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increases even faster than the works themselves. We may first take the NewYork canals, showing the tons of agricultural productions that arrived at tidewater on the Hudson, via the canals, in three periods of four years :

Tariff 1842.

Tariff 1846.
Tons.
Tons.

Tons. 1836 173,000 1843. 346,140 1847

897,717 1837 151,468 1844. 378,714 1848

685.896 1838 182,142 1845 447,627 1849

769,600 1839. 163,785 1846. 628,454 1850.

926,048 Total, 4 years.. 690,395.....

1,800,935..

..3,279,261 The large receipts of 1846 and 1847 were the consequence of the short crops abroad; but the receipts of the last year of low prices were more than double those of 1845. For the present year (1845) the receipts will be immensely larger than last year. Thus the receipts from the opening of navigation to the close of June, have been as follows:

1850.

1851.

Increase. Flour, barrels....

'633,420..
1,151,906..

518,486 Grain, bushels..

.2,598,575.
4,774.610.

2.176.035 Butler, lbs.....

736 017
950,880..

214,863 Lard, lbs..

.5,77 1,146.
.9,276,910.

3,505,464 Bacon, lbs....

..7,157,647.
.9,074,973.

1,917,326 Grain and flour have nearly doubled in quantity this year, and the exports from the United States to Great Britain alone have been :Flour, barrels.

· Wheat, 1850... 321,324.

430,329 181. 1,054,731.

.978,687 Increase...... -733,407 .....

548,358 The rail-roads of New England, being in the manufacturing districts, are those which are supposed to be most obnoxious to this disastrous influence of low duties. We will, therefore, take a table of their length, and the number of passengers and tons of freight they have transported :

MASSACHUSETTS RAIL-ROADS.
Length, Passengers,

Freight.

Net income per miles. number.

mile of road. 1846.

545.
.3,990,318..
1,329,944.

81 1847

691
.5,556 576.
1,769,332.

79 1848

846
.7,293,777
.1,958,331.

85 1849

992
.8,742,579.
2,167,757.

100 1850. . 1,053. 8,856,656. . 2,219,050.

99 1851.

Increase. Harle 7 Rail-road, 6 months, to July. 223,201. 283,866. 60,664 Little Miami Railroad, 6 months, to July. .180,078. 220,439. 40.361 Erie Railroad, for June..

120,324. 224,722. .104.398 Michigan Southern, 6 months, to June.. 35,707. 112,774. 87,066 New-York and New-Haven, to June......... 37,015.

45.427

8,412 Rochester and Syracuse, to June....

84,032.

98,368. 14,366 Norwich and Worcester, 6 months, to June...116,843. 123,284.

6.441 North Branch Canal, 6 months, to June...... 32,400.

40,368.

7,967 Penosylvania Canals, to July 1...

..891,973...... 967,433. 75,460 New-York Canals, to July 14....

1,059,413......1,297,834. .238,420 Michigan Central, year to June... ..691,972. 947,347. .255,375 Baltimore and Ohio, 6 months, to June. .805,030. 807,728.

2,697 Chicago and Galena, 6 months, to June.... 9.953.

18,866.

8,912 Albany and Schenectady, 6 months.. 1,101,631.... 120,010. 18,389 Total....

$4,389,574....-.$5,308,366......$918,792

tons.

1850.

This is an average increase of thirty per cent., and in every part of the country showing the universal activity. It will be observed that the profit is not so much locomotion as freight. The Erie Rail-road, for instance, draws as much from freight alone in June this year, as from both freight and passengers last year. Every new rail-road built adds to the resources of the old ones. The Northern line of New York Rail-roads have been heretofore required to pay to the state tolls upon the freight they carry, the same as if that freight had been carried upon the canals. That has now been abolished by an act of the last Legislature, and it will go into effect in the fall.

The increased export of breadstuffs and provisions, while it has had such an influence upon rail-road tolls, has imparted a cheering aspect to the fall trade. We hare heretofore occasionally alluded to such facts as pointed to the enhanced export demand for breadstuffs in the present spring and summer. The general fact of a large English demand, at all seasons and under all circumstances, has become established. It is also the case that the supplies in the United States are excessive, and the surplus annually increasing. That England should buy of the United States as the best source of supply, is, therefore, but natural and inevitable, as a general rule. To that rule the exceptions will be the years of unusual abundance and low prices in Western Europe. Such a year has been the past autumn and winter. The coming year will be one of advanced prices in Europe and England, while the abundance of crops and facility of transportation makes the rate at which the supplies can be afforded here less. The receipt of flour per canal have this year much exceeded those of the last year, and the prices in New-York fell to a lower point, which has stimulated the export, and both prices and freights have advanced in the last week under that demand. The exports of flour, corn and wheat from the port of New York, monthly, as compared with last year, are as follows: -Flour, barrels. Wheat, bushels.

-Corn, bushels. 1850. 1851. 1850. 1851. 1850

1851. January......56,302.. . 45,325. 38,802.. 23,601. 97,662. ..41,936 February....31,007. ..21,061. .14,568.

522,493. ..11,535 March.......27,181.. 27,649. 2,010 40,693. 563,141..

.205,065 April, .27,126. 62,142. .1,280 45.231.. 420,157 ..301,240 May 26,958. .75,502.

.56,398. ..349,378. .468,378 June........

...37,983.. . 72,746. .11,640. 60,525 .287,693. .317,643 J'ly, 2 weeks.26,094..... 104,696. 100. ... 82,981......91,916.....104,965

Total... ..232,656.....409,121.......68,400....309,429.... 2,332,440....1,451,362
The prices and freights on flour and grain have varied as follows:
Western Flour, Freights.

Wheat.

Corn. Freights. June 24..$3 62 a $3 81,..... 18. 3d.....$0 95 a $1 00....63 a 66 cents....4d. June 30..$400 a $4 25...... 28. Od.....$1 04 a $105....63 a 64 cents....6}d.

Both in France and England, the rates are advancing, sustaining this improving trade. It is to be remarked, that although breadstuffs touched in general a lower money price in the Atlantic cities than perhaps ever before, it does not necessarily follow that the farmer's profits are less, because the lower price arises from improved facilities of transportation, and there is this year no insane effort to raise the price by holding on paper credits. The price falling under the great supply seeks its natural level, which is that at which it awakens the demand, and that demand, as seen in the table, carries the prices up healthily. The rise in freights and price is equal to 40 cents per barrel. The bills so supplied come in aid of the exchanges, and the surplus leaving the country enables the farmer to get better rates for the quantities disposed of in the home markets. Hence it is, that under this movement of produce the prospects of business brighten for the fall trade. Some dealers are already in the city, and high hopes are entertained of a better business than that of the spring was.

THE GALPHIN GOVERNMENT.

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Since the advent of the present administration to power, the public mind has been repeatedly startled by the announcement of immense sums of money having been abstracted from the public treasury by members of the government, through the medium of claims, good or bad. Claims have been preferred, admitted and paid, which have no foundation whatever; and others, like the Galphin claim, after struggling against repeated rejection through three-fourths of a century, were paid, not in justice to the claimant or his heirs, but to enrich his attorney, who was a member of the government ;-literally paying himself out of the funds with which he was intrusted. This appears not to have been an isolated case, but to be part of a system. It was well understood at Washington, that all claims on the government were required to go through a certain channel, which is anything but a cheap one. The claimant had the choice of getting nothing, or small per centage of a just claim. Thus there is no chance for a man honestly to obtain what is justly due him from the government.

This system is well illustrated in the circumstances of the Gardiner claim, which were briefly thus: Dr. George A. Gardiner owned a silver mine in San Luis, Mexico, and operated from 1844 to 1846, when, on the approach of the United States army, he was obliged to leave under an order of the Mexican government expelling Americans; and as he was thus obliged to abandon his property, he claimed damages, and was awarded $428,750 by the Commissioners of Claims. Of this amount, however, Gardiner got but $80,000, the remaining $360,000 being seized by the secretary of the treasury, Mr. Corwin, Mr. Corcoran the government broker, Major Lalley, Mr. Curtis, formerly collector of New-York, and others, for their services in passing the claim. Dr. Gardiner left for Europe, and Mr. Porte, formerly a claimant through M. Poussin, the French ambassador, for tobacco damages, now comes forward and says that Dr. Gardiner asserted to him that the whole claim was a forgery, and got through by hard swearing, and that he was determined to expose it, because he was squeezed so hard” by the secretary and his accomplices. This rumor was brought to the notice of the government by Mr. Curtis, who solicited an investigation, the result of which has been, that the grand jury have found true bills for perjury against Dr. Gardiner, who is now in Europe, and against his brother Carlos Gardiner. The latter was arrested, and was, on July 18, admitted to bail. The investigation before the grand-jury was, of course, in secret ; and the force of the evidence on which it acted has therefore not transpired. We have heard many complaints against the late Mexican board, and of the wrongfulness of many of the awards made by it; but, as we have no authority to send for “ persons and papers," we must wait for further developments before we can venture to give currency to the statements which have reached us. Congress will doubtless sift the action of the board; and if a tithe of what we have heard be satisfactorily proved, the Galphin case will be forgotten.

As far as the administration of public justice goes, it is of very little difference whether the claim was fraudulent or not. If the man's claim was just, certainly he was entitled to more than 20 per cent. of the amount. The board of claims bave published a sort of defence, in which they assert that the proofs adduced were full and complete, and that no persons, on the face of those proofs, would have refused to pass the claims; and yet, in the face of this account, we have the fact that this claimant, with such clear proofs of his rights, could only obtain $80,000 out of $128,750 awarded; $360,000 went to persons who had no other claim upon the money than that their consent was necessary to its abstraction from the treasury. The clearer the board show the claims of Dr. Gardiner to have been proved, the more do they condemn the government officers who so fleeced him. If Gardiner and his accomplices were guilty of fraud, they are punishable for that; but if they came before the authorities with a claim apparently honest, and of the justness of which those persons could have had no suspicions, as otherwise, we are bound to believe, they would not have countenanced it at all. Un what basis could these officers of the government rest a claim for four-fifths of an amount justly due Gardiner for losses sustained in Mexico ? Whether Gardiner's claim was just or unjust, there is equally little honesty in the manner in which the awarded amount was divided, and public justice requires that the whole process should be investigated.

It follows, that tho whole system of claims upon the government is rotten ; that an entire reformation is requisite, giving the individual the right to sue the government, and bring his claims regularly before the court, as is now the case with many of the states under the new constitutions.

MISCELLANEOUS.

ITALIAN OPERA-CASTLE GARDEN. Novelties have followed one another in quick succession at this house, and the past month has been unusually attractive. In addition to such old favorites as Lucia. La Favorita, and Lucrezia, we have been treated to repetitions of Marino Faliero, Anna Bolena, and the production of Roberto Devereux. Truffi-Benedetti was most unexpectedly spirited as Queen Elizabeth, so much so, indeed, as to create general astonishment, and wip for herself more golden opinions than she has ever before received. Bettini's Roberto called forth loud plaudits, and the audience evinced an anxiety to encore him in several of his finest efforts. Of Beneventano, and indeed of all others, we may say the same; never was the music of an opera so eloquently sung, and never have we seen in Castle Garden an audience so capable of appreciating it; every fine point was at once hailed with applause, Signorina Costini appeared for the first time this season as Lady Sarah Nottingham; she is a pleasing, without being a superior artiste; her voice is by no means powerful, but, as far as it goes, it is very sweet. Judging from the audiences nightly gathered in Castle Garden, we must differ from an often expressed opinion, that “we are not a music-loving people.” We no longer find audiences gathered together for “fashion's sake,” but out of a deep and true love for music. La Sonnambula was produced on the 24th with great success, forming the principal feature of the summer campaign-giving full play to the fine tenor, Salvi, whose ancient laurels were freshened under the genial iufluence : of the Lind furor. The part of the Compte Rudolpho was not exactly suited 10 Marini, but the Amina of Bosio was really a new creation-displaying all her customary care and attention ; of the parts of Zerlioa in Don Giovanni, Anna Bolena and Amiva, in which she has appeared during the month, the last seems the most expressly adapted to her powers. And the enthusiasm of the public seems at each performance more completely to respond to the skill and efforts of these eminent artists, who have, through the well-directed enterprise of the Empresario, definitively located the Italian Opera in New-York.

BROADWAY THEATRE. This establishment has been closed for a few weeks, after a brilliant, and, we hope, profitable season. During the last month Miss Charlotte Cushman played a short, but very successful engagement; she was followed by a young American tragedian- Mr. Wilmarth Waller. His Romeo gave us considerable satisfaction, but his actug wants that finish which can be acquired only by intense study and long experience. The season closed with a trial engageraent between two rival “stars," Messrs. Neafie and Buchanan, both young men, who are fast gaining in the public estimation;-we will not attempt to institate a comparison between their respective merits; the field is open to them, and both may yet achieve high positions in the histrionic art. Miss Anderton has supported the principal characters with great credit to herself and the management; she is possessed of much talent, and a pleasing appearance, and for one so young. has altained an eminence iu her profession which is usually the result of many years of labor. Her Lady Macbeth and Juliet were unusually spirited performances: she entered deeply into the spirit of those parts, and gave us true delineations of what the great dramatist designed. With the new season, Mr. Barry, so long stage manager of the Park Theatre, commences his duties at this house.

NIBLO'S GARDEN. Niblo's, after all, is the favorite resort of a New-York audience. Notwithstanding the heat of the weather, the absenteeism of the season, the attractions of Castle Garden, with its cool breezes and matchless melody, the “Garden" never fails to present a bril. liant assemblage; whether the Ravels with the graceful Celestine Fraok, or Burton with his inimitable corps of comedians, offer the attractions for the evening, there is the same gratified crowd. Mr. Niblo, with great skill and tact, always offers that which amuseo the mind, without shocking the taste or fatiguing the senses. On leaving the house, the moral find nothing to reprehend, the gay nothing to regret. The humorist is amply gratified, and the misanthrope feels his austerity ameliorated, while none are so fatigued as to bear away disagreeable impressions.

BOWERY THEATRE. This theatre has been, under the management of Hamblin, the veteran and popular manager of 20 years' standing, entirely renovated, both externally and internally. With its new and elegant decorations it presents a beautiful appearance, and may favorably Compare with any other establishment in the city. Nor does it want for other attrac. tions: Azael, the Prodigal, a new version of the spectacle so successful at the Broadway Theatre, has been produced in a style of most surpassing elegance, with new scenery, dresses, &c. Miss Anderton, whom we have before noticed, and Mr. Eddy, support the principal characters. Mr. Hamblin has been long besure the public as a inanager, and when we say that the Bowery Theatre is still under his direction, we give it the highest commendation which it is in our power to bestow.

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