the Infanta Juana, by a man of high station, who professes to relate only what he witnessed, and although it is in perfect har mony with all the rest of the information respecting Charles that has reached us. M. Pichot's book, however, though written and arranged far less carefully than either of the others, is lively and amusing, and deserves an honorable place among the numerous biographies of which Charles V. has been the subject.

M. Mignet enjoyed the great advantages of writing the last, and of having the use of the original documents, the proof-sheets of M. Gachard's work having been communicated to him. His work is not so full as that of M. Pichot, nor so varied as that of Mr. Stirling, but it contains in a small space all that is historically important in the two last years of Charles V., arranged with the skill, and told with the elegance which place M. Mignet in the very first rank of modern bistorians.

As a specimen of the work, we translate

fervor, carried him from the throne to the convent, and hurried him from the convent to the tomb.

"Charles V. was in every sense the greatest sovereign of the 16th century. Uniting the blood of the four houses of Aragon, Castile, Austria, and Burgundy, he inherited not only their vast territories, but their dissimilar peculiarities. The statesmanship, sometimes degenerating into cunning, of his grandfather, Ferdinand the Catholic, the magnanimity of his grandmother, Isabella of Castile, mixed with the melancholy of his mother, Johanna, the chivalrous audacity of his great-grandfather, Charles the Bold, to whom he bore a personal resemblance, and the diligent ambition, love of the fine and of the mechanical arts of his grandfather, the Emperor Maximilian,-all these qualities were transmitted to him, together with their dominions and their schemes. He not merely supported but added to the greatness which had been accumulated on his head by the providence of many royal ancestors and the chances of many royal successions. The man stood erect under the load of the sovereign. For many years his talents, so high and so varied, enabled him to play, not without success, his many parts, and to carry on his many undertakings. But the task became too great for a single intellect.

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"As King of Aragon he had to keep Sardinia, Sicily, and Naples, left to him by his predecessors, and to acquire Milan, lest his powerful rival, once ruler of Northern Italy, might become master of the South. King of Castile, he had to conquer and colonise America. As Sovereign of the Low Countries, he had to protect the possessions of the House of Burgundy against the House of France. As Emperor of Germany, his political duty was to repel the Turks, then in the fulness of their strength and of their ambition; and his religious duty was to check the progress, or at least to prevent the

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triumph of Protestantism. All these tasks | He was established in Italy, and successful in he undertook. Aided by great captains and France and in Africa, and he marched on the great statesmen, well chosen and skilfully Protestants of Germany. During two camemployed, he managed with ability and per-paigns he was victorious over the Protestant severance a policy which was never simple, troops. He could subdue armies, but not and wars which recommenced as soon as consciences. His religious and military trithey appeared to be terminated. He was to umph over nations that were resolved to be be seen in every country, facing every adver- neither converted nor enslaved, roused every sary, leading his own armies and conducting Protestant from the Elbe to the Danube. his own negotiations. He evaded no obliga- Old hatreds were revived, questions, supposed tion imposed on him by his station or by his to have been long settled, were reopened. belief. But, perpetually turned aside from Charles turned to bay against calamity, but one object by the necessity of pursuing he had come to the end of his strength-of another, he often began too late, and was his good fortune-of his life. Exhausted by forced to end too soon. illness, overtaken in his last effort by this irremediable reverse, unfit for enterprise, almost for resistance, incapable of extending, almost of controlling, the vast empire which on his death was to be divided, having established his son in England, and made an honorable truce with France, and determined not to treat with the victorious heresy of Germany, he effected, what he had long meditated, an abdication, which was demanded by the diseases of the man, the lassitude of the sovereign, and the feelings of the Christian.

"Some of his enterprises he accomplished. In Italy, opposed by Francis I. and Henry II., at the price of thirty-four years of exertion and five great wars, in which a king of France and a pope were among his prisoners, he subjected one part of the country to his own government, and the remainder to his own influence. He not only preserved but extended his dominions in the Low Countries, adding to them Guelders, Utrecht, Zutphen, and Cambray, which he relieved from their vassalage to France. The Turk was in Hungary, and the corsairs of Africa habitually ravaged the coasts of Italy and the islands of the Mediterranean. He repulsed the formidable Solyman from before Vienna in 1532, tore Goletta and Tunis from the fierce Barbarossa in 1535, and would have conquered Algeria in 1541 if he had not been conquered himself by the elements. He would have made Christendom secure from attack by land or on sea, and have been himself the protector of the Mediterranean, instead of leaving it to his heroic son, the victor at Lepanto, if he had not been perpetually called away to meet a different danger in a different quarter.

"His attempt to force Germany back to her ancient faith, failed only because it was made too late. He had neglected Protestantism while it was weak; when he attacked it, it was too strong, I will not say to be destroyed, but even to be restrained. For thirty years the tree had been growing, its roots had penetrated deep into the soil of Germany, its branches covered her fields. Who could then uproot it? The sovereign of Catholic Spain and of Catholic Italy, the chief of the Holy Roman empire, opposed to Protestantism by his position and by his belief, he thought in 1546 that the time was come when his temporary toleration might be discontinued, and heresy might be put down by the

force of arms or by the authority of a council

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"Abdication operated no change in him. The devotee was still a statesman. He had renounced power, but not the habits of command. Though he had become personally disinterested, he was ambitious for his son. From his monastery in 1557 he assailed Paul IV., as in 1527 from his throne he had rebuked Clement VII. He counselled Philip II. to follow up his advantage against Henry II. as vigorously as he himself had pushed his success against Francis I. He planned the means of defending Christendom against the Turks, whom he had repelled from Germany and vanquished in Africa. He continued to defend Catholicism against Protestanism with all his old sincerity and more than his old ardor, for his time of action was passed. He had now only to believe; and though a man's conduct may bend to circumstances, his convictions ought to be inflexible. He continued to be the head and the umpire of his family, the object of their love, their respect, and their obedience. Obstinate as a Spaniard in belief, sagacious and firm in policy, equal to every different emergency, what he had been on the throne he remained in the convent; his death was pious and humble, but his life lofty and magnanimous." (P. 450.)

We are not sure whether we ought to quote from a book so well known as that of Mr. Stirling; but we believe that our readers

will not be sorry to be recalled to his brilliant


and to compare them with iods, the comprehensive conthe well-considered antithelished successor. Mr Stirof Charles is thus introduced his death:

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o'clock in the evening, Charles crated tapers were ready. He ing rapidly. The physicians the case was past their skill, was over. Cornelio retired. at the bedside, occasionally 's pulse, and whispering to the spectators, His majesty has ve-but one hour-but half an anwhile lay in a stupor, seembut now and then murmuring ing his eyes to heaven. At nself and called for 'William.' ed towards the door, and said ho was standing in its shadow, tur! The primate came foraplain Villalva, to whom he ak. It was now nearly two ng of the twenty-first of Sepg the dying man, the favorite how blessed a privilege he out to die on the feast of St. Christ's sake had forsaken jesty had forsaken imperial ime the preacher held forth edifying strain. At last the saying, The time is come: le and the crucifix.' These s, which he had long kept in Teme hour. The one was a y's shrine at Montserrate, the eautiful workmanship, which the dead hand of his wife at fterwards comforted the last at the Escorial. He received e archbishop, and taking one ne moments he silently conof the Saviour, and then in. Those who stood nearard him say quickly, as if revoy, Señor,Now, Lord, I failed, his fingers relaxed rucifix, which the primate held up before him. A few estle between soul and body , with his eyes fixed on the loud enough to be heard out ed, 'Ay, Jesus' and expired. eer of Charles V., the greatemorable sixteenth century. dominions in Europe, the lantic empire, the sagacity nergy of his character, comhe most famous of the sucgne. Christendom,' wrote 1551, in one of those cu

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: Bulletin de l'Acad. Roy. p. 57.


rious secret reports addressed by the keenest of observers to the most jealous of governments, 'has seen no prince since Charlemagne so wise, so valorous, or so great as this emperor Charles.' Preeminently the man of his time, his name is seldom wanting to any monument of the age. He stood between the days of chivalry, which were going out, and the days of printing, which were coming in: respecting the traditions of the one, and fulfilling many of the requirements of the other. Men of the sword found him a bold cavalier; and those whose weapons were their tongues or their pens, soon learned to respect him as an astute and consummate politician. Like his ancestors, Don Jayme, or Don Sancho, with lance in rest, and shouting Santiago for Spain! he led his knights against the Moorish host, among the olives of Goletta; and even in his last campaign in Saxony, the cream-colored genet of the emperor was ever in the van of battle, like the famous piebald charger of Turenne in later fields of the Palatinate. In the council chamber he was ready to measure minds with all comers; with the northern envoy who claimed liberty of conscience for the Protestant princes; with the magnifico who excused the perfidies of Venice; or with the still subtler priest, who stood forth with red stockings, to gloze in defence of the still greater iniquities of the Holy See. In the prosecution of his plans, and the maintenance of his influence, Charles shrank from no labor of mind, or fatigue of body. Where other sovereigns would have sent an ambassador, and opened a negotiation, he paid a visit, and concluded a treaty. From Groningen to Otranto, from Vienna to Cadiz, no unjust steward of the house of Austria could be sure that his misdeeds would escape detection on the spot from the keen cold eye of the indefatigable Emperor. The name of Charles is connected, not only with the wars and politics, but with the peaceful arts of his time; it is linked with the graver of the Vico, the chisel of Leoni, the pencil of Titian, and the Lyre of Ariosto; and as a lover and patron of art, his fame stood as high at Venice and Nuremberg as at Antwerp and Toledo.

"There can be no doubt that the Emperor gave the true reasons of his retirement when, panting for breath, and unable to stand alone, he told the states of Flanders that he resigned the government because it was a burden which his shattered frame could no longer bear. He was fulfilling the plan which he had cherished for nearly twenty years. Indeed, he seems to have determined to abdicate almost at the time when he determined to reign. So powerful a mind as that of Charles, has seldom been so tardy in giving evidence of power. Until he appeared in Italy, in 1529, the thirtieth year of his age, his strong will had been as wax in the hands of other men. Up to that time the most laborious, reserved, and inflexible of princes, was the most docile subject of his ministers. His mind ripened slowly, and his body decayed prematurely. By nature and hereditary habit, a keen sportsman, in his youth he was unwearied in tracking the bear and the wolf over the hills of Toledo and Granada; and he was

distinguished for his prowess against the bull and the boar. Yet, ere he had turned fifty, he was reduced to amuse himself by shooting crows and daws amongst the trees of his garden. The hand which had wielded the lance, and curbed the charger, was so enfeebled with gout, that it was sometimes unable to break the seal of a letter. Declining fortune combined with decaying health to maintain him in that general vexation of spirit which he shared with king Solomon. His later schemes of policy and conquest ended in nothing but disaster and disgrace. The Pope, the Turk, the King of France, and the Protestant princes of the Empire, were once more arrayed against the potentate, who, in the bright morning of his career, had imposed laws upon them all. The flight from Innsbruck avenged the cause which seemed lost at Muhlberg. The treaty of Passau, by placing the Lutheran religion amongst the recognized institutions of the Empire, overturned the entire fabric of the Emperor's policy, and destroyed his hopes of transmitting the imperial crown to his son. While the doctors of the Church assembled at Trent, in that council which had cost so much treasure and intrigue, continued their solemn quibblings, the Protestant faith was spreading it self even in the dominions of the orthodox house of Hapsburg. The finances both of Spain and the other dominions of Austria were in the utmost disorder; and the lord of Mexico and Peru had been forced to beg a loan from the Duke of Florence. It is no wonder, therefore, that Charles seized the first gleam of sunshine and returning calm to make for the long-desired haven of refuge; that he relieved his brow of its thorny crowns as soon as he had obtained an object dear to him as a father, a politician and a devotee, by placing his son Philip on the rival throne of the heretic Tudors. "His habits and turn of mind made a religious house the natural place of his retreat. Like a true Castillian,

With age, with cares, with maladies opprest,
He sought the refuge of conventual rest,'

his abdication. But the was not without its disa escaped only from the pas from the toil and excitem To Yuste he had come, se pose; but although his ch bitterly that he had indeed long and labored despatch joyed but little of the oth tempting to confine his atte in which he was specially he hoped ere long to bring t but the circle gradually w anxious eye learned once whole horizon of Spanish in Flanders he would turn to or Portugal; and his plan treasury at Valladolid, wer on the garrisons in Africa along the Spanish shore. of the vessel of state with the helm were still in his successes and the disasters as if they were his own. and 1558, the disasters gre outweighed the successes. account stood the brilliant St. Quentin, and the less ployed victory of Graveline were the bullion riots at S treaty of Rome, the loss of ville, the sack of Minorca, heresy. He might well dre courier; and the destruction was announced in the despa read on his table at the time

"In one point alone did C widely from Charles on the fanaticism had not been one the keys no more than his co he confronted the successor boldly than he made head as Louis. While he held C prisoner at Rome, he perm mockery of masses for that

Monachism had for him a charm, vague yet pow-liverance. Against the P erful, such as soldiership has for the young; and he was ever fond of catching glimpses of the life which he had resolved, sooner or later, to embrace. When the Empress died, he retired to indulge his grief in the cloisters of La Sisla, near Toledo. After his return from one of his African campaigns, he paid a visit to the noble convent of Mejorado, near Olmedo, and spent two days in familiar converse with Jeromites, sharing their refectory fare, and walking for hours in their garden alleys of venerable cypress.

"To the last Charles loved his woodland nest at Yuste. It has been said that he was wont to declare that he had enjoyed there more real happiness in one day than he had derived from all his triumphs, an extravagant assertion, which is nevertheless far nearer the truth than the idle tale that his retirement was a long repentance of

* Phil. Camerarii Meditationes Historica. 3 tom. 4to. Francofurti: 1602-9, i. p. 210.

rather as rebels than as here ly stayed the hands of the vid Church. At Wittenburgh h of moderation, in forbidding tomb of Luther, saying tha the living and not with the de envoy, accredited to him at year of his reign, he appeare of polemical madness, and w theology should be discuss with fair philosophical freed

"But once within the wa sumed all the passions, prej tions of a friar. Looking ba thanked God for the evil that ted to do in the matter of re

* Juncker: Vita Mart. Lu cofurti: 1699, p. 219. Sleidar reip., lib. xix., is cited as his a Relatione of Badovaro.

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and repented him, in sackcloth and ashes, for hav-|
ing kept his plighted word to a heretic. Religion
was the enchanted ground whereon his strong
will was paralyzed and his keen intellect fell
groveling in the dust."

In one important respect M. Mignet's esti-
mate of the character of Charles V. differs
from that of Mr. Stirling. Mr. Stirling, as
we have seen, absolves him from fanaticism
during his imperial life, and affirms that it
was only within the walls of Yuste that he
assumed the passions and superstitions of a
friar. M. Mignet believes that he was intol-
erant throughout; that he temporized with
heterodoxy only where he did not feel strong
enough to put it down; and that whenever
he dared he was as fierce a persecutor on the
throne as he wished to be when in the con-


Charles's letters, now published in extenso, and his conversations, as reported by the prior of Yuste, appear to us to establish M. Mignet's opinion.

A little more than a year after the entrance of Charles into the monastery, he received from Vasquez, the Secretary of his daughter, the Vice-Queen of Spain, a letter dated the 27th April, 1558, informing him that four days before, Cazalla, his own chaplain, with his sister, and many other ladies of great reputation for piety, had been arrested by the Inquisition; that the son of the Marquis de Poza, Domingo de Rojas, a Dominican friar much venerated by the people, had fled; and that persons of high rank were supposed to be infected with heresy.*

Charles answers, not the Secretary, but the Vice-Queen herself. Considering that not only the safety of the kingdom, but the honor of God, is involved in the matter, he implores her to urge Valdez, the InquisitorGeneral, to use the utmost despatch, and to punish all the guilty, without any exception, with the rigor and the publicity deserved by their crimes. Nothing but the absolute impossibility of moving prevents him from leaving his retreat in order ally to superintend the persecution.


He appears to have written to the same effect to his own Secretary, Quijada, then at Valladolid; for Quijada, on the first of May, reports a conversation with Valdez, in which, in obedience to Charles, he had advised summary procedure and immediate punishment, and Valdez had answered that he thought it better to conform to the usual rules of the Holy Office; that by patience and solicitation confession might often be obtained, and if not so, then by ill-treatment and torture [con malos tratamientos y tormentos].

The Inquisition had flourished in the ap propriate soil of Spain. During the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella it had burnt 20,000 heretics, and banished 900,000, and spread at least the appearance of Catholicism over the whole of the Peninsula. It wielded both civil and ecclesiastical power; it punished sins, crimes, and opinions; it covered the country with its judges, its officers, and its spies; it made its own laws, and executed them. What they were-what was its procedure-what was the nature and the amount of the evidence that it requiredwhat were the doctrines which it punished by death, what by perpetual impris onment, what by exile, what by infamy, and what by confiscation-on what presumptions On the 25th of May he writes again to it employed torture against the accused, and his daughter, and after lamenting that, after against those who might be supposed to his comfort had been destroyed, and his salknow or to suspect his opinions-all these vation endangered by the heresies of Gerwere the mysteries of the Holy Office, into many, he should in his old age, when he had which it was dangerous even to inquire. retired from the world to serve God, have to This tribunal Charles supported, with all his witness such audacious scoundrelism;§ he authority, in Spain and in Sicily; be intro-repeats that, but for his reliance on her acduced it into the Low Countries, and was prevented only by an insurrection from establishing it in Naples.

But even the Inquisition could not effectually protect Spain from the contagion of Lutheranism.

"Alors," says M. Mignet, "dans l'Europe erúdite et raisonneuse, hardie par curiosité, religieuse en esprit, tout précipitait vers l'héresie; le savoir y disposait, la piété en rapprochait, la controverse y entraînait."

Charles does not appear to have been quite satisfied.

"" concerns more

tivity and severity, he should himself resume
power in order to punish the guilty. "As
this business," he continues,
than any other our duty to God, it is neces-
sary that the remedy should be immediate,
and the chastisement exemplary. I doubt
whether the ordinary rule should be fol-
lowed, which lets off with moderate punish-
ment, those who have sinned for the first

Gachard, tome i. p. 288.
† Ibid., p. 294.

+ Ibid., p. 290

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