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plague as serious as it was before the work against it commenced. Appropriations were again called for. The work was renewed and inspections soon revealed that the insect had not only increased to its former proportions in places where it had formerly been located, but, worst of all, it had spread over an area eight times the size of that previously infested, or an area equal to more than twice that of Rhode. Island. By the aid of State and local appropriations amounting to three quarters of a million dollars the pest is now being held in check in thickly settled localities, but it is impossible to deal with it in woodlands and large parks, and hundreds of acres of such lands have been stripped during the past two years.

In Rhode Island we have as yet only a comparatively small area infested, but the colony is remarkably healthy and the area infested is large when we consider that the insect has been in the State not more than seven or eight years. If left unchecked, all possible evidence from its past history in this country points to the probability that it will only be a few years before the insect will have spread over the entire area of the State and westward into Connecticut. It will then be intrenched in some of our waste woodlands, where no money which the State will be able to raise can dislodge it. Individuals will then have to fight it at great expense, and our cities and towns will have to appropriate large sums of money to keep it in check in order to preserve the shade and ornamental trees and the parks and gardens. The aggregate of such appropriations and expenses for each year will undoubtedly be far greater than that now asked for with an exterminative policy in view, to say nothing of the personal loss and discomfort which our citizens will experience.

There is a hope for relief from parasitic enemies, but this is as yet only a hope. The insect has been in the country for thirty-six years, and none of our native parasites has been found able to keep it in check, and therefore but little can be expected from them. An effort is being made to introduce parasites from its native habitat, 'but whether these will successfully establish themselves is still entirely uncertain. And should they fail, our State would indeed be in

a serious predicament if it ceases to fight the gypsy m the idea that parasites will keep it in check. The most h entomologists say that it should be possible to establish th parasites here, but whether that happy circumstance will from now or a hundred years, it is absolutely impossible i anyone to predict.

DISCUSSIONS AS TO THE FUTURE POLICY OF THE STATE IN
TO THE GYPSY MOTH AND THE NEED OF APPROPRIATIO

There seems to be almost a unanimous feeling throughout t that something must be done to check the pest. There is som tion as to whether a policy of suppression or one of extermi should be followed. The concensus of opinion of nearly all e who know our conditions, as will be noted from their letters on pa to 73, seems to be in favor of extermination, and from the exper and observations of last summer the writer is thoroughly in fav this policy. The principal arguments in favor of extermination. briefly, as follows: It will be far cheaper in the end. The area infes is still comparatively limited. Most of it is residential and theref quite easily taken care of, and little of it is in tangled woodland where the insect is dislodged with difficulty. The State is some di tance from the infested territory in Massachusetts, and can, therefor be protected from reinfestation. The State of Massachusetts and the United States Government are pursuing a policy which should prevent its spread from Massachusetts, or reduce the possibility thereof to a minimum. Other States, notably Maine and New Hampshire, expect to follow an exterminative policy, and they are not so favorably situated as we are. It is the surest way of preventing the spread of the insect throughout the State.

The only arguments in favor of a policy of suppression are that it is easier to pursue and cheaper for the immediate future. According to the estimates of Supt. Kirkland, an exterminative policy will cost perhaps twenty-five per cent. more than one of suppression. It is possible that later parasites will keep the insect in check. In reply

OF

PLATE XIX.

An illustration in the same territory as that given in the previous picture. This has been used as a dump, and
many of the tin cans which are shown in the picture have from one to a dozen egg clusters of the gypsy moth within
them. This is one of the most difficult places to deal with as the cans and rubbish must be raked together and the
whole covered with oil and set afire. Even after this it must be closely watched, because a great many of the egg
masses of the moth will not be destroyed even by intense heat.

[graphic]

to the latter argument, the reader is referred to the letter of Dr. Fernald quoted on page 65. It will be noted from this that we can have no definite assurance that the parasites can be established, and even if they are we can hope for no better conditions than those of Europe, where periodical outbreaks occur which result in great loss and discomfort to the sections invaded. The only other argument against the policy of extermination, and the one which may after all be the hardest to overcome, is that sufficient appropriations cannot be obtained to pursue the policy to a successful termination.

It may be asked whether a policy of extermination is practicable. In the reports of the gypsy moth work in Massachusetts we find accounts which show that many places were entirely cleared of the insects during the campaign which was carried on from 1891 to 1900. Lessons may also be learned from other countries with different insects. For instance, the potato beetle which is such a pest in this country has been repeatedly imported into Europe, but on account of the vigilance of the authorities there the writer is not aware that it has gotten a foothold anywhere. An article in one of the bulletins. of the Department of Agriculture at Washington relates how at one time a small area in England became infested with the potato beetle. The authorities at once took the matter in hand, and by very heroic, and what seems to us very expensive methods also, the beetle was exterminated in two years. Accounts of similar experiences in Germany are related, and one man told the writer that in his boyhood days a colony was found in the neighborhood in which he lived. The authorities at once took charge of the matter and offered the school children a sum of money for bringing in the beetles. In this way, and with other methods which were used, the beetle was entirely exterminated in a very short time.

THE APPROPRIATION NEEDED FOR ANOTHER YEAR'S CAMPAIGN.

On the recommendation of Supt. Kirkland, committees representing the Rhode Island Horticultural Society and the League of Im

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